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IES Grant

Title: The Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment
Center: NCER Year: 2011
Principal Investigator: Bailey, Thomas Awardee: Columbia University, Teachers College
Program: National Research and Development Centers      [Program Details]
Award Period: 5 years Award Amount: $9,951,362
Goal: Multiple Goals Award Number: R305C110011
Description:

Topic: Postsecondary Education and Employment

Purpose: The Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment (CAPSEE) conducts research and provides national leadership (in cooperation with IES) in order to advance knowledge regarding the link between postsecondary education and the labor market. The Center aims to clarify this link with attention to three key topics: (1) relatively short-term occupational degrees (occupational associate degrees and certificates or diplomas) that are designed to improve labor market outcomes; (2) the for-profit sector; and (3) the trajectory of earnings growth after college (or even occurring simultaneously with college).

Research Projects: The Center researchers have organized their work into 11 core projects and 2 supplemental studies. They conduct research examining relations between postsecondary education, particularly education and training prior to the bachelor degree level, and employment outcomes. Center researchers also engage in national leadership activities relevant to postsecondary education and employment. The Center conducts research using data from five partner states (North Carolina, Michigan, Ohio, Virginia, and California) in two broad areas: (1) labor market returns and (2) institutional and public policies. Regarding labor market returns, the Center researchers analyze a broad range of educational pathways in two-year colleges. Regarding policy issues, the Center researchers analyze a series of initiatives designed to improve student outcomes, focusing on policies that combine work and study, that provide financial aid, and that help students choose among educational pathways. In supplemental studies, researchers examine institutional performance at variously defined Minority-Serving Institutions, and they have also reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving college math readiness among incoming students.

Project 1: North Carolina (Clive Belfield—Queens College, City University of New York (CUNY), Arne Kalleberg—University of North Carolina)
Using North Carolina data, researchers analyze the employment and earnings outcomes for different community college pathways and awards. The outcomes for this project include employment (e.g., industry and occupation), patterns of employment and unemployment, and earnings. For pathways, specific attention is paid to: (1) remedial education, (2) vocational/technical programs, and (3) patterns and timing of student progression through programs of study. For awards, specific attention is paid to: (1) sub-baccalaureate credentials, (2) non-credit programs, (3) adult basic education programs, and (4) bachelor's degrees. Researchers examine variation in the benefits of college by student characteristics, including age, gender, prior education, work experience, and specific community college. Data for this work come from the North Carolina Community College System, specifically the Curriculum Registration, Progress, Financial Aid (CRPFA) Report on each student (from 2001–02 to 2011–12), college placement test data, and high school transcript data linked to Unemployment Insurance (UI) data.

Project 2: Michigan (Susan Dynarski—University of Michigan, Brian Jacob—University of Michigan, Peter Bahr—University of Michigan)
Using Michigan data, the first objective is to estimate the employment and earnings returns to course credits and the additional returns to a credential or degree. The second research objective is to examine variation in outcomes by program and course content (e.g., math, science, and remedial courses) and student characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, English learner status, age, previous employment, previous academic preparation, and displaced worker status). The educational data sources are longitudinal, student-level administrative data from community colleges in Michigan. Analysis by student characteristics allow the research team to estimate potential differential effects of these programs for lower and higher income students.

Project 3: Ohio (Eric Bettinger—Stanford University, Bridget Long—Harvard, Judith Scott-Clayton—Community College Research Center [CCRC])
In this study, the research team examines the college enrollment, persistence, and educational and employment outcomes of Ohio students by using state administrative data matched with employment records. The sample includes students who enrolled in Ohio's public postsecondary institutions between 2000 and 2011. The research team makes comparisons across the relative value of different sectors (e.g., technical colleges, community colleges) in retraining workers. The research aims to identify whether traditional 2-year colleges and technical 2-year colleges have been successful in helping workers overcome job loss and shifting skill demands through retraining programs. The study also considers how earnings trajectories evolve differently over time for individuals with different postsecondary experiences.

Project 4: Virginia (Shanna Jaggars—CCRC)
This study uses Virginia data to relate educational pathways to the industry and occupation of employment, patterns of employment, earnings, and occupational outcomes and to assess the labor market returns to developmental education. The research team also draws on data from the state's 4-year colleges to compare students who start in community colleges with those who start in 4-year colleges, and they contrast the labor market outcomes for students who transfer from community college to 4-year schools to “native" students, i.e., students who initially enroll in 4-year colleges.

Project 5 (a & b): California
(Project 5a: Michal Kurlaender—U. of California, Davis, Ann Stevens—U. of California, Davis)
Using California data, this study analyzes returns to career and technical education (CTE) pathways. Award holders are compared to those who have taken CTE courses but earned no award. The research examines which types of CTE programs generate the largest returns and illustrates the substantial heterogeneity both in terms of student characteristics and outcomes across the CTE space.

(Project 5b: Susan Dynarski—University of Michigan, Brian Jacob—University of Michigan, Peter Bahr—University of Michigan )
In this study, researchers carry out analyses on general returns to awards, coursework/subjects, and credits from enrollment in California community colleges. The research team also examines the returns to credits in different areas independent of the returns to awards, thus exploring the value of postsecondary education for non-completers.

Project 6: The Role of the For-Profit Sector in Higher Education (David Deming—Harvard University, Claudia Goldin—Harvard University, Lawrence Katz—Harvard University)
This analysis of national datasets analyzes the relative size and importance of the for-profit sector and compares education and labor market outcomes (employment, earnings, pattern of unemployment, and industry and occupation of employment) for those attending for-profit institutions versus similar students attending public institutions. Researchers pay particular attention to a comparison of the characteristics of students in the for-profit and public sectors to determine whether there are systematic race/ethnic and socioeconomic status differences between the two groups. The research team also carries out a “resume audit” study to determine whether employers are more or less likely to respond to resumes that are randomly assigned a for-profit credential.

Project 7: Education and Interstate Mobility (Judith Scott-Clayton—CCRC)
This project uses national survey data (from NLSY-97) to examine labor market outcomes for individuals with the full spectrum of postsecondary experience, including no college at all. The researchers focus on the correlation between educational attainment and patterns of interstate mobility, on how mobility evolves over time, and on the potential bias in estimating returns using only single-state employment data.

Project 8: Federal Work Study (Judith Scott-Clayton—CCRC)
For this project, researchers use two waves of the nationally representative Beginning Postsecondary Student survey (BPS:96-01 and BPS:04-09) to study the effects of access to the Federal Work Study (FWS) program on education and labor market outcomes (including persistence, degree completion, student loan debt, and post-college employment). The research team examines whether students are in jobs that are related to their studies and whether and in what ways students think current employment affects their academic and future labor market prospects.

Project 9: Working While Enrolled (Eric Bettinger—Stanford University, Bridget Long—Harvard University)
In this study, researchers focus on examining the roles that student employment plays in predicting students' college success, using the same data as in Project 3 (Ohio). The research team provides a descriptive analysis of how extensive employment while studying is among Ohio students. The research team also attempts to identify the effects of such employment on subsequent college success. Additionally, researchers are interested in determining whether concurrent employment undermines students' success in college.

Project 10: One-Stop Career Centers in North Carolina (Michelle Van Noy—Rutgers University)
In this analysis of data from North Carolina researchers examine the effectiveness of One-Stop Career Centers located on community college campuses in North Carolina in securing employment for students. The research team also explores the effect of the One-Stop Career Centers on students' career choice. In addition, they explore both whether this type of institutional arrangement facilitates better education and labor market outcomes and whether such effects have differential effects based on factors such as socioeconomic status and gender.

Project 11: Financial Aid for Community College Students (Judith Scott-Clayton—CCRC)
Using matched education–wage state data, researchers examine the academic effects and effects on labor supply while at school of receiving financial aid, including aid from major federal programs such as Pell grants. This study provides much-needed evidence on the effect of financial aid on college performance, persistence, and completion for community college students.

Project 12: Supplemental Study: Minority-Serving Institutions (Nikki Edgecombe—CCRC)
A core problem for research on Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) is that they have been defined inconsistently. This project consists of analyses to clarify differences among institutions considered as MSIs based on federal designation, federal MSI fund receipt, and institutional and student characteristics. Researchers also examine the institutional performance of 2- and 4-year MSIs by looking at the number and types of degrees they award relative to non-MSIs, and they assess the degree to which there is alignment between degrees conferred and high-demand labor market industries.

Project 13: Supplemental Study: Improving College Math Readiness (Michelle Hodara—CCRC)
A major challenge facing students as they pursue a postsecondary degree is a lack of academic preparedness for college-level coursework, and, in particular, college-level math. This project reviews the research on the effectiveness of strategies that seek to improve the math preparedness and success of high school students entering college. These include assessing students' math skills in high school using college placement exams; providing math bridges, boot camps, and brush-ups before students start college; reforming developmental math sequences; and improving instruction in developmental and college-level math courses.

Project 14: Supplemental Study: Synthesis of Multi-State Findings (Clive Belfield—Queens College, CUNY, Thomas Bailey—CCRC).
Estimates of the returns to postsecondary pathways may differ across states due to differences in labor markets, availability of data, and estimation techniques. This project aligns analytical techniques across the states included in Project 1 through Project 5, as well as 3 additional states, to arrive at joint estimates for returns to associate degrees, certificates, and credit accumulation. The analysis also examines variation in returns to degrees and credentials by field of study and over time, including the period of the Great Recession. The synthesis arrives at a consensus on returns to sub-baccalaureate credentials and assesses the strength of this consensus in light of the methodology employed and results obtained in recent studies conducted by researchers outside of CAPSEE.

Center Website:http://capseecenter.org.

IES Program Contact: James Benson
Email: james.benson@ed.gov
Telephone: (202) 245-8333

Publications

Journal article, monograph, or newsletter

Bettinger, E.P., Long, B.T., and Taylor, E.S. (2016). When Inputs are Outputs: The Case of Graduate Student Instructors. Economics of Education Review, 52, 63–76.

Deming, D., Goldin, C., and Katz, L.F. (2013). For-Profit Colleges. The Future of Children, 23(1): 137–163.

Deming, D.J., Goldin, C., and Katz, L.F. (2012). The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators?. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(1): 139–164.

Deming, D.J., Goldin, C., Katz, L.F., and Yuchtman, N. (2015). Can Online Learning Bend the Higher Education Cost Curve?. American Economic Review, 105(5), 496–501.

Deming, D. J., Yuchtman, N., Abulafi, A., Goldin, C., and Katz, L. F. (2016). The Value of Postsecondary Credentials in the Labor Market: An Experimental Study. American Economic Review, 106(3), 778–806.

Dunn, M., and Kalleberg, A. L. (2017). Does College Focus Matter? Explaining Differences in Labor Market Outcomes among Community Colleges. Journal of Educational Issues, 3(1), 189–213.

Dynarski, S. M., Hemelt, S. W., & Hyman, J. M. (2015). The Missing Manual: Using National Student Clearinghouse Data to Track Postsecondary Outcomes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37(1_suppl), 53S-79S.

Hodara, M., and Xu, D. (2016). Does Developmental Education Improve Labor Market Outcomes? Evidence From Two States. American Educational Research Journal, 53(3), 781–813.

Jaggars, S.S., and Xu, D. (2016). Examining the Earnings Trajectories of Community College Students Using a Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Approach. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 9(3), 445–471.

Kalleberg, A.L., and Dunn, M. (2015). Institutional Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes for Community College Students in North Carolina. Community College Review, 43(3), 224–244.

Liu, Y.T., Belfield, C., and Trimble, M.J. (2015). The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from North Carolina. Economics of Education Review, 44: 42–55.

Scott-Clayton, J., and Minaya, V. (2016). Should Student Employment be Subsidized? Conditional Counterfactuals and the Outcomes of Work-Study Participation. Economics of Education Review, 52, 1–18.

Schudde, L., and Goldrick-Rab, S. (2015). On Second Chances and Stratification: How Sociologists Think About Community Colleges. Community College Review, 43 (1), 27–45.

Schudde, L., and Scott-Clayton, J. (2016). Pell Grants as Performance-Based Scholarships? An Examination of Satisfactory Academic Progress Requirements in the Nation's Largest Need-Based Aid Program. Research in Higher Education, 57(8), 943–967.

Stevens, A.H., Kurlaender, M., and Grosz, M. (2018). Career Technical Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From California Community Colleges. Journal of Human Resources, 1015–7449R2.

Xu, D., and Trimble, M. (2016). What About Certificates? Evidence on the Labor Market Returns to Nondegree Community College Awards In Two States. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 38(2), 272–292.

Zeidenberg, M., Scott, M., and Belfield, C. (2015). What About the Non-Completers? The Labor Market Returns to Progress in Community College. Economics of Education Review, 49, 142–156.

Working paper

Bahr, P. R. (2016). The Earnings of Community College Graduates in California. A CAPSEE Working Paper. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Bahr, P. R. (2016). The Labor Market Returns to a Community College Education for Non-Competing Students.  (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Bahr, P.R., Dynarski, S., Jacob, B., Kreisman, D., Sosa, A., and Wiederspan, M. (2015). Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from Michigan (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Belfield, C. (2015). Weathering the Great Recession with Human Capital? Evidence on Labor Market Returns to Education from Arkansas. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Belfield, C. (2015). The Labor Market Returns to Math in Community College: Evidence Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Belfield, C., and Bailey, T. (2017). The Labor Market Returns to Sub-Baccalaureate College: A Review. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Belfield, C., and Bailey, T. (2017). Model Specifications for Estimating Labor Market Returns to Associate Degrees: How Robust Are Fixed Effects Estimates? (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Belfield, C., and Liu, Y.T. (2015). The Labor Market Returns to Math Courses in Community College (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Belfield, C., Liu, Y.T., and Trimble, M.J. (2014). The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence From North Carolina. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Bettinger, E., and Soliz, A. (2016). Returns to Vocational Credentials: Evidence from Ohio's Community and Technical Colleges. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Deming, D.J., Goldin, C., and Katz, L.F. (2011). The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators? (NBER 17710). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper.

Deming, D., Yuchtman, N., Abulafi, A., Goldin, C., and  Katz, L.F. (2014). The Value of Postsecondary Credentials in the Labor Market: An Experimental Study (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Dunn, M., and Kalleberg, A. L. (2016). Does College Focus Matter? Explaining Differences in Performance among Community Colleges in North Carolina. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Dynarski, S., Jacob, B., and Kreisman, D. (2016). The Fixed-Effects Model in Returns to Schooling and Its Application to Community Colleges: A Methodological Note. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Dynarski, S.M., Hemelt, S.W., and Hyman, J.M. (2013). The Missing Manual: Using National Student Clearinghouse Data to Track Postsecondary Outcomes (NBER 19552). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper.

Gelblum, M. (2014). The Early Impact of Postsecondary Career and Technical Education: Do Workers Earn More in Occupations Related to Their College Major? (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Hodara, M. (2013). Improving Students' College Math Readiness: A Review of the Evidence on Postsecondary Interventions and Reforms. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Hodara, M., and Xu, D. (2014). Does Developmental Education Improve Labor Market Outcomes? Evidence from Two States (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Jaggars, S.S., and Xu, D. (2015). Examining the Earnings Trajectories of Community College Students Using a Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Approach (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Kalleberg, A.L., and Dunn, M. (2014). Institutional Determinants of Labor Market Outcomes for Community College Students in North Carolina. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Liu, V. Y. T. (2016). Do Students Benefit from Going Backward? The Academic and Labor Market Consequences of Four-to Two-Year College Transfer. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Liu, V. Y. T. (2016). Goodbye to Summer Vacation? The Effects of Summer Enrollment on College and Employment Outcomes. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Liu, Y.T., and Belfield, C. (2014). Evaluating For-Profit Higher Education: Evidence From the Education Longitudinal Study. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Liu, Y.T., and Belfield, C. (2014). The Labor Market Returns to For-Profit Higher Education: Evidence for Transfer Students. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Lundy-Wagner, V., and Chan, E. W. (2016). Classifying STEM Programs in Community Colleges to Develop a State-Level Middle-Skill STEM Workforce Strategy. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Minaya, V., and Scott-Clayton, J. (2017). Labor Market Trajectories for Community College Graduates: New Evidence Spanning the Great Recession. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Minaya, V., and Scott-Clayton, J. (2016). Labor Market Outcomes and Postsecondary Accountability: Are Imperfect Metrics Better Than None? (No. w22880). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Nguyen, T.-H., Lundy-Wagner, V., Samayoa, A.C., Gasman, M., Wilson, A., Diggs, D., Wolff, M., Dávila, C., and Boland, W. (2015). On Their Own Terms: Two-Year Minority Serving Institutions. NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment Working Paper.

Ran, F. X., and Xu, D. (2017). How and Why Do Adjunct Instructors Affect Students' Academic Outcomes? Evidence from Two-Year and Four-Year Colleges. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Schudde, L. (2017). Nonpecuniary Returns to Postsecondary Education: Examining Early Non-Wage Labor Market Outcomes among College-Goers in the United States. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Schudde, L., and Scott-Clayton, J. (2014). Pell Grants as Performance-Based Aid? An Examination of Satisfactory Academic Progress Requirements in the Nation's Largest Need-Based Aid Program (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Scott-Clayton, J., and Minaya, V. (2014). Should Student Employment be Subsidized? Conditional Counterfactuals and the Outcomes of Work-Study Participation. New York: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment. Working Paper.

Scott-Clayton, J., and Schudde, L. (2016). Performance Standards in Need-Based Student Aid. A CAPSEE Working Paper. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Scott-Clayton, J., and Schudde, L. (2016). Performance Standards in Need-Based Student Aid (No. w22713). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Scott-Clayton, J., and Wen, Q. (2017). Estimating Returns to College Attainment: Comparing Survey and State Administrative Data Based Estimates. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Stevens, A., Kurlaender, M., and Grosz, M. (2015). Career-Technical Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from California Community Colleges (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Van Noy, M. (2015). The Impact of Co-Locating American Job Centers on Community College Campuses in North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Wiederspan, M. (2015). Denying Loan Access: The Student-Level Consequences When Community Colleges Opt out of the Stafford Loan Program. (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Xu, D. and Trimble, M. J. (2014). What About Certificates? Evidence on the Labor Market Returns to Non-Degree Community College Awards in Two States (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Xu, D., Jaggars, S. S., and Fletcher, J. (2016). How and Why Does Two-Year College Entry Influence Baccalaureate Aspirants' Academic and Labor Market Outcomes? (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Zeidenberg, M., Scott, M., and Belfield, C. (2015). What About the Non-Completers? The Labor Market Returns to Progress in Community College (A CAPSEE Working Paper). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Brief

Belfield, C., and Bailey, T. (2017). Does It Pay to Complete Community College--and How Much? Research Brief. Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Belfield, C., Liu, Y.T., and Trimble, M.J. (2014). Labor Market Returns to Community College: Evidence from North Carolina (A CAPSEE Research Brief). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

CAPSEE. (2013). For-Profit Colleges: Growth, Outcomes, Regulation (A CAPSEE Research Brief). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

CAPSEE. (2015). The Federal Work-Study Program: Impacts on Academic Outcomes and Employment (A CAPSEE Policy Brief). New York, NY: Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Scott-Clayton, J., and Schudde, L. (2017). Performance Requirements in Need-Based Aid: What Roles Do They Serve, and Do They Work? Research Brief. Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.

Scott-Clayton, J., and  Zhou, R.Y. (2017). Does the Federal Work-Study Program Really Work--And for Whom? Research Brief. Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment.


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