|Title:||Early Identification of Children with Reading Disabilities within an RTI Framework|
|Principal Investigator:||Catts, Hugh||Awardee:||University of Kansas|
|Program:||Systems, Policy, and Finance [Program Details]|
|Award Period:||07/01/2008 - 6/30/2012||Award Amount:||$1,290,897|
Purpose: The purpose of this project is to compare three types of measurement approaches for accurately and efficiently identifying kindergartners with reading disabilities. Early identification of children with reading disabilities maximizes the opportunity to provide intensive reading interventions, improve reading achievement, prevent academic failure in later grades, and reduce inappropriate identification for special education services. Three measurement approaches are commonly used to identify children with reading disabilities. The first approach is a multivariate static assessments strategy. Static assessments measure already learned information or abilities at one point in time. The second approach is dynamic assessment. Unlike static assessments, during a dynamic assessment session, children are provided feedback and instruction throughout the session. Dynamic assessment provides information about how well a child might respond to instruction in the classroom, and it is an indicator of the child's potential to learn. The third strategy is progress monitoring which measures children's reading growth on a frequent (often weekly) basis. Each approach, in isolation, holds promise for identifying children with reading disabilities. However, a combination of these approaches may more accurately and efficiently predict reading disabilities. This research aims to determine which combination of approaches is most efficient and accurate for identifying kindergarteners with reading disabilities.
Project Activities: Researchers will determine which measurement approach (multivariate static assessments, dynamic assessment, or progress monitoring) or combination of approaches best identifies kindergarteners with reading disabilities. Approximately 350 kindergarteners from Kansas will participate in the study. A battery of static and dynamic assessments and progress monitoring probes representing the three measurement approaches will be administered to all children. A combination of statistical techniques will be utilized to determine which combination of approaches is most accurate and efficient.
Products: The products of this project include data on measurement approaches used identify children for reading disabilities, published reports, and presentations.
Research Design and Methods: Two cohorts of children will participate in the study. Each cohort will begin in kindergarten. In each cohort, approximately 125 children will be identified as at risk for reading disabilities. Following selection of participants, the battery of static and dynamic assessments and progress monitoring probes representing the three measurement approaches will be administered to all children. All children will be assessed at the end of kindergarten. Follow-up data will be collected annually as well. The first cohort will be followed through third grade and second through second grade.
Key Measures: Students will be administered a battery of language and literacy measures from kindergarten through third grade to determine an approach or combination of approaches for identifying kindergarteners with reading disabilities accurately and efficiently. Three measurement approaches will be utilized: multivariate static assessments, dynamic assessment, and progress monitoring.
Multivariate static assessments. For the multivariate static assessments strategy, multiple assessments that as a group predict word reading problems and assess vocabulary and language comprehension and production will be administered.
Dynamic Assessment. A dynamic assessment of phonological awareness will also be administered. Unlike static assessments, during the dynamic assessment session, children are provided feedback and instruction throughout the session. When the children give a correct response, the response is acknowledged. Alternatively, when children give an incorrect response to an item, the examiner provides a series of prompts until the item is answered correctly or the answer is provided to the child. The score for each item decreases for each prompt that is needed.
Progress Monitoring. The Initial Sound Fluency and Letter Naming Fluency subtests from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills will be used as progress monitoring probes. They will be administered weekly for four weeks.
Data Analytic Strategy: A combination of statistical techniques, including logistic regression, hierarchical linear modeling, and classification and regression tree analyses, will be utilized to determine which approach or combination of approaches best identifies kindergarteners with reading disabilities. In addition, data will be analyzed to determine the degree to which implementation of the approach within a Response to Intervention model adds to the prediction of reading disability beyond that provided by each approach.
Setting: The setting includes elementary schools in Kansas.
Population: Approximately 350 kindergarteners from Kansas will participate in the study. Of these students, 250 will be identified as being at risk for a reading disability, while another 100 students will be evaluated as being at low risk for a disability.
Assessment: Three approaches for assessing risk for long-term reading disabilities will be examined. The approaches involve a multivariate static assessments, dynamic assessment, and progress monitoring. This study will also examine whether each approach should be considered separately or in combination with the others in order to determine criteria for who should enter the RTI process.
Control Condition: The control group will include students at risk for a reading disability who will receive business-as-usual practices.
Catts, H.W., and Chan, Y.C. (2011). Early Identification of Dyslexia. In L. Alves, R. Mousinho, and S.A. Capellini (Eds.), Dyslexia. Rio de Janero: Wak Editora.
Journal article, monograph, or newsletter
Bridges, M., and Catts, H.W. (2011). The Use of a Dynamic Screening of Phonological Awareness to Predict Risk for Reading Disabilities in Kindergarten Children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(4): 330–338. doi:10.1177/0022219411407863
Catts, H.W., Nielsen, D., Bridges, M., Bontempo, D., and Liu, Y. (2015). Early Identification of Reading Disabilities Within an RTI Framework. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(3): 281–297. doi:10.1177/0022219413498115
Marino, M.T., Israel, M., Beecher, C.C., and Basham, J.D. (2013). Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Using Video Games to Enhance Science Instruction. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22(5): 677–680. doi:10.1007/s10956–012–9421–9