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IES Grant

Title: Evaluation of Efficacy of CBC for Addressing Disruptive Behaviors of Children at Risk for Academic Failure
Center: NCER Year: 2005
Principal Investigator: Sheridan, Susan Awardee: University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Program: Field Initiated Evaluations of Education Innovations      [Program Details]
Award Period: 5 years (6/1/2005-5/31/2010) Award Amount: $1,368,067
Type: Efficacy and Replication Award Number: R305F050284

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC), a structured family-school intervention addressing the disruptive and challenging behavior elementary school students at risk for academic failure. CBC was meant to address challenges facing students with behavior problems, such as the tendency to fail more courses, earn lower grades, miss more days of school, and be more likely to be retained in grade than their peers without behavioral problems. At the end of this proposed project, the researchers intended to produce results that would show whether CBC in one large district improved the academic performance and social skills and reduces the disruptive behavior of elementary students.

Structured Abstract


Setting: Approximately 90 classrooms in grades 1 to 3 in a minimum of 10 elementary schools in the Lincoln Public School District will participate in the evaluation.

Sample: Approximately 270 children in grades 1 to 3 with disruptive and challenging behaviors and their parents or primary caregivers will participate. The elementary school population in the Lincoln Public Schools is 81 percent white, 8 percent African American, 6 percent Hispanic, 4 percent Asian, and 1 percent Native American. One-third (34 percent) of students are eligible to receive free or reduced-price lunch.

Intervention: CBC is a structured, data-based consultation intervention that aims to improve academic and behavioral outcomes for at-risk students and promote parental involvement in educational interventions. The intervention consists of 4 to 6 consultation meetings and on-going contact with a consultant, parent, and teacher for approximately 7 to 8 weeks. The meetings are devoted to identifying a target problem, setting up a behavioral plan, teach and parent training regarding cross-setting interventions, and assessing whether behavior has changed as desired. Maintenance meetings occur once per month for the next 3 months. CBC has been implemented in the Lincoln Public Schools and in schools in Utah and Wisconsin for several years. Previous research using single case designs and small sample size experimental methodology has found promising results for the CBC program.

Research Design and Methods: A two-cohort randomized experimental design will be used with 45 classrooms in cohort 1 and 45 classrooms in cohort 2. The researchers will randomly assign 45 classrooms to the treatment group and 45 classrooms to the control group. Children in each treatment and control group classroom will be screened to identify those eligible for the study because of their disruptive and challenging behaviors. Three children will be randomly selected from the eligible children each classroom. Families of children in treatment classes will receive the CBC intervention and children in control classes will receive traditional behavioral and/or academic support. Children in cohort 1 will receive services in the first year of the study and will be followed for 3 years, and children in cohort 2 will receive services in the second year of the study will be followed for 2 years.

Control Condition: Families of children in the control classes will receive traditional support as is typically provided by schools, including therapists, counselors, and specialists.

Key Measures: Student outcomes will be assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement, behavioral observations, and parent and teacher assessments of behavioral and social skills. Parent surveys will be used to assess parent participation in problem-solving, parental self-efficacy, parental role construction, and parent-teacher relationship. Teacher surveys will be asked to assess the parent-teacher relationship, teacher practices related to parent involvement, and teacher beliefs related to parental involvement. The fidelity of implementation will be measured by tape recording of meetings as well as parent and teacher logs. Independent teams of classroom observers will collect data on how the teacher is implementing the behavioral strategies.

Data Analytic Strategy: The analysis strategy uses both cross-sectional and hierarchical linear models. Growth curve modeling will be used to examine long-term effects. The study will examine the immediate and long-term impacts on outcomes for students with disruptive behavior, including academic performance, behaviors, and social skills. In addition, the study will examine the immediate and long-term impact on parental self-efficacy and involvement in their children's education. In addition, the study will examine whether teachers' relationships with parents and beliefs/practices pertaining to parental involvement predict parent and student outcomes.

Related IES Projects: A Randomized Trial of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) with Latino Students: A Replication Study (R324A160017), Efficacy of Virtual Professional Development in Rural Schools to Enhance Teacher-Parent Partnerships for Students with Behavioral Challenges (R324A210166), Systematic Efficacy Replication Study of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation in Elementary Schools (R324R210013)

Products and Publications

ERIC Citations: Find available citations in ERIC for this award here.

Journal articles

Clarke, B.L., Wheeler, L.A., Sheridan, S.M., Witte, A.L., Sommerhalder, M.S., and Svoboda, E.A. (2017). Supporting Latinx Student Success via Family–School Partnerships: Preliminary Effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation on Student and Parent Outcomes. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 27(3), 317–343.

Garbacz, S.A., Sheridan, S.M., Koziol, N.A., Kwon, K., and Holmes, S.R. (2015). Congruence in Parent–Teacher Communication: Implications for the Efficacy of CBC for Students With Behavioral Concerns. School Psychology Review, 44(2): 150–168.

Kim, E.M., Sheridan, S.M., Kwon, K., and Koziol, N. (2013). Parent Beliefs and Children's Social–Behavioral Functioning: The Mediating Role of Parent–Teacher Relationships. Journal of School Psychology, 51(2), 175–185.

Kwon, K., Kim, E., and Sheridan, S. (2012). Behavioral Competence and Academic Functioning Among Early Elementary Children With Externalizing Problems. School Psychology Review, 41(2): 123–140.

Minke, K., Sheridan, S.M., Kim, E.M., Ryoo, J.H., and Koziol, N.A. (2014). Congruence in Parent–Teacher Relationships: The Role of Shared Perceptions. Elementary School Journal, 114(4): 527–546.

Schwehr, E., Bocanegra, J.O., Kwon, K., and Sheridan, S.M. (2014). Impact of Children's Identified Disability Status on Parent and Teacher Behavior Ratings. Contemporary School Psychology, 18(2): 133–142.

Semke, C.A., Garbacz, S.A., Kwon, K., Sheridan, S.M., and Woods, K.E. (2010). Family Involvement for Children with Disruptive Behaviors: The Role of Parenting Stress and Motivational Beliefs. Journal of School Psychology, 48(4): 293–312.

Sheridan, S.M., Bovaird, J.A., Glover, T.A., Garbacz, S.A., and Witte, A. (2012). A Randomized Trial Examining the Effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation and the Mediating Role of the Parent–Teacher Relationship. School Psychology Review, 41(1), 23.

Sheridan, S.M., Ryoo, J.H., Garbacz, S.A., Kunz, G.M., and Chumney, F.L. (2013). The Efficacy of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation on Parents and Children in the Home Setting: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of School Psychology, 51(6): 717–733.

Sheridan, S.M., Swanger–Gagné, M., Welch, G.W., Kwon, K., and Garbacz, S.A. (2009). Fidelity Measurement In Consultation: Psychometric Issues And Preliminary Examination. School Psychology Review, 38(4), 476–495.