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Fluency Formula
Beginning Reading

Fluency Formula™ was found to have potentially positive effects on fluency and potentially negative effects on comprehension.

Fluency Formula™ is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote reading fluency in grades 1–6. The program emphasizes automatic recognition of words, decoding accuracy, and oral expressiveness as the foundations for building reading fluency. A daily 10- to 15-minute lesson is delivered in the classroom. Students participate in whole-class, small-group, and individual practice activities using workbooks, read-aloud anthologies, library books, fluency activity cards, and audio CDs. The curriculum encourages at-home practice and includes a Fluency Formula™ Assessment System, which allows teachers to assess student fluency using 1-minute grade-level passages and a timer.


study that met standards out of
eligible study reviewed
Effectiveness Rating Grades Evidence Tier
Comprehension Potentially negative effects 2
Reading Fluency Potentially positive effects 2

Last Updated: June 2007

Delivery Method

whole class icon
Small Group


Note: This summary only includes data from studies that reported sample information. The Intervention Report may include evidence from other studies that met standards, but did not report sample information.

Related Resources

This intervention report was prepared for the WWC by American Institutes for Research under contract ED-02-CO-0022.

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