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IES Grant

Title: Post-Doctoral Research Training Program in Special Education: Response to Intervention (RTI) in Early Childhood
Center: NCSER Year: 2012
Principal Investigator: Greenwood, Charles Awardee: University of Kansas
Program: Postdoctoral Research Training Program in Special Education and Early Intervention      [Program Details]
Award Period: 3/1/2012 – 02/29/2016 Award Amount: $687,000
Type: Training Award Number: R324B120004

Co-Principal Investigator: Carta, Judith

This postdoctoral program provided four postdoctoral fellows with research training focused on a response-to-intervention (RTI) approach to early intervention and early childhood special education. The program was housed at Juniper Gardens Children's Project, with training opportunities available through the multi-site Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood.

The program provided training in two domains: (1) knowledge and content and (2) measurement and research methods. The knowledge and content domain included the RTI framework; advances in early childhood RTI models; language, social-emotional, and early literacy competency; instructional interventions, curricula, and multiple tiers of support; and research communication (including publications and presentations). The measurement and research methods domain included universal screening and progress monitoring requirements of RTI; experimental study designs; and univariate and latent growth modeling techniques. Guided by an individualized fellowship plan, fellows received mentoring, audited relevant courses and summer institutes, and participated directly in research projects. Research opportunities included, but were not limited to, (a) validation of a universal screening and progress monitoring measure of infant and toddler growth in communication skills; (b) development of a preschool RTI model for language and early literacy; (c) study of a web-based parenting intervention for mothers of infants at risk for maltreatment; (d) development of an intervention for improving social-emotional outcomes for infants in child care; and (e) evaluation of evidence-based, naturalistic language-promoting strategies for infants and young children with disabilities.

Postdoctoral Fellows

Beecher, Constance (ORCID)
Irvin, Dwight (ORCID)
Schnitz, Alana (ORCID)
Tsai, Shu-Fei (ORCID)

As of 2020, Dr. Beecher was an associate professor at Iowa State University, Dr. Irvin was an assistant research professor at the University of Kansas, Dr. Schnitz was an assistant research professor at the University of Kansas, and Dr. Tsai was an assistant professor at the National University of Tainan.

Products and Publications

Book chapter

Irvin, D.W., Patten, E., and Boyd, B.A. (2014). Service Use Among Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. In V.B. Patel, V.R. Preedy, and C.R. Martin (Eds.), The Comprehensive Guide to Autism (pp. 1159–1176). New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4788-7_63

Journal article, monograph, or newsletter

Abbott, M., Beecher, C.C., Petersen, S., Greenwood, C. R., and Atwater, J. (2015). A Team Approach to Data-Driven Decision-Making Literacy Instruction in Preschool Classrooms Child Assessment and Intervention Through Classroom Team Self-Reflection. Young Exceptional Children, 20(3), 117–132. doi: 10.1177/1096250615602297.

Barton, E.E., Fuller, E. and Schnitz, A.G. (2016). The Use of Email to Coach Preservice Early Childhood Teachers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 36(2): 78–90. doi: 10.1177/0271121415612728

Beecher, C.C., and Buzhardt, J. (2016). Mobile Technology to Increase Parent Engagement. Interactive Design and Architecture(s) 28, 49–68.

Buzhardt, J., Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Jia, F., Schnitz, A. G., Higgins, S., Montagna, D. and Muehe, C. (2018). Web-Based Support for Data-Based Decision Making: Effect of Intervention Implementation on Infant-Toddler Communication. Journal of Early Intervention, 40(3), 246–267. doi: 10.1177/1053815118788059.

Greenwood, C. R., Abbott, M., Beecher, C., Atwater, J., and Petersen, S. (2017). Development, Validation, and Evaluation of Literacy 3D: A Package Supporting Tier 1 Preschool Literacy Instruction Implementation and Intervention. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 37(1), 29–41. doi: 10.1177/0271121416652103

Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Schnitz, A. G., Irvin, D. W., Jia, F., and Atwater, J. (2018). Filling an Information Gap in Preschool MTSS and RTI Decision Making. Exceptional Children. doi: 10.1177/0014402918812473.

Greenwood, C. R., Schnitz, A. G., Irvin, D., Tsai, S. F., and Carta, J. J. (2018). Automated Language Environment Analysis: A Research Synthesis. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 27(2), 853–867.

Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Buzhardt, J., Irvin, D., Schnitz, A. G., and Jia, F. (2018). Update on the EMI for Infants and Toddlers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 38(2), 105–117. doi: 10.1177/0271121418777290.

Greenwood, C., Carta, J., Walker, D., Gilkerson, J., Watson-Thompson, J., Larson, A., and Schnitz, A. G. (2017). Conceptualizing a Public Health Prevention-Intervention Framework for Bridging the 30 Million Word Gap. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 20(1): 1–24.

Irvin, D.W., Boyd, B.A., and Odom, S.L. (2014). Child and Setting Characteristics Affecting the Adult Talk Directed at Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom. Autism, 19:223–234. doi: 10.1177/1362361313517398.

Irvin, D.W., Hume, K., Boyd, B.A., McBee, M.T., and Odom, S.L. (2013). Child and Classroom Characteristics Associated With the Adult Language Provided to Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(8): 947–955. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013.04.004

Mason, R. A., Schnitz, A. G., Gerow, S., An, Z. G., and Wills, H. P. (2019). Effects of Teacher-Implemented Coaching to Increase the Accuracy of Data Collected by Paraeducators. Journal of Behavioral Education, 29: 204–226. doi: 10.1007/s10864-018-9310-2.

Mason, R.A., Schnitz, A.G., Wills, H.P., Rosenbloom, R., Kamps, D.M., Bast, D. (2017). Impact of a Teacher-as-Coach Model: Improving Paraprofessionals Fidelity of Implementation of Discrete Trial Training for Students with Moderate-to-Severe Developmental Disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(6): 1696–1707. doi: