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IES Grant

Title: Test-enhanced Learning
Center: NCER Year: 2003
Principal Investigator: Roediger III, Henry Awardee: Washington University, St. Louis
Program: Cognition and Student Learning      [Program Details]
Award Period: 3 years Award Amount: $438,098
Type: Development and Innovation Award Number: R305H030339
Description:

The goal of this project is to examine a new approach to learning, memory, and comprehension of text material. The Test Enhanced Learning (TEL) approach views tests as opportunities for learning, instead of holding the traditional view of tests as assessment techniques. Prior laboratory research shows the power of retrieval of material during tests in enhancing later retention. In this project the researchers are moving toward a systematic application of this approach to education practice, investigating the power of tests to enhance learning of text material.

The researchers are carrying out five experiments with university students as subjects and using materials that come from actual science courses. The researchers are conducting three laboratory experiments to examine the power of tests to affect later retention on either the same type of test or a different type of test, relative to appropriate controls. They are also analyzing whether multiple tests produce larger benefits than single tests, and whether the spacing of intermediate tests affects performance on a final test. In two experiments the researchers are manipulating the testing in a regular university course, with different types of tests (e.g., multiple choice, short answer) and different schedules of testing being manipulated within-subjects during the course. Thus, in the final experiments they are applying their research to actual educational practice within college courses. The researchers are aiming to identify ways in which testing can be used to improve student learning.

Project Website: http://www.psych.wustl.edu/memory/

Related IES Projects: Test-Enhanced Learning in the Classroom (R305H060080) and Developing a Manual for Test-Enhanced Learning in the Classroom (R305A110550)

Publications

Journal article, monograph, or newsletter

Agarwal, P.K., Karpicke, J.D., Kang, S.H.K., Roediger, H.L., and McDermott, K.B. (2008). Examining the Testing Effect With Open- and Closed-Book Test. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(7): 861–876.

Butler, A.C., and Roediger, H.L. (2007). Testing Improves Long-Term Retention in a Simulated Classroom Setting. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19(4): 514–527.

Butler, A.C., and Roediger, H.L. (2008). Feedback Enhances the Positive Effects and Reduces the Negative Effects of Multiple-Choice Testing. Memory and Cognition, 36(3): 604–616.

Butler, A.C., Karpicke, J.D., and Roediger, H.L., III (2007). The Effect of Type and Timing of Feedback on Learning From Multiple-Choice Tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13(4): 273–281.

Butler, A.C., Karpicke, J.D., and Roediger, H.L., III (2008). Correcting a Metacognitive Error: Feedback Increases Retention of Low-Confidence Correct Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34(4): 918–928.

Chan, C.K., McDermott, K.B., and Roediger, H.L. (2006). Retrieval-Induced Facilitation: Initially Nontested Material Can Benefit From Prior Testing of Related Material. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135(4): 533–571.

Kang, S., McDermott, K.B., and Roediger, H.L. (2007). Test Format and Corrective Feedback Modulate the Effect of Testing on Memory Retention. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19(4): 528–558.

Karpicke, J.D., and Roediger, H.L. (2007). Repeated Retrieval During Learning is the Key to Long-Term Retention. Journal of Memory and Language, 57(2): 151–162.

Karpicke, J.D., and Roediger, H.L. (2007). Expanding Retrieval Practice Promotes Short-Term Retention, but Equally Spaced Retrieval Enhances Long-Term Retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 33(4): 704–719.

Karpicke, J.D., and Roediger, H.L. (2008). The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning. Science, 319: 966–968.

Larsen, D.P., Butler, A.C., and Roediger, H.L. (2008). Test-Enhanced Learning in Medical Education. Medical Education, 42: 959–966.

McDaniel, M.A., Anderson, J.L., Derbish, M.H., and Morrisette, N. (2007). Testing the Testing Effect in the Classroom. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19(4): 494–513.

McDaniel, M.A., Roediger, H.L., and McDermott, K.B. (2007). Generalizing Test-Enhanced Learning From the Laboratory to the Classroom. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 14: 200–206.

Roediger, H.L., and Karpicke, J.D. (2006). Test-Enhanced Learning: Taking Memory Tests Improves Long-Term Retention. Psychological Science, 17(3): 249–255.

Roediger, H.L., and Karpicke, J.D. (2006). The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1: 181–210.

Roediger, H.L., McDaniel, M.A., and McDermott, K.B. (2006). Test Enhanced Learning. The Observer, 19: 28.

Szpunar, K.K., McDermott, K.B., and Roediger, H.L. (2007). Expectation of a Final Cumulative Test Enhances Long-Term Retention. Memory and Cognition, 35: 1007–1013.

Szpunar, K.K., McDermott, K.B., and Roediger, H.L., III (2008). Testing During Study Insulates Against the Buildup of Proactive Interference: Correction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34(1): 1392–1399.


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