|Title:||Improving Reading and Mathematics Outcomes for Students with Learning Disabilities: Next Generation Intensive Interventions|
|Principal Investigator:||Fuchs, Douglas||Awardee:||Vanderbilt University|
|Program:||Accelerating the Academic Achievement of Students with Learning Disabilities Research Initiative [Program Details]|
|Award Period:||09/01/2013–08/31/2018||Award Amount:||$10,000,000|
|Goal:||Multiple Goals||Award Number:||R324D130003|
Long-Term Follow-Up Award: 2 Years (FY 2020—FY 2021), $748,548
Purpose: Over the last 10 to 15 years, strides have been made in the development of reading and mathematics instruction to improve student achievement. Yet there is a wide and persistent achievement gap between students with disabilities and their peers without disabilities, and some students show limited or no progress despite receiving secondary, tertiary, or both levels of intervention. Thus, there is a need for development of innovative interventions for students with identified disabilities in reading, mathematics, or both as well as those who are at high risk for being identified as such. This need is more urgent for students in the intermediate grades, when academic deficits and achievement gaps between students with disabilities and their peers are well established, and identification of students in true need of more intensive interventions is more accurate. The purpose of this project is to develop and evaluate the efficacy of math and reading interventions for these learning disabilities in grades 3–5.
Projects: The Center's primary research includes the development of math and reading interventions and the evaluation of the efficacy of the interventions and their components.
Focused Program of Research: The reading interventions focus on informational text. The math interventions focus on fraction magnitude, word problems, and calculations. In both academic domains, the interventions address College- and Career-Ready Standards. At grade 3, the interventions comprise 41 lessons in reading and 36 lessons in math; at grades 4-5, they comprise 40 lessons in reading and 36 lessons in math. Lessons are intended to be administered three times per week for 35-40 minutes per session over 15 weeks in reading and over 13 weeks in math.
Development Studies (Years 1–3)
Efficacy Studies (Years 4–5)
To examine longer-term impacts of the grades 4-5 math intervention developed through this grant, the research team received $748,548 in additional funding to collect follow-up data on students in grade 5 (for those who received intervention in grade 4) and on students in grade 6 (for those who received intervention in grade 5). The follow-up study’s purpose is to measure the longer-term impact of the intervention on fraction magnitude and fraction calculations, two of the three central focal points of the math intervention. Outcome data from the Fraction Battery 2018 Revised assessment (Fraction Ordering and Calculations) as well as the Number Line Estimation task, all of which were collected at posttest in the intervention year, will be collected at follow up. In addition, to index general mathematics achievement, data from the Tennessee state assessment will be collected from records during the follow-up year. Multilevel regression models will be applied to the follow-up outcomes, contrasting intervention and control group students. The research team will also test whether the effect of the intervention is moderated by one or more of the pretest measures collected in the fall of the intervention year, including students’ whole-number skill, fraction performance, language comprehension, reasoning, processing speed, and working memory.
Key Personnel: Vanderbilt University: Douglas Fuchs, Lynn Fuchs, Don Compton, Mark Lipsey, Kris Preacher, Melanie Schuele
IES Program Contact:
Project website: https://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/research/fuchs-a3/
Related IES Projects: National Research and Development Center on Improving Mathematics Instruction for Students with Mathematics Difficulties (R324C100004)
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., & Vaughn, S. (2014). What is intensive intervention and why is it important? Teaching Exceptional Children, 46(4), 13–18.
Peng, P., & Fuchs, D. (2014). A meta-analysis of working memory deficits in children with learning difficulties: Is there a difference between verbal and numerical domains. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49, 3-20. doi.org/10.1177/0022219414521667
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (2015). Rethinking service delivery for children with significant learning problems: Developing and implementing intensive instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 36, 105–111.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2016). Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A "systems" approach to adaptive instruction. Adaptive teaching: Theoretical implications for practice. Special issue of Theory into Practice, 55, 225-233.
Krowka, S.K., & Fuchs, L.S. (2017). Cognitive profiles associated with responsiveness to fraction intervention. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 32, 216–230. doi: 10.1111/ldrp.12146; ERIC: ED577241
Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., & Malone, A. (2017). The taxonomy of intervention intensity. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 50(1), 35-43. ED571640.
Malone, A. S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2017). Error patterns in ordering fractions among at-risk fourth-grade students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(3), 337-352. Doi: 10.1177/0022219416629647; ERIC: ED562770
Malone, A., Loehr, A., & Fuchs, L.S. (2017). The role of domain-general cognitive abilities and decimal labels in at-risk fourth-grade students’ decimal magnitude understanding. Learning and Individual Differences, 58, 90-96. ERIC ED576202; doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2017.05.007; ERIC ED576202
Fuchs, D., Hendricks, E., Walsh, M.E., Fuchs, L.S., Gilbert, J.K., Tracy, W.Z., Patton, S., Davis, N., Kim, W., Elleman, A.M., & Peng, P. (2018). Evaluating a multidimensional reading comprehension program and reconsidering the lowly reputation of tests of near transfer. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 33, 11-23.
Namkung, J. M., Fuchs, L. S., & Koziol, N. (2018). Does initial learning about the meaning of fractions challenging for students with adequate whole-number skill? Learning and Individual Differences, 61, 151-157.
Fuchs, D., Patton, S. III, Fuchs, L.S., Gilbert, J.K., Walsh, M., Lute, N., Haga, L., Peng, P., & Elleman, A. (2019). Combining reading comprehension instruction with cognitive training to provide intensive instruction to at-risk students (pp. 198-217). In P.C. Pullen & M.J. Kennedy (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention and multi-tiered systems of support. New York: Routledge.
Fuchs, D., Kearns, D.M., Fuchs, L.S., Elleman, A.M., Gilbert, J.K., Patton, S., Peng, P., & Compton, D.L. (2019). Using moderator analysis to identify the first-grade children who benefit more and less from a reading comprehension program: A step towards aptitude-by-treatment interaction. Exceptional Children, 85, 229-247. DOI: 10.1177/001440291880280; ERIC: EJ1202513
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (2019). On the importance of moderator analysis in intervention research: An introduction to the special issue. Exceptional Children, 85, 126-128. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0014402918811924
Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., & Gilbert, J.K. (2019). Does the severity of students’ pre-intervention math deficits affect responsiveness to generally effective first-grade intervention? Exceptional Children, 85, 147-162. DOI: 10.1177/001440291878262; ERIC ED591535
Preacher, K., & Sterba, S. (2019). Aptitude × treatment interactions in research on educational interventions. Exceptional Children, 85, 248-264. DOI: 10.1177/0014402918802803
Foreman-Murray, L., & Fuchs, L.S. (2019). Quality of explanation as an indicator of fraction magnitude understanding. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52, 181-191. DOI: 10.1177/0022219418775120; ERIC ED581313
Malone, A.S., Fuchs, L.S., Sterba, S.K., Fuchs, D., & Foreman-Murray, L. (in press). Does an integrated focus on fractions and decimals improve at-risk students’ rational number magnitude performance? Contemporary Educational Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.101782 ERIC ED595127
Wang, A.Y., Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Gilbert, J.K., Krowka, S., & Abramson, R. (2019). Embedding self-regulation instruction within fractions intervention for third graders with mathematics difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52, 337-348 First Published May 29, 2019; https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219419851750; ERIC EJ1219484
Namkung, J., & Fuchs, L.S. (2019). Remediating difficulty with fractions for students with mathematics learning difficulties. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 19(2), 36-48.