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Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS)
Beginning Reading

LiPS® was found to have potentially positive effects on comprehension and mixed effects on alphabetics for beginning readers.

The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.


studies that met standards out of
eligible studies reviewed
Effectiveness Rating Grades Evidence Tier
Alphabetics Mixed effects 1
Comprehension Potentially positive effects 1

Last Updated: November 2015


Other or unknown


Male: 51%
Female: 65%

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Delivery Method

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Small Group
Note: This summary only includes data from studies that reported sample information. The Intervention Report may include evidence from other studies that met standards, but did not report sample information.

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