Julie K. Kidd, George Mason University
Robert Pasnak, George Mason University
Abstract: At-risk kindergartners were taught the oddity principle, insertions into series, and number conservation. Control groups were taught kindergarten literacy or numeracy or social studies instead. All received yoked 15-minute lessons thrice weekly for six months.
The results obtained were close to those predicted. The cognitive group became significantly better than the others on oddity, seriation, and conservation. Differences on all measures, including literacy and numeracy, favored the Cognitive group over the Social Studies group; all but an O-LSAT classification measure were significant. The Cognitive and Literacy groups did not differ significantly in literacy or on the O-LSAT, but the cognitive group became better in numeracy. The Cognitive and Numeracy groups did not differ significantly in numeracy, but the cognitive group became better in literacy and also on the O-LSAT. The Literacy and Numeracy groups differed significantly in the hypothesized directions on the literacy and numeracy measures, indicating that the control procedures were valid. The Numeracy group was significantly better than the Social Studies group on numeracy. The difference between the Literacy and Social Studies groups on literacy approached but did not attain statistical significance. There were no significant differences between the three control groups on oddity, seriation, conservation, or the O-LSAT.