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IES Grant

Title: Implementing Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-tiered Models to Meet Students' Academic, Behavior, and Social Needs: A Researcher-Practitioner Partnership
Center: NCER Year: 2015
Principal Investigator: Lane, Kathleen Lynne Awardee: University of Kansas
Program: Researcher-Practitioner Partnerships in Education Research      [Program Details]
Award Period: 2 years (7/1/2015-6/30/2017) Award Amount: $400,000
Type: Researcher-Practitioner Partnership Award Number: R305H150018

Co-Principal Investigators: McEwen, Terry; Wendy Peia

Partner Institutions: This project involved collaboration between the University of Kansas, Arizona State University, and Lawrence Public Schools (LPS).

Purpose: This project focused on continued implementation and testing of the Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-tiered (Ci3T) Prevention Research Project in LPS. The Ci3T model of prevention blends the principles of response to intervention and positive behavior interventions and supports with a validated program focused on developing students' social skillsets. The partners worked together to examine newly installed district- and school-level system changes designed to create positive learning environments and increase academic achievement for all students, including those with emotional behavioral disorders. The partnership installed and evaluated initial implementation of the Ci3T model and also developed procedures to ensure the partnership continues after the grant funding concludes.

Partnership Activities: The partners monitored Ci3T implementation, attending specifically to treatment integrity (to assess plan implementation) and social validity (to assess stakeholders' views of the goals, procedures, and outcomes). Researchers used universal screening data to examine overall school level performance over time and to detect and support students for whom primary prevention efforts are insufficient. For those students, evidence-based strategies and practices as well as more intensive intervention have been required. The partnership conducted four studies to explore Ci3T implementation with a focus on treatment integrity, social validity, screening, teacher efficacy, and future professional development needs. Researchers completed a set of descriptive studies (with some involving longitudinal data, surveys, and focus groups).

Setting: This project took place in a small urban district in the state of Kansas.

Population/Sample: The sample for this study included approximately 12,000 students and over 1,000 teachers from 20 schools from PreK to Grade 12.

Data Analytic Strategy: The research team used descriptive and inferential statistics in this project to assess Ci3T implementation fidelity, social validity and response from stakeholders, and screening processes used by schools. Analyses involved mean scores comparisons, analysis of variance comparing continuous variables, chi-square tests comparing categorical variables, Pearson correlation coefficients examining relations between variables of interest, and effect-size calculations examining the magnitude of differences between mean scores being compared. Data gathered from the focus groups were analyzed using qualitative techniques, including constant comparative procedures.

Outcomes: The partnership implemented the Ci3T model of prevention with fidelity in all 20 LPS schools. Researchers also identified barriers to implementation and provided high quality professional development to support teachers.

Related IES Project: Enhancing Ci3T: Building Professional Capacity for High Fidelity Implementation to Support Students' Educational Outcomes (Project ENHANCE) (R324N190002)


Journal article, monograph, or newsletter

Common, E. A., Buckman, M. M., Lane, K. L., Leko, M., Royer, D. J., Oakes, W. P., & Allen, G. E. (2019). Exploring Solutions to Address Students' Social Competencies to Facilitate School Success: A Usability and Feasibility Study. Education and Treatment of Children, 42(4), 489–514.

Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Cantwell, E. D., Common, E. A., Royer, D. J., Leko, M. M., ... & Allen, G. E. (2019). Predictive Validity of Student Risk Screening Scale—Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) Scores in Elementary Schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 27(4), 221–234.

Lane, K.L., Oakes, W.P., Cantwell, E.D., Royer, D.J., Leko, M.M., Schatschneider, C., and Menzies, H.M. (2018). Predictive Validity of Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Scores in Secondary Schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 27(2), 86–100.

Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Royer, D. J., Menzies, H. M., Brunsting, N. C., Buckman, M. M., ... & Lane, K. S. (2021). Secondary Teachers' Self-Efficacy During Initial Implementation of Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Models. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 23(4), 232–244.

Menzies, H. M., Oakes, W. P., Lane, K. L., Royer, D. J., Cantwell, E. D., Common, E. A., & Buckman, M. (2021). Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Model of Prevention. Remedial and Special Education, 42(4), 207–219.

Oakes, W.P., Lane, K.L., Cantwell, E.D., and Royer, D.J. (2017). Systematic Screening for Behavior in K–12 Settings as Regular School Practice: Practical Considerations and Recommendations. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 33(4), 369–393.

Oakes, W. P., Lane, K. L., Royer, D. J., Menzies, H. M., Buckman, M. M., Brunsting, N., ... & Lane, N. A. (2021). Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy During Initial Implementation of Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Models of Prevention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 23(2), 93–105.