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IES Grant

Title: Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER)
Center: NCER Year: 2006
Principal Investigator: Hannaway, Jane Awardee: American Institutes for Research (AIR)
Program: National Research and Development Centers      [Program Details]
Award Period: 5 years Award Amount: $11,996,301
Goal: Multiple Goals Award Number: R305A060067
Description:

Topic: State and Local Education Policy

Purpose: Supported by a five-year, $10 million grant from the Institute for Education Sciences at the U.S. Department of Education, CALDER is a federally funded National Research and Development Center.

The center will harvest state and district administrative data on individual teachers and students for insights into how state and local policies, especially teacher policies, governance policies, and accountability policies affect teachers (e.g., who teaches what students) and students (e.g., academic achievement and attainment).

CALDER will mine the longitudinal databases that have emerged as educational systems face increased performance-based accountability. Comprehensive databases in Florida, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Washington state represent the initial core of the research focus.

Projects

Policies Regarding Teachers
Principal Investigator: Jane Hannaway, The Urban Institute
Previous research suggests that the quality of the teacher workforce available to students can affect student achievement. A major goal of the Center is thus to examine state and local policies that are implemented with regard to the hiring, compensation, certification, recruitment, retention, and assignment of teachers. These policies are then related to student achievement as measured through achievement exams, courses taken, and graduation rates.

Governance Policies and Community Conditions
Principal Investigator: Jane Hannaway, The Urban Institute
Other research questions of interest to the Center include governance policies, such as accountability and choice, as well as social and economic conditions of the community, such as changing demographics, the changing labor market, and resources. Of particular interest is the way in which such policies and conditions affect the quality of teachers available to different school systems, and how these in turn may affect student achievement.

Examination of State Databases
Principal Investigator: Jane Hannaway, The Urban Institute
The Center is using comprehensive education databases in Florida, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Washington to disentangle the effects of different policies by location. The Center also expects to make significant technical contributions to the field as it engages new, rich databases to help guide policymaking.

Key Personnel: Jane Hannaway, Donald Boyd, Damon Clark, Charles Clotfelter, David Figlio, Mark Ehlert, Dan Goldhaber, Erik Hanushek, Lawrence Kenny, Helen Ladd, Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, Dan O’Brien, Michael Podgursky, Steve Rivkin, Richard Romano, Jeffrey Roth, Kim Rueben, Tim Sass, Jacob Vigdor, Jim Wyckoff.

Center Website: http://www.caldercenter.org/.

IES Program Contact: Dr. Elizabeth Albro
Email: Elizabeth.Albro@ed.gov
Telephone: (202) 219-2148

Publications

Book

Goldhaber, D., and Hannaway, J. (2009). Creating a New Teaching Profession.Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Hanushek, E.A., and Lindseth, A.A. (2009). Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America's Public Schools.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hanushek, E.A., and Woessmann, L.A. (2010). The High Cost of Low Educational Performance: The Long-Run Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes.Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Hanushek, E.A., Machin, S., and Woessmann, L.A. (2010). Handbook of the Economics of Education, Vol 3.Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Book chapter

Beteille, T., and Loeb, S. (2009). Teacher Quality and Teacher Labor Markets. In G. Sykes, B. Schneider, and D. Plank (Eds.), Handbook of Education Policy Research (pp. 596–613). New York: Routledge.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., and Wyckoff, J. (2008). Increasing the Effectiveness of Teachers in Low-Performing Schools. In H. Ladd, and E. Fiske (Eds.), Handbook of Research in Education Finance and Policy (pp. 535–550). New York: Routledge.

Figlio, D., and Downes, T. (2007). Tax and Expenditure Limits, School Finance and School Quality. In H.F. Ladd, and E.B. Fiske (Eds.), Handbook of Research in Education Finance and Policy (pp. 373–390). Oxford, UK: Routledge.

Figlio, D., and Ladd, H.F. (2007). School Accountability and Student Achievement. In H.F. Ladd, and E.B. Fiske (Eds.), Handbook of Education Finance and Policy (pp. 166–183). Oxford, UK: Routledge.

Figlio, D.N., and Roth, J. (2009). The Behavioral Consequences of Pre-Kindergarten Participation for Disadvantaged Youth. In J. Gruber (Ed.), The Problems of Disadvantaged Youth: An Economic Perspective (pp. 15–42). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldhaber, D. (2009). Lessons From Abroad: Exploring Cross-Country Differences in Teacher Development Systems and What They Mean for U.S. Policy. In D. Goldhaber, and J. Hannaway (Eds.), Creating a New Teaching Profession (pp. 81–114). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Hanushek, E.A. (2009). Teacher Deselection. In D. Goldhaber, and J. Hannaway (Eds.), Creating a New Teaching Profession (pp. 165–180). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Hanushek, E.A. (2010). Education Production Functions: Evidence From Developed Countries. In D.J. Brewer, and P.J. McEwan (Eds.), Economics of Education (pp. 132–136). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hanushek, E.A., and Woessmann, L.A. (2010). Education and Economic Growth. In D.J. Brewer, and P.J. McEwan (Eds.), Economics of Education (pp. 60–67). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Klopfenstein, K. (2010). Does the Advanced Placement Program Save Taxpayers Money? The Effect of AP Participation on Time to College Graduation. In P.M. Sadler, G. Sonnert, R.H. Tai, and K. Klopfenstein (Eds.), AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program(pp. 189–218). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Klopfenstein, K., and Thomas, M.K. (2010). Advanced Placement Participation: Evaluating the Policies of States and Colleges. In P.M. Sadler, G. Sonnert, R.H. Tai, and K. Klopfenstein (Eds.), AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program(pp. 167–188). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Loeb, S., and Miller, L.C. (2009). A Federal Foray into Teacher Certification: Assessing the “Highly Qualified Teacher” Provision of NCLB. In M. Rebell, and J. Wolff (Eds.), NCLB at the Crossroads. New York: Teachers College Press.

Rice, J.K. (2009). Investing in Human Capital Through Teacher Professional Development. In D. Goldhaber, and J. Hannaway (Eds.), Creating a New Teaching Profession (pp. 227–250). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Rivkin, S.G. (2009). The Estimation of Teacher Value Added as a Determinant of Performance Pay. In D. Goldhaber, and J. Hannaway (Eds.), Creating a New Teaching Profession (pp. 181–194). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Vigdor, J., and Nechyba, T.S. (2007). Peer Effects in North Carolina Public Schools. In P.E. Peterson, and L. Woessmann (Eds.), Schools and the Equal Opportunity Problem (pp. 73–101). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Vigdor, J.L. (2009). Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina. In M.G. Springer (Ed.), Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K–12 Education (pp. 227–251). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Journal article, monograph, or newsletter

Antonovics, K., and Backes, B. (2014). The Effect of Banning Affirmative Action on College Admissions Policies and Student Quality. Journal of Human Resources, 49(2): 295–322.

Backes, B. (2012). Do Affirmative Action Bans Lower Minority College Enrollment and Attainment?: Evidence From Statewide Bans. Journal of Human Resources, 47(2): 435–455.

Beteille, T., Kalogrides, D., and Loeb, S. (2012). Effective Schools: Teacher Hiring, Assignment, Development, and Retention. Education Finance and Policy, 7(3): 269–304.

Bhatt, R., and Koedel, C. (2012). Large-Scale Evaluations of Curricular Effectiveness: The Case of Elementary Mathematics in Indiana. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(4): 391–412.

Bhatt, R., Koedel, C., and Lehmann, D. (2013). Is Curriculum Quality Uniform? Evidence From Florida. Economics of Education Review, 34: 107–121.

Bifulco, R., Ladd, H.F., and Ross, S. (2009). The Effects of Public School Choice on Those Left Behind: Evidence From Durham, North Carolina. Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, 84(2): 130–149.

Bifulco, R., Ladd, H.F., and Ross, S. (2009). Public School Choice and Integration: Evidence From Durham, North Carolina. Social Science Research, 38(1): 71–85.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Hammerness, K., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Ronfeldt, M., and Wyckoff, J. (2012). Recruiting Effective Math Teachers: Evidence From New York City. American Educational Research Journal, 49(6): 1008–1047.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Ing, M., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2011). The Influence of School Administrators on Teacher Retention Decisions. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2): 303–333.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2013). Analyzing the Determinants of the Matching of Public School Teachers to Jobs: Disentangling the Preferences of Teachers and Employers. Journal of Labor Economics, 31(1): 83–117.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Ronfeldt, M., and Wyckoff, J. (2011). The Role of Teacher Quality in Retention and Hiring: Using Applications to Transfer to Uncover Preferences of Teachers and Schools. Journal of Policy and Management, 30(1): 88–2011.

Boyd, D.J., Grossman, P.L., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J.H. (2009). Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 31(4): 416–460.

Burke, M.A., and Sass, T.R. (2013). Classroom Peer Effects and Student Achievement. Journal of Labor Economics, 31(1): 51–82.

Clotfelder, C.T, Ladd. H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2009). Are Teacher Absences Worth Worrying About in the U.S.?. Journal of Education Finance, 4(2): 115–149. doi:10.1162/edfp.2009.4.2.115

Clotfelder, C.T, Ladd. H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2009). The Academic Achievement Gap in Grades 3 to 8. Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(2): 398–419.

Clotfelter, C.T., Glennie, E., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2006). Teacher Bonuses and Teacher Retention in Low Performing Schools: Evidence From the North Carolina $1,800 Teacher Bonus Program. Public Finance Review, 36(1): 63–87.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2006). Teacher-Student Matching and the Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness. Journal of Human Resources, 41(4): 778–820.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2006). Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement: Longitudinal Analysis With Student Fixed Effects. Economics of Education Review, 26(6): 673–682.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2006). Federal Oversight, Local Control, and the Specter of ‘Resegregation' in Southern Schools. American Law and Economics Review, 8(2): 347–389.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2010). Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School A Cross-Subject Analysis With Student Fixed Effects. Journal of Human Resources, 45(3): 655–681.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2012). New Destinations, New Trajectories? The Educational Progress of Hispanic Youth in North Carolina. Child Development, 83(5): 1608–1622.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., Muschkin, C.G., and Vigdor, J.L. (2013). Success in Community College: Do Institutions Differ?. Research in Higher Education, 54(7): 805–824.

Corcoran, S., and Goldhaber, D. (2013). Value Added and Its Uses: Where You Stand Depends on Where You Sit. Education Finance and Policy, 8(3): 418–434.

Costrell, R.M., and Podgursky, M.J. (2010). Golden Handcuffs. Education Next, 10(1): 60–66.

Cunningham, D., and Wyckoff, J. (2013). Policy Makers and Researchers Schooling Each Other: Lessons in Educational Policy From New York. Education Finance and Policy, 8(3): 275–286.

Currie, J., Hanushek, E.A., Kahn, E.M., Neidell, M., and Rivkin, S. (2009). Does Pollution Increase School Absences?. Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(4): 682–694.

DeArmond, M., and Goldhaber, D. (2010). Scrambling the Nest Egg: How Well do Teachers Understand Their Pensions, and What do They Think About Alternative Pension Structures?. Education Finance and Policy, 5(4): 558–586.

Figlio, D. (2007). Boys Named Sue: Disruptive Children and Their Peers. Education Finance and Policy, 2(4): 376–394.

Figlio, D., and Hart, C. (2014). Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 6(1): 133–156.

Figlio, D., and Kenny, L. (2007). Individual Teacher Incentives and Student Performance. Journal of Public Economics, 91: 901–914.

Figlio, D., Feng, L., Hannaway, J., Sass, T., and Xu, Z. (2010). Value-Added of Teachers in High-Poverty and Lower Poverty Schools . Journal of Urban Economics, 72(2): 104–122.

Figlio, D., Guryan, N.J., and Karbownik, N.K. (2014). The Effects of Poor Neonatal Health on Children's Cognitive Development. American Economic Review, 104(2): 3921–3955.

Figlio, D.N., Hamersma, S., and Roth, J. (2009). Does Prenatal WIC Participation Improve Birth Outcomes? New Evidence From Florida. Journal of Public Economics, 93(1): 235–245.

Fuller, S.C., and Ladd, H.F. (2013). School-Based Accountability and the Distribution of Teacher Quality Across Grades in Elementary School. Education Finance and Policy, 8(4): 528–559.

Goldhaber, D. (2006). National Board Teachers are More Effective, but are They in the Classrooms Where They're Needed the Most?. Education Finance and Policy, 1(3): 372–382.

Goldhaber, D. (2007). Everyone's Doing it, but What Does Teacher Testing Tell us About Teacher Effectiveness?. Journal of Human Resources, 92(4): 765–794.

Goldhaber, D., and Anthony, E. (2007). Can Teacher Quality be Effectively Assessed? National Board Certification as a Signal of Effective Teaching. Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(1): 134–150.

Goldhaber, D., and Hansen, M. (2009). National Board Certification and Teachers' Career Path: Does NBPTS Certification Influence How Long Teachers Remain in the Profession and Where They Teach?. Education Finance and Policy, 4(3): 229–262.

Goldhaber, D., and Hansen, M. (2010). Race, Gender, and Teacher Testing: How Informative a Tool is Teacher Licensure Testing and How Does it Impact Student Achievement?. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1): 218–251.

Goldhaber, D., and Hansen, M. (2010). Using Performance on the Job to Inform Teacher Tenure Decisions. American Economic Review, 100(2): 250–255.

Goldhaber, D., and Hansen, M. (2013). Is it Just a Bad Class? Assessing the Long-term Stability of Estimated Teacher Performance. Economica, 80(319): 589–612.

Goldhaber, D., and Walch, J. (2012). Strategic Pay Reform: A Student Outcomes-Based Evaluation of Denver's Procomp Teacher Pay Initiative. Economics of Education Review, 31(6): 1067–1083.

Goldhaber, D., Cramer, L., and Choi, H.A. (2007). A Descriptive Analysis of the Distribution of NBPTS-Certified Teachers in North Carolina. Economics of Education Review, 26(2): 160–172.

Goldhaber, D., DeArmond, M., and DeBurgomaster, S. (2011). Teacher Attitudes About Compensation Reform: Implications for Reform Implementation. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 64(3): 441–463.

Goldhaber, D., Goldschmidt, P., and Tseng, F. (2013). Teacher Value-Added at the High-School Level: Different Models, Different Answers?. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35(2): 220–236.

Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., and Player, D. (2011). Teacher Career Paths, Teacher Quality, and Persistence in the Classroom: Are Public Schools Keeping Their Best?. Journal of Public Policy and Management, 30(1): 57–87.

Grissom, J.A., and Loeb, S. (2011). Triangulating Principal Effectiveness How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills. American Educational Research Journal, 48(5): 1091–1123.

Gross, B., Brooker, K., and Goldhaber, D. (2009). Boosting Student Achievement: The Effect of Comprehensive School Reform on Student Achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 31(2): 111–126.

Grossman, P.L., and Loeb, S. (2010). Learning From Multiple Routes: The Variation in Teacher Preparation Pathways can Propel our Understanding of how Best to Prepare Teachers. Educational Leadership, 67(8): 22–27.

Hanusheck, E.A., and Rivkin, S.G. (2009). Harming the Best: How Schools Affect the Black-White Achievement Gap. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28(3): 366–393.

Hanushek, E.A. (2009). School Policy: Implications of Recent Research for Human Capital Investments in South Asia and Other Developing Countries. Education Economics, 17(3): 291–313.

Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S. (2007). Pay, Working Conditions, and Teacher Quality. Future of Children, v17 n1 p69–86.

Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S.G. (2010). Generalizations About Using Value-Added Measures of Teacher Quality. American Economic Review, 100(2): 267–271.

Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S.G. (2010). The Quality and Distribution of Teachers Under the No Child Left Behind Act. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3): 1–18.

Hanushek, E.A., and Zheng, L. (2009). Quality-Consistent Estimates of International Schooling and Skill Gradients. Journal of Human Capital, 3(2): 107–143.

Hanushek, E.A., Kain, J.F., and Rivkin, S.G. (2009). New Evidence About Brown v. Board of Education: The Complex Effects of School Racial Composition on Achievement. Journal of Labor Economics, 27(3): 349–383.

Harris, D.N., and Sass, T.R. (2009). The Effects of NBPTS-Certified Teachers on Student Achievement. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28(1): 55–80.

Haycock, K., and Hanushek, E.A. (2010). An Effective Teacher in Every Classroom: A Lofty Goal, but how to do it?. Education Next, 10(3): 46–52.

Horng, E.L., Klasik, D., and Loeb, S. (2010). Principal's Time Use and School Effectivenesss. American Journal of Education, 116(4): 491–523.

Ishii, J., and Rivkin, S.G. (2009). Impediments to the Estimation of Teacher Value Added. Education Finance and Policy, 4(4): 520–536.

Jepsen, C., and Rivkin, S.G. (2009). Class Size Reduction and Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff Between Teacher Quality and Class Size. Journal of Human Resources, 44(1): 223–250.

Kenny, L.W. (2010). Separate Mnemonic Effects of Retrieval Practice and Elaborative Encoding. Journal of School Choice, 4(1): 5–22.

Klopfenstein, K., and Thomas, M.K. (2009). The Link Between Advanced Placement Experience and Early College Success. The Southern Economic Journal, 75(3): 873–891.

Koedel, C. (2009). An Empirical Analysis of Teacher Spillover Effects in Secondary School. Economics of Education Review, 28(6): 682–692.

Koedel, C., and Betts, J.R. (2010). Value Added to What? How a Ceiling in the Testing Instrument Influences Value-Added Estimation. Education Finance and Policy, 5(1): 54–81.

Koedel, C., Betts, J.R., Rice, L.A., and Zau, A.C. (2009). The Integrating and Segregating Effects of School Choice. Peabody Journal of Education, 84(4): 110–129.

Lankford, H., Loeb, S., McEachin, A., Miller, L. C., and Wyckoff, J. (2014). Who Enters Teaching? Encouraging Evidence That the Status of Teaching is Improving. Educational Researcher, 43: 444–453.

Loeb, S., Boyd, D., Lankford, H., and Wyckoff, J. (2011). Teacher Layoffs: An Empirical Illustration of Seniority Verses Measures of Effectiveness. Education Finance and Policy, 6(3): 439–454.

Loeb, S., Miller, L.C., and Strunk, K. (2009). The State Role in Teacher Professional Development and Education Throughout Teachers' Careers. Education Finance and Policy, 4(1): 212–228.

Loeb, S., Miller, L.C., and Strunk, K. (2009). The State Role in Teacher Compensation. Education Finance and Policy, 4(1): 89–114.

Morse, S.B., Zheng, H., Tang, Y., and Roth, J. (2009). Early School Age Outcomes of Late Preterm Infants. Pediatrics, 123(4): 622–629.

Sass, T., and Harris, D. (2011). Teacher Training, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement. Journal of Public Economics , 95: 798–812.

Wyckoff, J., Boyd, D., Goldhaber, D., and Lankford, H. (2007). The Effect of Certification and Preparation on Teacher Quality. Excellence in the Classroom: Policies to Improve the Teacher Workforce, 17(1): 45–68.

Wyckoff, J., Boyd, D., Lankford, H., and Loeb, S. (2008). The Impact of Assessment and Accountability on Teacher Recruitment and Retention: Are There Unintended Consequences?. Public Finance Review, 36(1): 88–111.

Xu, Z., Hannaway, J., and Taylor, C. (2011). Making a Difference? The Effects of Teach For America in High School. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30(3): 447–469.

Nongovernment report, issue brief, or practice guide

Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2008). Overview of Measuring Effect Sizes: The Effect of Measurement Error.Wasington, DC: CALDER.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., and Wyckoff, J. (2008). The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and Implications for Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools.Washington, DC: CALDER.

Goldhaber, D., and Hansen, M. (2008). Assessing the Potential of Using Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Job Performance for Making Tenure Decisions.Washington, DC: CALDER .

Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S.G. (2008). Do Disadvantaged Urban Schools Lose Their Best Teachers? Brief 7.Washington, DC: CALDER.

Haskins, R., and Loeb, S.A. (2007). A Plan to Improve the Quality of Teaching in American Schools.Princeton, NJ: The Future of Children, Brookings.

Ladd, H.F., and Lauen, D.L. (2010). Status vs. Growth: Comparing Strategies for School Improvement.Chapel Hill, NC: Program on Public Life, Center for the Study of the American South, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

O'Brien, D. (2008). The Texas FERPA Story.Washington, DC: CALDER, Urban Institute.

Rivkin, S.G. (2007). Value-Added Analysis and Education Policy.Washington, DC: Urban Institute, CALDER.

Sass, T.R. (2008). The Stability of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Quality and Implications for Teacher Compensation.Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Sass, T.R., and Cartwright, S. (2008). High School Diploma and GED Attainment in Florida.Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Wheeler, J., and Glennie, E. (2007). Can Pay Incentives Improve the Recruitment and Retention of Teachers in America'a Hard-To-Staff Schools?.Durham, NC: Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University.

Working paper

Beteille, T., Kalogrides, D., and Loeb, S. (2009). Effective Schools: Managing the Recruitment, Development, and Retention of High Quality Teachers (CALDER 37). Washington, DC: Working Paper.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P.L., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2008). Measuring Effect Sizes: The Effect of Measurement Error (19). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P.L., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2008). Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement (20). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Boyd, D., Grossman, P.L., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2009). Who Leaves? Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement (23). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., and Wyckoff, J. (2007). The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and Its Implications For Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools (10). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Boyd, D.J., Grossman, P.L., Ing, M., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2009). The Influence of School Administrators on Teacher Retention Decisions (25). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Branch, G.F., Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S.G. (2009). Estimating Principal Effectiveness (32). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Branch, G.F., Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S.G. (2012). Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals (66). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Burke, M.A., and Sass, T.R. (2008). Classroom Peer Effects and Student Achievement (18). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Carruthers, C.K. (2009). The Qualifications and Classroom Performance of Teachers Moving to Charter Schools (CALDER 27). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Clark, D., Martorell, P., and Rockoff, J.E. (2009). School Principals and School Performance (CALDER 38). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Clotfelter, C.T., Glennie, E., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2006). Would Higher Salaries Keep Teachers in High-Poverty Schools? Evidence From a Policy Intervention in North Carolina (NBER 12285). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2007). How and Why Do Teacher Credentials Matter for Student Achievement? (NBER 12828). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2008). School Segregation Under Color-Blind Jurisprudence: The Case of North Carolina (CALDER 16 ). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2009). Are Teacher Absences Worth Worrying About in the U.S.? (CALDER 24). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2010). Teacher Mobility, School Segregation, and Pay-Based Policies to Level the Playing Field (CALDER 44). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., and Vigdor, J.L. (2012). The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence From a District Policy Initiative (CALDER 69). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., Muschkin, C.G., and Vigdor, J.L. (2012). Success in Community College: Do Institutions Differ? (CALDER 74). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., Vigdor, J.L., and Wheeler, J. (2007). High Poverty Schools and the Distribution of Teachers and Principals (CALDER 1). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Costrell, R.M., and Podgursky, M. (2007). Efficiency and Equity in the Time Pattern of Teacher Pension Benefits: An Analysis of Four State Systems (CALDER 6). Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research Working Paper.

Donovan, C., Figlio, D., and Rush, M. (2007). Cramming: The Effects of School Accountability on College-Bound Students (CALDER 8). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Feng, L., and Sass, T.R. (2010). What Makes Special Education Teachers Special? Teacher Training and Achievement of Students With Disabilities (CALDER 49). New York: Working Paper.

Feng. L., Figlio, D., and Sass, T.R. (2010). School Accountability and Teacher Mobility (CALDER 47). Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research Working Paper.

Figlio, D.N., and Hart, C.M.D. (2010). Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers (CALDER 46). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Fuller, S.C., and Ladd, H.F. (2012). School Based Accountability and the Distribution of Teacher Quality Among Grades in Elementary Schools (CALDER 75). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Goldhaber, D., and Chaplin, D. (2012). Assessing the "Rothstein Test": Does it Really Show Teacher Value-Added Models are Biased? (CALDER 71). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Goldhaber, D., and Hansen, M. (2010). Assessing the Potential of Using Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Job Performance for Making High-Stakes Personnel Decisions (CALDER 31). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Goldhaber, D., and Hansen, M. (2012). Is it Just a Bad Class? Assessing the Long-Term Stability of Estimated Teacher Performance (CALDER 73). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Goldhaber, D., and Liddle, S. (2012). The Gateway to the Profession: Assessing Teacher Preparation Programs Based on Student Achievement (CALDER 65). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., and Player, D. (2007). Are Public Schools Really Losing Their Best? Assessing the Career Transitions of Teachers and Their Implications for the Quality of the Teacher Workforce (CALDER 12). Working Paper.

Grossman, P.L., Loeb, S., Cohen, J., Hammerness, K., Wyckoff, J.H., Boyd, D.J., and Lankford, H. (2010). Measure for Measure: The Relationship Between Measures of Instructional Practice in Middle School English Language Arts and Teachers' Value-Added Scores (CALDER 45). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Hansen, M. (2009). How Career Concerns Influence Public Workers' Effort: Evidence From the Teacher Labor Market (CALDER 40). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Hansen, M., and Choi, K. (2012). Chronically Low-Performing Schools and Turnaround: Evidence From Three States (CALDER 60). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S. (2010). Constrained Job Matching: Does Teacher Job Search Harm Disadvantaged Urban Schools? (NBER 15816). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper.

Harris, D., and Sass, T. (2007). Teacher Training, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement (CALDER 3). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Harris, D.N., and Sass, T.R. (2009). What Makes for a Good Teacher and Who Can Tell? (CALDER 30). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Jargowsky, P., and El Komi, M. (2009). Before or After the Bell? School Context and Neighborhood Effects on Student Achievement (CALDER 28). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Koedel, C., and Betts, J. (2009). Value-Added to What? How a Ceiling in the Testing Instrument Influences Value-Added Estimation (NCPI 2008–21). Nashville, TN: National Center on Performance Incentives Working Paper.

Koedel, C., and Podgursky, M. (2012). Teacher Pension Systems, the Composition of the Teaching Workforce, and Teacher Quality (CALDER 72). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Koedel, C., Grissom, J.A., Ni, S., and Podgursky, M. (2012). Pension-Induced Rigidities in the Labor Market for School Leaders (CALDER 67). Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research Working Paper.

Koedel, C., Ni, S., and Podgursky, M. (2012). Who Benefits From Pension Enhancements? (CALDER 76). Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research Working Paper.

Ladd, H.F. (2009). Teachers' Perceptions of Their Working Conditions: How Predictive of Policy-Relevant Outcomes? (CALDER 33). Washington, DC: CALDER, Urban Institute Working Paper.

Ladd, H.F., and Lauen, D.L. (2009). Status vs. Growth: The Distributional Effects of School Accountability Policies (CALDER 21). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Master, B., Loeb, S., Whitney, C., and Wyckoff, J. (2012). Different Skills: Identifying Differentially Effective Teachers of English Language Learners (CALDER 68). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Mihaly, K., McCaffery, D., Sass, T.R., and Lockwood, J.R. (2012). Where You Come From or Where You Go? Distinguishing Between School Quality and the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Program Graduates (CALDER 63). Washington, DC: CALDER Working Paper.

Ozek, U. (2009). The Effects of Open Enrollment on School Choice and Student Outcomes (CALDER 26). Washington, DC: CALDER, Urban Institute Working Paper.

Podgursky, M., and Ehlert, M. (2007). Teacher Pensions and Retirement Behavior: How Teacher Pension Rules Affect Behavior, Mobility, and Retirement (CALDER 5). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Rice, J.K. (2010). Principal Effectiveness and Leadership in an Era of Accountability: What Research Says (CALDER 8). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Ronfeldt, M., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2012). How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement (CALDER 70). Washington, DC: CALDER, American Institutes for Research Working Paper.

Rouse, C.E., Hannaway, J., Goldhaber, D., and Figlio, D. (2007). Feeling the Florida Heat?: How Low-Performing Schools Respond to Voucher and Accountability Pressure (CALDER 13). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Sass, T.R. (2011). Certification Requirements and Teacher Quality: A Comparison of Alternative Routes to Teaching (CALDER 64). Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research Working Paper.

Vigdor, J., and Ludwig, J. (2007). Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap (NBER 12988). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper.

Vigdor, J.L. (2008). Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina (CALDER 15). Urban Institute: Washington, DC Working Paper.

Vigdor, J.L., and Ladd, H.F. (2010). Scaling the Digital Divide: Home Computer Technology and Student Achievement (CALDER 48). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Xu, Z., and Nichols, A. (2010). New Estimates of Design Parameters for Cluster Randomization Studies: Findings From North Carolina and Florida (CALDER 43). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Xu, Z., Hanaway, J., and D'Souza, S. (2009). Student Transience in North Carolina: The Effect of School Mobility on Student Outcomes Using Longitudinal Data (CALDER 22). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Xu, Z., Ozek, U., and Corritore, M. (2012). Portability of Teacher Effectiveness Across School Settings (CALDER 77). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.

Zhu, P., Jacob, R., Bloom, H., and Xu, Z. (2011). Designing and Analyzing Studies That Randomize Schools to Estimate Intervention Effects on Student Academic Outcomes Without Classroom-Level Information (CALDER 61). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Working Paper.


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