Practice Guide

PK

1

Preparing Young Children for School (August 2022)
This new practice guide, developed by the What Works Clearinghouse™ (WWC) in conjunction with an expert panel, distills contemporary early childhood and preschool education research into seven easily comprehensible and practical recommendations that preschool educators can use to prepare young children for school. The seven recommendations in this practice guide will also be useful for administrators along with parents, caregivers, and guardians.

Practice Guide

16

1

Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Intervention in the Elementary Grades (March 2021)
This practice guide provides evidencebased practices that can help teachers tailor their instructional approaches and/or their mathematics intervention programs to meet the needs of their students.

Practice Guide

48

1

Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8 (May 2012)
This practice guide provides five recommendations for improving students’ mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8. This guide is geared toward teachers, math coaches, other educators, and curriculum developers who want to improve the mathematical problem solving of students.

Practice Guide

612

2

Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students (April 2015)
This practice guide provides three recommendations for teaching algebra to students in middle school and high school. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ algebra knowledge.

Practice Guide

PKK

2

Teaching Math to Young Children (November 2013)
This practice guide provides five recommendations for teaching math to children in preschool, prekindergarten, and kindergarten. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to build a strong foundation for later math learning.

Practice Guide

18

3

Developing Effective Fractions Instruction for Kindergarten Through 8th Grade (September 2010)
This practice guide presents five recommendations intended to help educators improve students’ understanding of fractions. Recommendations include strategies to develop young children’s understanding of early fraction concepts and ideas for helping older children understand the meaning of fractions and the computations involved. The guide also highlights ways to build on students’ existing strategies to solve problems involving ratios, rates, and proportions.

Practice Guide

18

3

Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools (April 2009)
Taking early action may be key to helping students struggling with mathematics.

Practice Guide

KPS

3

Encouraging Girls in Math and Science (September 2007)
The objective of this guide is to provide teachers with specific recommendations that can be carried out in the classroom without requiring systemic change.

Intervention Report

PK

1

PreK Mathematics (Preparing Young Children for School) (September 2023)
PreK Mathematics is a supplemental curriculum designed to develop informal mathematical knowledge and skills in preschool children. Specific mathematical concepts and skills from each unit are taught in the classroom through teacherguided, smallgroup activities using concrete manipulatives. Takehome activities with materials that parallel the smallgroup classroom activities are designed to help caregivers support their children’s mathematical development at home.

Intervention Report

PK

1

World of Words (WOW) (Preparing Young Children for School) (August 2023)
World of Words is a supplementary curriculum used to help young children develop vocabulary, concept knowledge, and content knowledge in science. The curriculum includes intentional conversations and shared book readings of texts focused on science topics.

Intervention Report

512

1

Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) (Charter Schools) (January 2018)
The Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) is a nationwide
network of free openenrollment collegepreparatory schools in underresourced communities
throughout the United States. KIPP schools are usually established under
state charter school laws and KIPP is America’s largest network of charter schools.
KIPP Aims to prepare poor and minority students
to succeed in a college preparatory curriculum.
It provides training for principals and offers them
greater autonomy over budget and hiring decisions.
KIPP schools provide about 60% more instructional time than traditional public schools—through a longer school
day and additional instructional days on Saturdays
and in the summer.

Intervention Report

K12

1

Teach for America (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (August 2016)
Teach For America (TFA) is a highly selective route to teacher certification that aims to place nontraditionally trained teachers in highneed public schools. Many TFA teachers hold bachelors’ degrees from selective colleges and universities, in fields outside of education. TFA teachers commit to teach for at least 2 years. TFA teachers receive 5–7 weeks of inperson training over the summer before they begin teaching, then continue to receive professional development and oneonone coaching from TFA while teaching, in addition to support provided by their schools and districts. As fulltime employees of the public schools where they work, TFA teachers receive the same salary and benefits as other first or secondyear teachers in their school or district.

Intervention Report

8PS

1

Cognitive Tutor®
Algebra I (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor^{®}, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.

Intervention Report

PK

1

PreK Mathematics (Early Childhood Education) (December 2013)
PreK Mathematics is a supplemental curriculum designed to develop informal mathematical knowledge and skills in preschool children. Specific mathematical concepts and skills from each unit are taught in the classroom through teacherguided, smallgroup activities using concrete manipulatives. Takehome activities with materials that parallel the smallgroup classroom activities are designed to help caregivers support their children’s mathematical development at home.

Intervention Report

PK

1

Literacy Express (Early Childhood Education) (July 2010)
Literacy Express is a preschool curriculum designed for three to fiveyearold children. It is structured around units on oral language, emergent literacy, basic math, science, general knowledge, and socioemotional development. It can be used in halfor fullday programs with typically developing children and children with special needs. It provides professional development opportunities for staff; teaching materials; suggested activities; and recommendations for room arrangement, daily schedules, and classroom management.

Intervention Report


2

Building Blocks™ (Preparing Young Children for School) (December 2023)
Building Blocks is a mathematics curriculum that aims to develop preschool children’s knowledge of mathematics following early mathematics learning trajectories. The Building Blocks curriculum includes wholegroup and smallgroup instruction, center activities, and computer activities, as well as activities for the children’s families to do at home to support classroom learning. The activities are intentionally sequenced based on the developmental progression of children’s mathematical learning.

Intervention Report

712

2

Reading Apprenticeship® (Study Review Protocol) (January 2023)
Reading Apprenticeship® is a professional development program that aims to help teachers improve their students’ literacy skills. The program also aims to improve student socialemotional learning outcomes such as belonging, social awareness, growth mindset, and selfefficacy. Reading Apprenticeship® trains teachers to model reading comprehension strategies and help students practice these strategies in their classrooms.

Intervention Report

PK

2

Red Light, Purple Light! (RLPL) (Preparing Young Children for School) (December 2022)
A classroombased, selfregulation intervention consisting of music and movementbased circle time games designed to systematically increase in cognitive complexity.

Intervention Report

K8

2

Dual Language Programs (Systematic Review Protocol for English Language Arts Interventions) (December 2022)
Dual language programs are longterm instructional programs that provide content and literacy instruction to all students through two languages—English and a partner language—with the goals of promoting academic achievement, bilingualism and biliteracy, and sociocultural competence. Dual language programs can be implemented with students from one language group (in oneway programs) or with students from two language groups (in twoway programs).

Intervention Report

48

2

eMINTS Comprehensive Program (Teacher Excellence Review Protocol ) (April 2020)
The eMINTS Comprehensive Program aims to help teachers improve their practice and the outcomes of their students by offering structured professional development, coaching, and support for integrating technology into the classroom. The program’s goals include supporting teachers in using classroom technology to implement highquality, inquirybased learning, in which students develop understanding and knowledge of content matter by engaging in meaningful investigations that require reasoning, judgement, and decision making. The intervention can provide support to teachers in any subject area, including math, literacy, and science.

Intervention Report

48

2

Odyssey® Math (Primary Mathematics) (January 2017)
Odyssey® Math is a webbased program developed by Compass Learning® for mathematics instruction in grades K–8. The online program includes a mathematics curriculum and formative assessments designed to support differentiated and datadriven instruction. Based on assessment results, the program generates an individualized sequence of mathematics topics and skills—a “learning path.” Odyssey® Math is often used as a prescriptive tool, where students can start by taking a diagnostic assessment aligned with local or state standards. Teachers can modify learning paths to match their
lesson plans or to align them with district scopes and sequences.

Intervention Report

PK

2

Doors to Discovery (Early Childhood Education) (June 2013)
Doors to Discovery™ is a preschool literacy curriculum that uses eight thematic units of activities to help children build fundamental early literacy skills in oral language, phonological awareness, concepts of print, alphabet knowledge, writing, and comprehension. The eight thematic units cover topics such as nature, friendship, communities, society, and health. Each unit is available as a kit that includes various teacher resources.

Intervention Report

K6

2

PeerAssisted Learning Strategies (Beginning Reading) (May 2012)
PeerAssisted Learning Strategies is a peertutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 3035 minute peertutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.

Intervention Report

45

3

Science Teachers Learning through Lesson Analysis (STeLLA) Professional Development (Science) (May 2021)
Science Teachers Learning through Lesson Analysis (STeLLA®) is a professional development program, developed by BSCS Science Learning, that aims to improve students’ science achievement by improving teachers’ science content knowledge and their abilities to (a) explain science concepts to students, (b) clearly identify to students the science concepts used in student learning activities, and (c) engage students in thinking about science.

Intervention Report

4

3

Fraction FaceOff! (Primary Mathematics) (March 2020)
Fraction FaceOff! is a supplemental math program developed to support fourthgrade students who need assistance solving fraction problems. Teachers use program materials with individual students or small groups to promote understanding of the magnitude of fractions, to compare two fractions, to put three fractions in order, and to place fractions on a number line.

Intervention Report

912

3

Green Dot Public Schools (Charter Schools) (January 2018)
Green Dot Public Schools is a nonprofit organization that operates more than 20 public charter middle and high schools in California, Tennessee, and Washington. The Green Dot Public Schools are regulated and monitored by the local school district, but operate outside of the district’s direct control. The Green Dot Public Schools model emphasizes high quality teaching, strong school leadership, a curriculum that prepares students for college, and partnerships with the community. Any student may enroll in a Green Dot Public School if there is space available. Many Green Dot Public Schools operate with unionized teachers and staff. Several of the Green Dot Public Schools were chartered in existing public schools which were performing below district or community expectations. Funding for Green Dot Public Schools operations comes through public federal, state, and local finances, while some transformations of existing districtrun schools into charter schools have been funded partly by private foundations.

Intervention Report

210

3

SelfRegulated Strategy Development (Students with a Specific Learning Disability) (November 2017)
SelfRegulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is an intervention designed to improve students’ academic skills through a sixstep process that teaches students specific academic strategies and selfregulation skills. The practice is especially appropriate for students with learning disabilities. The intervention begins with teacher direction and ends with students independently applying the strategy, such as planning and organizing ideas before writing an essay. More specifically, the six steps involve the teacher providing background knowledge, discussing the strategy with the student, modeling the strategy, helping the student memorize the strategy, supporting the strategy, and then watching as the student independently performs the strategy. A key part of the process is teaching selfregulation skills, such as goalsetting and selfmonitoring, which aim to help students apply the strategy without guidance. The steps can be combined, changed, reordered, or repeated, depending on the needs of the student. The SRSD model can be used with students in grades 2 through 12 in individual, small group, or whole classroom settings.

Intervention Report

810

3

I CAN Learn®(Primary Mathematics) (August 2017)
I CAN Learn® is a computerbased math curriculum for students in middle school, high school, and college. It provides math instruction through a series of interactive lessons that students work on individually at their own computers. Students move at their own pace and must demonstrate mastery of each concept before progressing to the next one. Classroom teachers may provide individual, smallgroup, or wholeclass instruction based on students’ performance on the software program.

Intervention Report

8

3

University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra, designed to increase students’ skills in algebra, is appropriate for students in grades 7–10, depending on the students’ incoming knowledge. This 1year course highlights applications, uses statistics and geometry to develop the algebra of linear equations and inequalities, and includes probability concepts in conjunction with algebraic fractions. The curriculum emphasizes graphing, delaying manipulation with rational algebraic expressions until later courses. This curriculum uses the UCSMP textbook.

Intervention Report

710

3

University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Multiple Courses (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
UCSMP is a core mathematics curriculum that emphasizes problem solving, realworld applications, and the use of technology. The curriculum is based on a studentcentered approach with a focus on active learning that incorporates reading and uses a flexible lesson organization.

Intervention Report

35

3

Everyday Mathematics® (Primary Mathematics) (November 2015)
Everyday Mathematics® is a core curriculum for students in prekindergarten through grade 6. At each grade level, the Everyday Mathematics® curriculum provides students with multiple opportunities to learn concepts and practice skills. Across grade levels, concepts are reviewed and extended in varying instructional contexts. The distinguishing features of Everyday Mathematics® are its focus on reallife problem solving, student communication of mathematical thinking, and appropriate use of technology. This curriculum also emphasizes balancing different types of instruction (including collaborative learning), using various methods for skills practice, and fostering parent involvement in student learning.

Intervention Report

14

3

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Beginning Reading) (November 2015)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.

Intervention Report

PK

3

Head Start (Early Childhood Education) (July 2015)
Head Start is a national, federallyfunded program that provides services to promote school readiness for children from birth to age 5 from predominantly lowincome families. These services are provided to both children and their families and include education, health and nutrition, family engagement, and other social services. Head Start program administrators are given the flexibility to design service delivery to be responsive to cultural, linguistic, and other contextual needs of local communities, leading to considerable variability in the services offered. Head Start service models also vary according to family needs, such that children and families may be served through centerbased or family child care, home visits, or a combination of programs that operate full or half days for 8–12 months per year.

Intervention Report

512

3

Repeated Reading (Students with Learning Disabilities) (May 2014)
Repeated reading is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. Repeated reading can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During repeated reading, a student sits in a quiet location with a teacher and reads a passage aloud at least three times. Typically, the teacher selects a passage of about 50 to 200 words in length. If the student misreads a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, the teacher reads the word aloud, and the student repeats the word correctly. If the student requests help with a word, the teacher reads the word aloud or provides the definition. The student rereads the passage until he or she achieves a satisfactory fluency level.

Intervention Report

K1

3

DreamBox Learning (Elementary School Mathematics) (December 2013)
DreamBox Learning is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K–5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The program aims to individualize instruction for each student using unique paths through the curriculum ihat match each student’s level of comprehension and learning style.

Intervention Report

PK

3

Bright Beginnings (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
Bright Beginnings is an early childhood curriculum, based in part on High/Scope and Creative Curriculum, with an additional emphasis on literacy skills. The curriculum consists of nine thematic units designed to enhance children’s cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. Each unit includes concept maps, literacy lessons, early childhood center activities, and home activities. Special emphasis is placed on the development of early language and literacy skills. Parent involvement is a key component of the program.

Intervention Report

K6

3

PeerAssisted Learning Strategies (Students with Learning Disabilities) (June 2012)
PeerAssisted Learning Strategies is a peertutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 3035 minute peertutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.

Intervention Report

45

3

Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) Space Science Sequence (Science) (June 2012)
Great Explorations in Math and Science^{®} (GEMS^{®}) Space Science Sequence is an instructional curriculum for grades 3–5 that covers fundamental concepts, including planetary sizes and distance, the earth’s shape and movement, gravity, and moon phases and eclipses. Part of the GEMS^{®} core curriculum, GEMS^{®} Space Science Sequence uses the solar system as the focal point for learning. The sequence uses models, handson investigations, peertopeer discussions, reflection, and informational student readings. Students complete four units, each lasting between four and nine sessions. Each unit builds upon knowledge from previous units and can be used independently or in conjunction with one another for an overall learning progression.

Intervention Report

34

3

Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS) (Science) (May 2012)
Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS) is a physical science curriculum for grades 3–8 that uses computers, sensors, and interactive models to support investigations of realworld phenomena. Through 15 inquirybased instructional units, students interact with computers, gather and analyze data, and formulate ideas for further exploration. This information is managed by software in a handheld computer and transmitted to other students and to the teacher. The program includes a webbased teacherreporting tool that allows teachers to review student portfolios and gather student responses for assessment and class discussion.

Intervention Report

K6

3

PeerAssisted Learning Strategies (Adolescent Literacy) (January 2012)
PeerAssisted Learning Strategies is a peertutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 3035 minute peertutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.

Intervention Report

K6

3

PeerAssisted Learning Strategies (English Language Learners) (September 2010)
PeerAssisted Learning Strategies is a peertutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 3035 minute peertutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.

Intervention Report

910

3

CorePlus Mathematics (High School Mathematics) (September 2010)
CorePlus Mathematics is a 4year curriculum that replaces the traditional sequence with courses that each feature interwoven strands of algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry and trigonometry, and discrete mathematics. The curriculum emphasizes mathematical modeling, using technology to emphasize reasoning with multiple representations (verbal, numerical, graphical, and symbolic) and to focus on goals in which mathematical thinking and problem solving are central. Instructional materials promote active learning and teaching centered around collaborative smallgroup investigations of problem situations, followed by teacherled wholeclass summarizing activities that lead to analysis, abstraction, and further application of underlying mathematical ideas.

Intervention Report

712

3

Reading Apprenticeship® (Adolescent Literacy) (July 2010)
Reading Apprenticeship® is a professional development program that aims to help teachers improve their students’ literacy skills. The program also aims to improve student socialemotional learning outcomes such as belonging, social awareness, growth mindset, and selfefficacy. Reading Apprenticeship® trains teachers to model reading comprehension strategies and help students practice these strategies in their classrooms.

Intervention Report

14

3

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Students with Learning Disabilities) (March 2010)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.

Intervention Report

48

3

Odyssey Math (Elementary School Mathematics) (August 2009)
Odyssey® Math is a webbased program developed by Compass Learning® for mathematics instruction in grades K–8. The online program includes a mathematics curriculum and formative assessments designed to support differentiated and datadriven instruction. Based on assessment results, the program generates an individualized sequence of mathematics topics and skills—a “learning path.” Odyssey® Math is often used as a prescriptive tool, where students can start by taking a diagnostic assessment aligned with local or state standards. Teachers can modify learning paths to match their
lesson plans or to align them with district scopes and sequences.

Intervention Report

8

3

I CAN Learn® PreAlgebra and Algebra (Middle School Mathematics) (March 2009)
The I CAN Learn® PreAlgebra and Algebra computerized curricula are designed to cover mathematics and problemsolving skills for ethnically diverse, innercity students in grades 6–12. The curricula are designed to equip students with the skills they need to meet district, state, and national math objectives through an interactive software program that teaches pre‑algebra and algebra. The I CAN Learn® PreAlgebra software program consists of 131 lessons, and the Algebra program consists of 181 lessons.

Intervention Report

PK

3

Curiosity Corner (Early Childhood Education) (January 2009)
Curiosity Corner is a comprehensive early childhood curriculum designed to help children at risk of school failure because of poverty. The program offers children experiences that develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary for later school success, with a special emphasis on children’s language and literacy skills. Curiosity Corner has two sets of 38 weekly thematic units, one set for 3yearolds and one set for 4yearolds. Each day, the program staff present children with learning experiences through sequential daily activities. The program provides training, support, and teaching materials for teaching staff and administrators. Parents are encouraged to participate in children’s learning through activities in and out of the classroom.

Intervention Report

PK

3

Ready, Set, Leap!® (Early Childhood Education) (October 2008)
Ready, Set, Leap!® is a comprehensive preschool curriculum that focuses on early reading skills, such as phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, and lettersound correspondence using multisensory technology that incorporates touch, sight, and sound. Teachers may adopt either a themebased or a literaturebased teaching approach. For each approach, the curriculum provides lesson plans, learning objectives, and assessment tools.

Intervention Report

PKK

3

Ladders to Literacy (Beginning Reading) (August 2007)
Ladders to Literacy is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book. The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds. The activities are organized into three sections with about 20 activities each: print awareness, phonological awareness skills, and oral language skills.

Intervention Report

PK

3

Building Blocks for Math (SRA Real Math) (Early Childhood Education) (July 2007)
Building Blocks for Math is a supplemental mathematics curriculum designed to develop preschool children’s early mathematical knowledge through various individual and small and largegroup activities. It uses Building Blocks for Math PreK software, manipulatives, and print material. Building Blocks for Math embeds mathematical learning in children’s daily activities, ranging from designated math activities to circle and story time, with the goal of helping children relate their informal math knowledge to more formal mathematical concepts.

Intervention Report

8

3

The Expert Mathematician (Middle School Mathematics) (October 2006)
The Expert Mathematician is designed to help middle school students develop the thinking processes for mathematical applications and communication. A 3year program of instruction, The Expert Mathematician uses a software and print materials package with 196 lessons that teach the Logo programming language. Each lesson ranges from 40–120 minutes. A test of unit concepts is administered at the end of each instructional unit. The curriculum covers general mathematics, prealgebra, and algebra I.

Intervention Report

38

1

Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER) (Science) (September 2021)
The Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER) program is intended to build capacity for implementing inquirybased science curricula in schools and districts. When participating in LASER, school or district teams attend leadership development institutes to plan the implementation of inquirybased science curricula. These school or district teams receive support for key aspects of implementation such as professional development for teachers, access to instructional materials, and support for selecting appropriate assessments. LASER also helps schools and districts partner with scientists, science educators, and local business and community leaders who can promote and further support the implementation of inquirybased science instruction.

Intervention Report

69

1

University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Transitions/Pretransitions Math (Primary Mathematics) (May 2021)
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) is a core mathematics curriculum that includes materials and a routinized instructional approach with an option for teacher training. The curriculum uses an inquirybased approach with a focus on active learning where students frequently engage in handson activities and smallgroup activities. PreTransition Mathematics teaches arithmetic, algebra, geometry, probability, and statistics. Transition Mathematics teaches more advanced arithmetic, algebra, and geometry, and connects these areas to measurement, probability, and statistics.

Intervention Report

12

1

Math Expressions (Primary Mathematics) (May 2021)
Math Expressions is a curriculum for students in prekindergarten through sixth grade that aims to build students’ conceptual understanding of mathematics and to develop fluency in mathematical problem solving and computation. The curriculum encourages student learning of mathematics through realworld situations, visual supports such as drawings and manipulatives, multiple approaches to solving problems, and opportunities for students to explain their mathematical thinking.

Intervention Report

15

1

Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) (Supportive Learning Environment Interventions Review Protocol ) (March 2021)
The Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) program is a curriculum that aims to promote emotional and social competencies and to reduce aggression and behavior problems in elementary school children. PATHS® is delivered through short lessons given two to three times a week over the school year. The program is based on the principle that understanding and regulating emotions are central to effective problem solving. The lessons focus on (1) selfcontrol, (2) emotional literacy, (3) social competence, (4) positive peer relations, and (5) interpersonal problemsolving skills. There is a separate curriculum for each grade.

Intervention Report


1

Full Option Science System (FOSS) (Primary Science) (March 2020)
Full Option Science System™ (FOSS) is a science curriculum for students in kindergarten to grade 8 with content in physical science, earth science, and life science. The curriculum consists of a series of 8 to 9week modules in kindergarten to grade 5, and 9 or 18week courses in grades 6 to 8.

Intervention Report


1

Project Based Inquiry Science (PBIScience) (Primary Science) (March 2020)
ProjectBased Inquiry Science™ is a science curriculum for students in grades 6–8 with approximately 13 independent instructional units, each covering a topic in life science, earth science, or physical science. Students work together in small groups to conduct handson explorations or investigations, read relevant informational texts, reflect on what they have learned, and apply new knowledge.

Intervention Report

38

1

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) Certification (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (February 2018)
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) establishes standards for accomplished teachers and awards professional certification to teachers who can demonstrate that their teaching practices meet those standards. Educators and experts in child development and related fields established the organization, and these experts work to develop and refine the standards for accomplished teaching based on the knowledge and skills that effective teachers demonstrate. The standards reflect five core propositions: (1) effective teachers are committed to students and their learning, (2) effective teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students, (3) effective teachers manage and monitor student learning, (4) effective teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience, and (5) effective teachers are members of learning communities. Those seeking certification from the NBPTS must complete a computerbased assessment and three portfolio entries. The certification process can take 1 to 5 years.

Intervention Report

4

1

System of Least Prompts (Children and Students with Intellectual Disability) (January 2018)
System of Least Prompts (SLP) is a practice that involves defining and implementing a hierarchy of prompts to assist students in learning a skill. A prompt is an action by the teacher or other practitioner—such as a verbal instruction to complete a task—that helps a student respond correctly during a learning activity. To use the procedure, the teacher or other practitioner systematically delivers the prompts to students in order, starting with the prompt that provides the least amount of assistance, and providing additional prompts with increasing levels of assistance until the student can correctly perform the task independently. For example, if a student does not independently complete a task following the initial instruction, a teacher may help the student by providing the leastintrusive prompt, such as restating the instruction. If the response still does not occur, the teacher may present the next most intrusive prompt, such as rephrasing the instruction. The teacher continues with more intrusive prompts, such as modeling how to do the task, until the desired response occurs reliably or all the prompts in the sequence have been used. The last prompt, often called the controlling prompt, should result in the student responding correctly. SLP is also known as “leasttomost prompting” or “least intrusive prompts.” SLP does not have a single developer that provides guidance or materials.

Intervention Report

29

1

Accelerated Math® (Primary Mathematics) (December 2017)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progressmonitoring data.

Intervention Report

29

1

Accelerated Math® (Secondary Mathematics) (December 2017)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progressmonitoring data.

Intervention Report

8

1

I CAN Learn® Algebra (Secondary Mathematics) (August 2017)
I CAN Learn® is a computerbased math curriculum for students in middle school, high school, and college. It provides math instruction through a series of interactive lessons that students work on individually at their own computers. Students move at their own pace and must demonstrate mastery of each concept before progressing to the next one. Classroom teachers may provide individual, smallgroup, or wholeclass instruction based on students’ performance on the software program.

Intervention Report


1

I CAN Learn® Geometry (Secondary Mathematics) (August 2017)
I CAN Learn® is a computerbased math curriculum for students in middle school, high school, and college. It provides math instruction through a series of interactive lessons that students work on individually at their own computers. Students move at their own pace and must demonstrate mastery of each concept before progressing to the next one. Classroom teachers may provide individual, smallgroup, or wholeclass instruction based on students’ performance on the software program.

Intervention Report

612

1

TNTP Teaching Fellows (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (June 2017)
TNTP Teaching Fellows is a highly selective route to teacher certification that aims to prepare people to teach in highneed public schools. The program recruits professionals seeking to change careers and recent college graduates who are not certified teachers. TNTP Teaching Fellows expects its participants to teach for many years, but does not require them to make a minimum time commitment to teaching. Program participants complete online coursework and receive 5–7 weeks of inperson training focused on foundational teaching skills during the summer before they begin teaching. They must demonstrate mastery of these core skills to be eligible to teach. They receive continued professional development and coaching from TNTP Teaching Fellows during their first year of teaching, and additional support provided by their schools and districts. As fulltime employees of the public schools in which they work, new TNTP Teaching Fellows teachers receive the same salary and benefits as other beginning teachers in their school district.

Intervention Report

18

1

Saxon Math (Primary Mathematics) (May 2017)
Saxon Math is a curriculum for students in grades K–12. The amount
of new math content students receive each day is limited and students
practice concepts every day. New concepts are developed,
reviewed, and practiced cumulatively rather than in discrete chapters
or units.

Intervention Report

68

1

Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) (Primary Mathematics) (February 2017)
Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) is a math curriculum for
students in grades 6–8. It uses interactive problems and everyday
situations to explore mathematical ideas, with a goal of fostering
a problemcentered, inquirybased learning environment. At each
grade level, the curriculum covers numbers, algebra, geometry/measurement, probability, and statistics.

Intervention Report


1

enVisionMATH (Primary Mathematics) (June 2016)
enVisionMATH is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The program seeks to help students develop an understanding of math concepts through problembased instruction, smallgroup interaction, and visual learning with a focus on reasoning and modeling. Differentiated instruction and ongoing assessment are used to meet the needs of students at all ability levels.

Intervention Report


1

Cognitive Tutor® Algebra II (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor^{®}, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.

Intervention Report


1

Cognitive Tutor® Integrated Math I (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor^{®}, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.

Intervention Report


1

Cognitive Tutor® Integrated Math II (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor^{®}, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.

Intervention Report


1

Cognitive Tutor® Integrated Math III (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor^{®}, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.

Intervention Report

912

1

Cognitive Tutor® Geometry (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor^{®}, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.

Intervention Report


1

Saxon Advanced Math (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
Saxon Math is a core curriculum for students in grades K–12 that uses an incremental approach to instruction and assessment. This approach limits the amount of new math content delivered to students each day and allows time for daily practice. New concepts are introduced gradually and integrated with previously introduced content so that concepts are developed, reviewed, and practiced over time rather than being taught during discrete periods of time, such as in chapters or units.

Intervention Report


1

Saxon Algebra II (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
Saxon Math is a core curriculum for students in grades K–12 that uses an incremental approach to instruction and assessment. This approach limits the amount of new math content delivered to students each day and allows time for daily practice. New concepts are introduced gradually and integrated with previously introduced content so that concepts are developed, reviewed, and practiced over time rather than being taught during discrete periods of time, such as in chapters or units.

Intervention Report


1

Saxon Geometry (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
Saxon Math is a textbook series covering grades K–12 based on incremental development and continual review of mathematical concepts to give students time to learn and practice concepts throughout the year. The program is built on the premise that students learn best when instruction is incremental and explicit, previously learned concepts are continually reviewed, and assessment is frequent and cumulative. At each grade level, math concepts are introduced, reviewed, and practiced over time in order to move students from understanding to fluency.

Intervention Report


1

Multiple Saxon Math Courses (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
Saxon Math is a core curriculum for students in grades K–12 that uses an incremental approach to instruction and assessment. This approach limits the amount of new math content delivered to students each day and allows time for daily practice. New concepts are introduced gradually and integrated with previously introduced content so that concepts are developed, reviewed, and practiced over time rather than being taught during discrete periods of time, such as in chapters or units.

Intervention Report

69

1

Saxon Algebra I (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
Saxon Math is a textbook series covering grades K–12 based on incremental development and continual review of mathematical concepts to give students time to learn and practice concepts throughout the year. The program is built on the premise that students learn best when instruction is incremental and explicit, previously learned concepts are continually reviewed, and assessment is frequent and cumulative. At each grade level, math concepts are introduced, reviewed, and practiced over time in order to move students from understanding to fluency.

Intervention Report


1

University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Advanced Algebra (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
UCSMP is a core mathematics curriculum that emphasizes problem solving, realworld applications, and the use of technology. The curriculum is based on a studentcentered approach with a focus on active learning that incorporates reading and uses a flexible lesson organization.

Intervention Report


1

University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Functions, Statistics, and Trigonometry (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
UCSMP is a core mathematics curriculum that emphasizes problem solving, realworld applications, and the use of technology. The curriculum is based on a studentcentered approach with a focus on active learning that incorporates reading and uses a flexible lesson organization.

Intervention Report


1

University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Geometry (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
UCSMP is a core mathematics curriculum that emphasizes problem solving, realworld applications, and the use of technology. The curriculum is based on a studentcentered approach with a focus on active learning that incorporates reading and uses a flexible lesson organization.

Intervention Report


1

University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Precalculus and Discrete Mathematics (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
UCSMP is a core mathematics curriculum that emphasizes problem solving, realworld applications, and the use of technology. The curriculum is based on a studentcentered approach with a focus on active learning that incorporates reading and uses a flexible lesson organization.

Intervention Report


1

Singapore Math® (Primary Mathematics) (December 2015)
Singapore Mathematics, produced in the United States under the names “Primary Mathematics” (grades 16), and “New Elementary Mathematics” (grades 712), is a yearlong program designed for schools and homeschoolers alike. Based upon the rigorous mathematics curriculum used in Singapore from 1982 to 2001, it provides core curriculum and supplementary materials in the form of course books, manipulatives, teaching guides, and workbooks. The curriculum takes a “concretetopictorialtoabstract” approach which teaches mastery to each grade level in order to create a foundation for higher mathematical development. An alternative mathematics curriculum for lowperforming students which focuses on the same math topics is available, and is taught at a slower pace with greater repetition by expert teachers.

Intervention Report

57

1

SuccessMaker® (Adolescent Literacy) (November 2015)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computerbased courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.

Intervention Report

PK12

1

TAP: The System for Teacher and Student Advancement (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (July 2015)
TAP™ (formerly known as the Teacher Advancement Program) is a comprehensive educator effectiveness program that aims to improve student achievement through supports and incentives that attract, retain, develop, and motivate effective teachers. The program provides teachers with leadership opportunities and associated salary increases; ongoing, schoolbased professional development; rigorous evaluations; and annual performance bonuses based on a combination of teacher value added to student achievement and observations of their classroom teaching.

Intervention Report

15

1

Scott ForesmanAddison Wesley Elementary Mathematics (Elementary School Mathematics) (May 2013)
Scott ForesmanAddison Wesley Elementary Mathematics is a core curriculum for students at all ability levels in kindergarten through grade 6. The program supports students’ understanding of key math concepts and skills, and it covers a range of mathematical content across grades. The curriculum focuses on questioning strategies, problemsolving skills, embedded assessment, and exercises tailored to students of different ability levels. The program provides explicit problemsolving instruction, handson activities, and opportunities to extend students’ mathematical understanding through reading and writing connections.

Intervention Report

18

1

Saxon Math (Elementary School Mathematics) (May 2013)
Saxon Math is a curriculum for students in grades K–12. The amount
of new math content students receive each day is limited and students
practice concepts every day. New concepts are developed,
reviewed, and practiced cumulatively rather than in discrete chapters
or units.

Intervention Report


1

Vmath® (Elementary School Math) (March 2013)
Vmath®, distributed by Voyager Learning, is a supplemental mathematics curriculum for students in grades 2–8 who are struggling with math. The program aims to improve understanding of math concepts and performance on highstakes assessments. A distinguishing feature of Vmath® is that it provides teachers with a specific, detailed script for each lesson. Inclass instruction is supplemented with VmathLive®, a webbased program that allows students to practice their math skills outside of school.

Intervention Report


1

Voyages (Elementary School Math) (March 2013)
Developed for grades K5 by the School District of Hillsborough County, FL, in accordance with state and district standards, Voyages uses a compact curriculum to accelerate math instruction and is comprised of two main components to meet diverse learning needs. Excursion Lessons provide teacherled, interactive, contextual approaches to solving reallife problems through lessons which may take two to three days. Anchor Lessons focus on developing basic math skills and algebraic concepts through the use of visual and abstract representations. Textbooks and teaching guides are provided for lessons, as well as manipulatives kits and assessment tools.

Intervention Report

PKK

1

Ladders to Literacy (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
Ladders to Literacy is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book. The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds. The activities are organized into three sections with about 20 activities each: print awareness, phonological awareness skills, and oral language skills.

Intervention Report

PK

1

The Creative Curriculum® for Preschool, Fourth Edition (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
An early childhood curriculum that focuses on projectbased investigations as a means for children to apply skills. It addresses four areas of development: social/emotional, physical, cognitive, and language.

Intervention Report

15

1

Investigations in Number, Data, and Space® (Elementary School Mathematics) (February 2013)
Investigations in Number, Data, and Space is an activitybased, K–5 mathematics curriculum designed to help students understand number and operations, geometry, data, measurement, and early algebra. Each instructional unit focuses on a particular content area and lasts for 2–5.5 weeks. The curriculum encourages students to develop their own strategies for solving problems and engage in discussion about their reasoning and ideas. The lessons are activitybased in order to facilitate increased comprehension of basic math fundamentals. The curriculum is presented through a series of resource books called ”curriculum units” that provide teachers with guidance on implementation. One or more of the units for each year has a software program associated with it. Other materials include manipulatives, flash cards, overheads, and textbooks.

Intervention Report

7

1

Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) The Real Reasons for Seasons (Science) (January 2013)
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) The Real Reasons for Seasons is a curriculum unit for grades 6–8 that focuses on the connections between the Sun and the Earth to teach students the scientific concepts behind the seasons. The unit utilizes models, handson investigations, peertopeer discussions, reflection, and informational student readings to help students understand science content and develop scientific investigation skills.

Intervention Report

K6

1

PeerAssisted Learning Strategies (Elementary School Mathematics) (January 2013)
PeerAssisted Learning Strategies is a peertutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 3035 minute peertutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.

Intervention Report

6

1

Astronomy Resources for Intercurricular Elementary Science (ARIES): Exploring Motion and Forces (Science) (May 2012)
ARIES: Exploring Motion and Forces is a physical science curriculum for students in grades 5–8 that employs 18 inquirycentered, handson lessons called “explorations.” The curriculum draws upon students’ curiosity to explore phenomena, allowing for a discoverybased learning process. Groupcentered lab work is designed to help students build an understanding of inertia, friction, gravity, speed, and acceleration. Students examine their prior ideas about the phenomena, formulate questions, build and use an apparatus to observe natural phenomena, make predictions, and gather data through structured experiments. Exploring Motion and Forces is part of the ARIES sequence of eight physical science units. The ARIES sequences can be used together for an overall curriculum or independently.

Intervention Report


1

The Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools (LeTUS) Program<sup>®</sup> (Science) (May 2012)
The LeTUS program is a threeyear, projectbased, technologyintegrated middle school science curriculum for grades 6–8. The LeTUS program is composed of multiple units, each lasting between eight and ten weeks. Topics include global warming, water and air quality, force and motion, communicable diseases, and ecological systems. The units are designed around projects through which students learn science by conducting scientific investigations and using interactive computer software along with scientific visualization and graphing tools. Each unit stresses inquiry, student collaboration, and the use of computing and communications technologies. The sequence of units can be used in different ways, depending on standards and curriculum requirements; for example, teachers can use units at grade levels other than those suggested. Each unit can also be used independently when inserted into a different curricular context.

Intervention Report


1

Project SEED (Elementary School Math) (March 2012)
Project SEED is a supplemental mathematics program for lowachieving students in grades 3 through 8 and is intended to prepare students to be successful in high school and college math. Based on the Socratic method, instruction is delivered through a series of questions to the class. In addition to individual responses, the instructor solicits group feedback through silent hand signals, chorus responses, and quick surveys of written work. The program is intended to encourage active student learning, develop critical thinking, and strengthen articulation skills. Student learning is assessed regularly, and instructors adapt the lessons to accommodate different ability levels. The curriculum, taught by mathematics specialists, includes topics from advanced mathematics, such as advanced algebra, precalculus, group theory, number theory, calculus, and geometry. Project SEED instruction is provided in addition to regular math instruction four times a week for 14 to 16 weeks. The program also provides professional development for classroom teachers through modeling, coaching, and workshops.

Intervention Report


1

Thinker Tools (Science) (February 2012)
ThinkerTools is a computerbased program that aims to develop students’ understanding of physics and scientific modeling. The program is composed of two curricula for middle school students, ThinkerTools Inquiry and ModelEnhanced ThinkerTools. ThinkerTools Inquiry allows students to explore the physics of motion and then asks them to apply that knowledge to solve realworld problems. In the ModelEnhanced ThinkerTools curriculum, students create computer models that express their own theories of force and motion.

Intervention Report

8

1

Chemistry That Applies (Science) (February 2012)
Chemistry That Applies is an instructional unit designed to help students in grades 8–10 understand the law of conservation of matter. It consists of 24 lessons organized in four clusters. Working in groups, students explore four chemical reactions: burning, rusting, the decomposition of water, and the reaction of baking soda and vinegar. As part of the unit, students conduct experiments in which they cause these reactions to happen, obtain and record data in individual notebooks, analyze the data, and use evidencebased arguments to explain the data. The instructional unit engages the students in a structured sequence of handson laboratory investigations interwoven with other forms of instruction.

Intervention Report

810

1

I CAN Learn® (High School Mathematics) (February 2012)
I CAN Learn® is a computerbased math curriculum for students in middle school, high school, and college. It provides math instruction through a series of interactive lessons that students work on individually at their own computers. Students move at their own pace and must demonstrate mastery of each concept before progressing to the next one. Classroom teachers may provide individual, smallgroup, or wholeclass instruction based on students’ performance on the software program.

Intervention Report

29

1

Accelerated Math (High School Mathematics) (July 2011)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progressmonitoring data.

Intervention Report

512

1

Repeated Reading (Middle School Mathematics) (April 2011)
Repeated reading is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. Repeated reading can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During repeated reading, a student sits in a quiet location with a teacher and reads a passage aloud at least three times. Typically, the teacher selects a passage of about 50 to 200 words in length. If the student misreads a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, the teacher reads the word aloud, and the student repeats the word correctly. If the student requests help with a word, the teacher reads the word aloud or provides the definition. The student rereads the passage until he or she achieves a satisfactory fluency level.

Intervention Report

29

1

Accelerated Math (Elementary School Mathematics) (September 2010)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progressmonitoring data.

Intervention Report

6

1

PLATO (Middle School Mathematics) (March 2010)
PLATO® Achieve Now is a softwarebased curriculum for the elementary and middle school grades that focuses on prealgebraic concepts and includes content pertaining to rational numbers in related organizational patterns, proportion and percent, integers, probability, statistics, problem solving, geometry, measurement, and the foundational concepts of algebra I. Instructional content is delivered via the PlayStation Portable (PSP®) system, allowing students to access learning materials in various settings. Softwarebased assessments are used to customize individual instruction, allowing students to learn at their own pace with content appropriate for their skill level.

Intervention Report

68

1

Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) (Middle School Mathematics) (January 2010)
Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) is a math curriculum for
students in grades 6–8. It uses interactive problems and everyday
situations to explore mathematical ideas, with a goal of fostering
a problemcentered, inquirybased learning environment. At each
grade level, the curriculum covers numbers, algebra, geometry/measurement, probability, and statistics.

Intervention Report

48

1

Odyssey Math (Middle School Mathematics) (June 2009)
Odyssey® Math is a webbased program developed by Compass Learning® for mathematics instruction in grades K–8. The online program includes a mathematics curriculum and formative assessments designed to support differentiated and datadriven instruction. Based on assessment results, the program generates an individualized sequence of mathematics topics and skills—a “learning path.” Odyssey® Math is often used as a prescriptive tool, where students can start by taking a diagnostic assessment aligned with local or state standards. Teachers can modify learning paths to match their
lesson plans or to align them with district scopes and sequences.

Intervention Report


1

Bridges in Mathematics (Elementary School Math) (April 2009)
Developed by the Math Learning Center with support from the National Science Foundation, Bridges in Mathematics is a grades K–2 curriculum that emphasizes problem solving. It was designed to meet the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards and utilizes whole group, small group, and individual instruction. The concepts covered by this curriculum include numbers and operations, data analysis, geometry, probability, sorting, and measurement. Each grade level in the Bridges program provides one year’s worth of mathematics lessons as well as daily basic skills practices, textbooks, homework assignments, teacher guides, student assessments, manipulatives, and visual models.

Intervention Report


1

Destination Math (Middle School Math Curricula) (March 2009)
Destination MATH is a computer curriculum that is designed to demonstrate how mathematical issues arise in reallife situations. Courses IV and V are designed for students in grades 6–8. Each course contains a scope and sequence section that shows the skills to be learned in that section of the course. Course IV, Basic Mathematics, focuses on arithmetic, numbers, and operations included in the middle school math curriculum. The course also investigates properties of fractions, decimals, percents, and integers as well as the rules that govern their operations. Course V, PreAlgebra, focuses on ratios, proportions, and irrational numbers. Additionally, the course includes the fundamental skills and concepts found in algebra, geometry, statistics, and probability. The program includes a Learning Management and Assessment System designed to help teachers relate assignments with district objectives. Teachers can monitor their students through online reports and can create students tests designed for various levels of difficulty. The course can be obtained by subscribing online or by purchasing a CD.

Intervention Report


1

Kumon Mathematics Program (Elementary School Math) (March 2009)
Kumon, a supplemental afterschool mathematics program for preK12 grades, is geared towards students seeking to catch up or gain extra enrichment. Children are taught to master fundamental math skills with individualized programs that allow them to comfortably work to their full potential at their own pace. Once placement is determined through a series of tests, worksheets provide practice in the form of simple problems that gradually build up to more challenging lessons. Students attend a Kumon center twice a week and are encouraged to remain in the program for at least six months to notice results; worksheets are assigned for daily practice and take 20 minutes to complete. Before students may proceed to the next assignment, they must pass a timed test on their current subject and receive a perfect score.

Intervention Report


1

MathThematics (Middle School Math Curricula) (October 2008)
MathThematics is a mathematics curriculum for grades 6 through 8 that combines activitybased, discovery learning with direct instruction. The textbook for each grade level has eight instructional modules, with each module focused on a theme.
Openended questions and projects are utilized throughout the curriculum to assess problemsolving skills and the ability to communicate mathematically.

Intervention Report

29

1

Accelerated Math (Middle School Mathematics) (September 2008)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progressmonitoring data.

Intervention Report

PK

1

Tools of the Mind (Early Childhood Education) (September 2008)
Tools of the Mind is an early childhood curriculum for preschool and kindergarten children. The curriculum is designed to foster children’s executive function, which involves developing selfregulation, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Many activities emphasize both executive functioning and academic skills.

Intervention Report


1

Mathematics in Context (MiC) (Middle School Math Curricula) (August 2008)
A middle school mathematics curriculum for grades 5 through 8. Mathematics in Context was developed to align with the 1989 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards. It is also based on the Dutch Realistic Mathematics Education approach of first engaging students in understanding real problems and then gradually moving to abstract concepts. Rather than focusing on one mathematical domain at a time, Mathematics in Context teaches students to explore the relationships among different domains of mathematics (such as algebra and geometry) and to develop strategies for reasoning through problems mathematically. Mathematics in Context also encourages students to collaborate on problem solving.

Intervention Report


1

Mathematics Plus (textbook series published by Harcourt) (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Mathematics Their Way® (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
Mathematics Their Way presents an activitycentered, childcentered, manipulative math program in which the children learn through the five senses. The program is designed to meet the needs of kindergarten, first, and second grade students. The children follow a sequence of activities, varying between total group, small group, and independent work. The goal of the activities is to help children develop an understanding of and insight into the patterns of mathematics. The activities are designed to help young children see relationships and interconnections in mathematics and to enable them to deal flexibly with mathematical ideas and concepts.

Intervention Report


1

Mathematics Today by Harcourt Brace (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

MathFact (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

MathSteps by Houghton Mifflin (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
MathSteps is a researchbased supplementary program for elementary and middle school grades which focuses on providing students with the skills and tactics they need to meet gradelevel standards. It was designed to supply teachers with the resources necessary to assess student performance and apply appropriate materials to correct perceived weaknesses in computational ability. The program lists four key elements: Skills Inventories tests (to assess student skill levels), Sequential Skills Outlines, Correlation Guidelines, and Skill and Practice sheets. MathSteps also incorporates builtin staff development, and utilizes four components: student workbooks, teacher resource copymasters, teacher editions, and computational skills tutorial kits. Student progress is monitored on a daily basis through ongoing assessment.

Intervention Report


1

Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)
The Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) program is a 6th, 7th, and 8th grade curriculum that promotes both handson learning for students and teamwork among teachers from different disciplines. IMaST emphasizes learning based on constructivist theory and active student participation involving a handson approach. Coordination of a wide variety of activities helps students grasp the many natural interdisciplinary connections in the curriculum. A team of mathematics, science, and technology specialists, in collaboration with other field experts, did the research to create the curriculum, built on major themes that are presented in modules. Each theme develops the focus of all disciplines in relation to several key concepts that lead toward the same objective. IMaST has developed its activities using benchmarks, national standards, and state frameworks.

Intervention Report


1

Jostens Integrated Learning System (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Key Math Teach and Practice (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Knowing Mathematics (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Mystery Motivator (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

New Century Integrated Instructional System (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

New Century Integrated Instructional System (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

New Century Mathematics (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
New Century Mathematics provides a preK through eighth grade curriculum designed to meet the National Council of Teacher’s of Mathematics (NCTM) standards. In addition to teaching state curriculum objectives and basic math skills in a classroom format, teachers may utilize the New Century Integrated Instructional System. This computerbased assessment program designs independent individualized lessons for every student in order to meet their particular learning needs and remedy weaknesses. It monitors student progress, provides teachers with diagnostic student profiles, updates profiles to indicate gains in student achievement, and can print a variety of reports on particular lessons, individuals, or groups. New Century Mathematics incorporates mental arithmetic, audio instruction and assistance at all levels, and also supports students with limited English skills. Rulers, protractors, and technology (calculators, online tools) may be used to support lesson comprehension.

Intervention Report


1

Number Power™ (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Numeracy Recovery (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Opening Eyes to Mathematics by The Math Learning Center (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Orton–Gillingham® technique (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Partnership for Access to Higher Mathematics (PATH Mathematics) (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)
The Partnership for Access to Higher Mathematics (PATH Mathematics) is a partnership among the Southwest Texas State University, the local telephone company, and a local school district. This mathematics and social curriculum is designed for lowtrack students. The pilot project targeted 9thgraders, but it has been used with 8thgraders. The goals of PATH Mathematics are to increase the achievement of lowtrack students and to enhance their aspirations to take further mathematics classes and eventually to attend college. According to the developers, the math curriculum adheres to standards proposed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, emphasizes realworld applications, and integrates the use of manipulatives and technology to solve problems. The curriculum has six sequential topic areas: (1) patterns, integers, and solving equations, (2) measurement, probability, and rational numbers, (3) solving equations and graphing with proportional reasoning, (4) problem solving with geometry and irrational numbers; (5) linear and nonlinear relations; and (6) polynomials.

Intervention Report


1

Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Piacceleration Instruction (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Project 2000 (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

MathWings by the Success for All Foundation® (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
MathWings is a K6 program which emphasizes cooperative learning and is designed to meet the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards. In each class students, regardless of skill level, participate in a whole class exploration of skills and realworld problem solving activities intended to extend their mathematical knowledge and experience. Individualized units are developed and allow students to accelerate or refine their skills and complete exercises at their own pace. The program requires some faculty training with an onsite facilitator, and utilizes teaching manuals, transparencies, blackline masters, manipulatives, and literature kits.

Intervention Report


1

Middle Grades Math (textbook series, published by ScottForesman/AddisonWesley) (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Middle School Mathematics through Applications Program (MMAP) (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Moving with Math (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Moving with Math® Extensions (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Moving with Math® Math by Topic (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)
Moving with Math is a manipulativesbased mathematics curriculum designed for grades K–8, and follows standards established by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Essential math concepts and problem solving skills are taught by integrating manipulatives into each lesson in order to illustrate ideas and make real world connections. Student activity books allow students to become actively involved in the learning process through the methodology of “explore, discover the pattern, and communicate the approach.” Lessons combine manipulatives and worksheets, while assessment tools, such as diagnostic tests and reviews, are provided in teaching manuals.

Intervention Report


1

Florida Primary Education Program (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Project MAS (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Project Teach and Reach (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Rational Number Project (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
The Rational Number Project was a cooperative multiuniversity research and development project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) from 19792002 (with the exception of 198384). One of the results of this project is a curriculum of lessons designed to introduce students in grades 48 to fractions, decimals, ratios, and measurement and meet the standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Lessons are conducted in large and small group settings, with daily handson activities involving manipulative kits. Along with a spiralbound lesson book, colored tiles and pie piece shapes are among the manipulatives used to assist students in fraction operation and comprehension.

Intervention Report


1

Real Math basal mathematics program (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Reasoning Mind (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Richmond Young Students Mathematics (RYSM) Class (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

RutgersKenilworth Program (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Scott Foresman Math Diagnostic & Intervention System (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Sharon Wells Mathematics Curriculum (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Silver Burdett Ginn Mathematics (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Larson Developmental Math Series (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Lightspan Achieve Now (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Logo (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
LOGO is a computer programming language designed as a learning tool for assisting students of all levels in becoming more aware of their own mathematical capabilities and build skills. Programs in LOGO are usually formed through collections of small procedures, which are created by writing commands in LOGO’s text editor. The results of the programs are visually demonstrated on a computer screen by the LOGO turtle, which may ‘walk’ to form any number of geometric shapes or other mathematical outputs. Programming in turtle graphics creates an environment for problem solving, and forms a foundation of concepts to build upon and progress to higher levels of mathematical comprehension.

Intervention Report


1

Macmillan/McGrawHill (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Math Advantage (textbook series) (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Math Applications and Connections (textbook series published by Glencoe) (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Math Renaissance® (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Math Trailblazers (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
The Math Trailblazers curriculum for grades K5 emphasizes active participation in developing problemsolving strategies which are applicable to realworld contexts. Through a balance of class work, small group learning, and individual instruction, students participate in longer (35 days) activities as well as shorter problemsolving tasks which integrate science, math, and language arts into hourly lessons. The curriculum provides different ways of looking at math problems to suit diverse learning styles, and incorporates textbooks, transparencies, manipulatives, and computer technology into each unit. The curriculum is designed to meet National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards.

Intervention Report


1

Mathematics in Action (textbook series published by MacMillan) (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

DigiBlock® Learning System (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
M Monrad: The DigiBlock Learning System is a handson math manipulative program designed to supplement and improve the teaching and understanding of the baseten number system for grades K4. Each classroom set of DigiBlocks consists of blocks and empty rectangular holders which hold exactly small ten blocks; each holder can be packed into larger blocks, enabling students to visualize the concept of hundreds and thousands. Through physical interaction with DigiBlock materials, students learn number sense and place value while building a foundation for later comprehension of higher math concepts in upper grades.

Intervention Report


1

CAI (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

FUNdamentallyMATH® (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

GeoLogo, by Investigations in Number, Data, and Space® (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Growing With Mathematics® (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Heath Mathematics Connections (textbook series) (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)
The Heath Mathematics Connections Series curriculum may be used with elementary and middle school grades as the primary classroom text. Teacherled classroom instruction is supplemented with suggested classroom activities  such as practice problems, mathematics drills, and cooperative learning  to increase skill knowledge and determine underlying concepts. Classroom assessment is provided through warmup problems, a problem of the day for each lesson, enrichment worksheets, chapter reviews and tests, standardized format tests, math logs and portfolios. The curriculum also provides educators with a classroom textbook, teaching editions, practice worksheets and copymasters, and family involvement activities. Some classroom and homework materials are also available in Spanish.

Intervention Report


1

Holt Mathematics (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Holt Middle School Math (textbook) (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC) (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Computer Managed Mastery Learning (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Connecting Math Concepts (CMC) mathematics program (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Consistency Management® (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

CORD Applied Math (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Core Knowledge Curriculum (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Core Knowledge Curriculum (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Countdown Video IGAP Intervention Tape (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Des Moines Plan (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

A+ny where Learning System (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

AddisonWesley Mathematics basal program (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Adventures of Jasper Woodbury Series (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury Series, a curriculumbased program available for grades 5 and up, consists of 12 videodiscbased adventures that are formulated to meet the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards. Each adventure ends in a challenge designed to bridge the gap between natural and school learning environments through problem solving, reasoning, communicating, and making connections to other areas such as science, social studies, literature, and history. The episodes include all the data needed to solve the challenge, and may be revisited by students as necessary.

Intervention Report


1

Algebra Project (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Algebraic Thinking (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Als speciale kleuter tel je ook me! (Young Children with Special Needs Count, Too!) (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Appalachia Model Mathematics Program (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Barrett Math Program (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Thinking Mathematics (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

TIPS: Math (Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork) (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

TouchMath® (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Unitedstreaming™ (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Six Through Eighth Grade Mathematics (STEM) Project, The (Middle School Math Curricula) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Skills Reinforcement Project (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Strategic Math Series (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Teacher to Teacher Math Problem Solving Supplementary Curriculum (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Wasatch Interactive Learning, distributed by Plato Learning (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report


1

Visual Mathematics by The Math Learning Center (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)

Intervention Report

57

1

SuccessMaker® (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computerbased courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.

Intervention Report

57

1

SuccessMaker® (Elementary School Mathematics) (July 2007)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computerbased courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.

Intervention Report

57

1

Successmaker (Elementary School Math) (July 2007)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computerbased courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.

Intervention Report

910

1

CorePlus Mathematics (Middle School Mathematics) (July 2007)
CorePlus Mathematics is a 4year curriculum that replaces the traditional sequence with courses that each feature interwoven strands of algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry and trigonometry, and discrete mathematics. The curriculum emphasizes mathematical modeling, using technology to emphasize reasoning with multiple representations (verbal, numerical, graphical, and symbolic) and to focus on goals in which mathematical thinking and problem solving are central. Instructional materials promote active learning and teaching centered around collaborative smallgroup investigations of problem situations, followed by teacherled wholeclass summarizing activities that lead to analysis, abstraction, and further application of underlying mathematical ideas.

Intervention Report

PKK

1

Direct Instruction (Early Childhood Education) (May 2007)
Direct Instruction refers to a family of interventions that includes all Direct Instruction products (DISTAR and Language for Learning), as well as to all versions past and present. Direct Instruction includes teaching techniques that are fastpaced, teacherdirected, and explicit with opportunities for student response and teacher reinforcement or correction.

Intervention Report

1

1

Progress in Mathematics © 2006 (Elementary School Mathematics) (April 2007)
Progress in Mathematics © 2006 is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 6. Progress in Mathematics © 2006 uses a sequence of systematic lesson plans to teach mathematical concepts and skills. It incorporates the following features at each grade level: explicit instruction of mathematics content; development of conceptual understanding through a threestep process that begins with handson activities (concrete thinking to visual thinking to symbol use); fluency in numerical computation; problem solving; development of mathematical vocabulary; practice and review; and different types of assessment. Student textbooks, student workbooks, and teacher’s editions are available for each grade level, as well as manipulatives and online practice exercises.

Intervention Report

25

1

Houghton Mifflin Mathematics (Elementary School Mathematics) (April 2007)
Houghton Mifflin Mathematics is a core mathematics curriculum for students at all ability levels in kindergarten through grade 6. At each grade level, the program focuses on basic skills development, problem solving, and vocabulary expansion to help students master key math concepts. Students practice daily math lessons through instructional software, enrichment worksheets, manipulatives, and workbooks, in addition to student textbooks. The program incorporates assessments—including lessonlevel interventions to meet the needs of all learners—to monitor students’ progress.

Intervention Report

79

1

Transition Mathematics (Middle School Mathematics) (March 2007)
Transition Mathematics aims to increase applied arithmetic, prealgebra, and pregeometry skills in students in grades 7–12 . This 1year curriculum also addresses general application to different wordings of problems, types of numbers, and contexts for problems and aims to promote mathematical reading skills. The curriculum uses the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) textbook. The sequence of the topics intends to assist the transition from arithmetic to algebra and geometry.

Intervention Report

14

1

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Early Childhood Education) (December 2005)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.

Reviews of Individual Studies

7

1

The Impacts of Three Educational Technologies on Algebraic Understanding in the Context of COVID19 (2023)
The current study investigated the effectiveness of three distinct educational technologiestwo gamebased applications (From Here to There and DragonBox 12+) and two modes of online problem sets in ASSISTments (an Immediate Feedback condition and an Active Control condition with no immediate feedback) on Grade 7 students' algebraic knowledge. More than 3,600 Grade 7 students across nine inperson and one virtual schools within the same district were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. Students received nine 30minute intervention sessions from September 2020 to March 2021. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of the final analytic sample (N = 1,850) showed significantly higher posttest scores for students who used From Here to There and DragonBox 12+ compared to the Active Control condition. No significant difference was found for the Immediate Feedback condition. The findings have implications for understanding how gamebased applications can affect algebraic understanding, even within pandemic pressures on learning.

Reviews of Individual Studies

7

1

The Impacts of Three Educational Technologies on Algebraic Understanding in the Context of COVID19 (2023)
The current study investigated the effectiveness of three distinct educational technologiestwo gamebased applications (From Here to There and DragonBox 12+) and two modes of online problem sets in ASSISTments (an Immediate Feedback condition and an Active Control condition with no immediate feedback) on Grade 7 students' algebraic knowledge. More than 3,600 Grade 7 students across nine inperson and one virtual schools within the same district were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. Students received nine 30minute intervention sessions from September 2020 to March 2021. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of the final analytic sample (N = 1,850) showed significantly higher posttest scores for students who used From Here to There and DragonBox 12+ compared to the Active Control condition. No significant difference was found for the Immediate Feedback condition. The findings have implications for understanding how gamebased applications can affect algebraic understanding, even within pandemic pressures on learning.

Reviews of Individual Studies

1

1

Examining the Impact of a First Grade Whole Number Intervention by Group Size (2022)
This study utilized a partially nested randomized control design to investigate the impact of Fusion, a first grade math intervention. Blocking on classrooms, students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a Fusion two student group, a Fusion five student group, or a no treatment control group. Two primary research questions were examined: What was the overall impact of the Fusion intervention as compared to a businessasusual comparison condition? and Was there a differential impact on student outcomes between the 2:1 Fusion and the 5:1 Fusion conditions? Analyses found a positive effects on four outcome measures favoring Fusion groups over control with two of the differences statistically significant. Results between Fusion groups found positive effects favoring the Fusion 2:1 group compared to the Fusion 5:1 group on all four outcome measures with two of the differences statistically significant. On a second grade follow up measure no difference was found between Fusion groups and control but a statistically significant difference was found between Fusion groups favoring the 2:1 Fusion group. Future research directions and implications for practice are discussed. [This paper will be published in the "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness."]

Reviews of Individual Studies

K

1

Integrating Literacy and Science Instruction in Kindergarten: Results from the Efficacy "Study of Zoology One" (2022)
This study examines the efficacy, cost, and implementation of an integrated science and literacy curriculum for kindergarten. The study was conducted in a large urban district and included 1,589 students in 71 classrooms in 21 schools. The research includes a multisite clusterrandomized controlled trial and mixedmethods cost and implementation studies. Analysis revealed significant impacts on comprehension, letternaming fluency, and motivation to read. No main impacts were observed on decoding, word identification, or writing; however, exploratory analysis revealed that students whose teachers implemented the treatment with fidelity performed statistically significantly better in writing and decoding. The cost to produce the observed effects was estimated at $480 per student, twothirds of which was borne by the school. Despite this cost, treatment classrooms achieved savings by using an average of three fewer instructional programs than control classrooms. Teachers reported positive effects from the integrated curriculum on student engagement, learning, and behavior.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

1

Effects of early mathematics intervention for lowSES prekindergarten and kindergarten students: A replication study (2022)

Reviews of Individual Studies

K3

1

Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Teacher Training Program on Elementary Children with Aggressive Behaviors (2020)
The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM), a universal classroom management intervention, on the outcomes of children with aggressive behavior in elementary school. Classroom management has been demonstrated as a factor in either escalating children's aggressive behavior or decreasing those problematic behaviors. Participants included 1,817 students (Grade K to 3) and 105 teachers from nine elementary schools in a large urban Midwestern school district. Teachers were randomly assigned to receive IY TCM or to a waitlist comparison group. The hypotheses were that baseline levels of aggression would moderate the relationship between intervention status and outcomes. Findings indicated the hypothesized moderation effect on several outcome variables; specifically, children with baseline aggression problems who were in IY TCM classrooms had significantly improved math achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviors, and observed aggression in comparison to similar peers in the control classrooms. Implications for practice and future research based on the findings are discussed.

Reviews of Individual Studies

57

1

Aiming Higher: Assessing Higher Achievement's OutofSchool Expansion Efforts (2020)
Many talented students in underresourced schools do not reach their full potential. Research shows that by sixth grade, children born into poverty have likely spent 6,000 fewer hours learning than their middleclass counterparts. Higher Achievement, an intensive summer and afterschool program, aims to close that learning gap. It offers participants more than 500 hours of academic enrichment activities a year to help them meet the high academic standards expected of collegebound students. Known as "scholars"; Higher Achievement students enter the program during the summer before either fifth or sixth grade and commit to attending through eighth grade. The summer program consists of six weeks of morning classes in English Language Arts (ELA), math, science, and, in some centers, social studies, followed by enrichment activities in the afternoon, including chess, cooking, art, and soccer. During the school year, in addition to the program's regular study hall and enrichment activities, a cadre of mostly young professionals volunteer one day a week, delivering 75minute ELA or math lessons to small groups of scholars. These volunteers receive detailed lesson plans and training so they can successfully execute the program's rigorous curricula. Part of what makes Higher Achievement affordable is its use of volunteers in this way. An earlier experimental evaluation of Metro DC, Higher Achievement's flagship affiliate in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that the program was effective in improving academic performance two years after students applied. Since then, Higher Achievement has expanded to three new cities: Baltimore, Maryland; Richmond, Virginia; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Keenly aware that many effective flagship programs fail to be effective in new locations, the federal government funded an experimental validation study to examine the impacts at these expansion sites. Eligible students were randomly assigned either to a program group that could participate in Higher Achievement, or to a control group that could not enroll in the program. Comparing the two groups' outcomes provided an estimate of the program's impacts. The study found that the expansion sites experienced many of the implementation challenges common to schoolbased, outofschooltime programs (for example, staff turnover, coordination with the host school, and lowerthanhopedfor attendance by middle school students), as well as those often seen in new programs (such as a lack of strong relationships with key partners and difficulty recruiting volunteers). Even so, Higher Achievement was found to be at least adequately implemented in all three cities. The study found that the program's detailed lesson plans, with scripted questions and student instructions, enabled the volunteers to deliver rigorous academic lessons. This report addresses the following questions: (1) How did the Higher Achievement centers operate during the study and what lessons are there for similar programs?; (2) Did scholars receive more academic enrichment over the twoyear study period than they would have received without Higher Achievement?; and (3) How did Higher Achievement impact scholars' grades and test scores over the two years since they applied?

Reviews of Individual Studies

68

1

Distance Learning through GameBased 3D Virtual Learning Environments: Mission Hydro Science. Evaluation Report for Mission HydroSci (2020)
Mission HydroSci (MHS) is a 3D gamebased learning environment and curriculum that supports middle school student learning of water systems science and scientific argumentation. MHS is a rigorous, coherent and engaging 6 to 8day curriculum with all learning activities and social interactions taking place in the virtual world and with teachers observing and supporting students through an online support system enhanced by analytics. MHS was evaluated in comparison to a high quality alternative intervention developed by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) using a stratified randomized block experimental design where 'classroom' was the unit of random assignment, stratified by teacher. The comparison curriculum is called Earth's Water Systems (EWS) and is provided online using the Canvas learning management platform. Three measurable outcomes: (1) content knowledge, (2) competency in scientific argumentation, and (3) affect for science and technology were used in the pre postcomparison of MHS with EWS. The findings of this randomized experiment showed that MHS achieved roughly equivalent water systems learning outcomes and significantly higher development of argumentation competencies when compared to the EWS curriculum. The impacts of both MHS and the EWS curriculum on affect for science and technology were equivalent and slightly negative. A secondary exploratory quasiexperimental design (QED) analysis was conducted that found significant positive effects for MHS in comparison to EWS on water systems understandings and stronger detected effects for students' argumentation.

Reviews of Individual Studies

7

1

Improving Student Learning of Ratio, Proportion, and Percent: A Replication Study of SchemaBased Instruction (2019)
The purpose of this replication study was to provide replication evidence not currently available of the effects of a researchbased mathematics program, schemabased instruction, on the mathematical problemsolving performance of 7thgrade students. The replication was implemented in 36 schools in 5 districts; 59 mathematics teachers and their students (N = 1,492) participated in the study. Multilevel hierarchical linear analyses revealed statistically significant differences between conditions on proximal and distal measures of mathematics problem solving, with effects sizes similar to those reported in Jitendra et al. (2015).

Reviews of Individual Studies

7

1

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interleaved Mathematics Practice (2019)
We report the results of a preregistered, cluster randomized controlled trial of a mathematics learning
intervention known as interleaved practice. Whereas most mathematics assignments consist of a block of
problems devoted to the same skill or concept, an interleaved assignment is arranged so that no 2
consecutive problems require the same strategy. Previous smallscale studies found that practice assignments with a greater proportion of interleaved practice produced higher test scores. In the present study,
we assessed the efficacy and feasibility of interleaved practice in a naturalistic setting with a large,
diverse sample. Each of 54 7thgrade mathematics classes periodically completed interleaved or blocked
assignments over a period of 4 months, and then both groups completed an interleaved review
assignment. One month later, students took an unannounced test, and the interleaved group outscored the
blocked group, 61% versus 38%, d 0.83. Teachers were able to implement the intervention without
training, and they later expressed support for interleaved practice in an anonymous survey they completed
before they knew the results of the study. Although important caveats remain, the results suggest that
interleaved mathematics practice is effective and feasible.

Reviews of Individual Studies

38

1

Investigating Causal Effects of Arts Education Experiences: Experimental Evidence from Houston's Arts Access Initiative. Research Report for the Houston Independent School District. Volume 7, Issue 4 (2019)
The recent wave of testbased accountability reforms has negatively impacted the provision of K12 arts educational experiences. Advocates contend that, in addition to providing intrinsic benefits, the arts can positively influence academic and social development. However, the empirical evidence to support such claims is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 10,548 3rd8th grade students who were enrolled in 42 schools that were assigned by lottery to receive substantial influxes of arts education experiences provided through schoolcommunity partnerships with local arts organizations, cultural institutions, and teachingartists. We find that these increases in arts educational experiences significantly reduce the proportion of students receiving disciplinary infractions by 3.6 percentage points, improve STAAR writing achievement by 0.13 of a standard deviation, and increase students' compassion for others by 0.08 of a standard deviation. For students in elementary schools, which comprise 86 percent of the sample, we find that these arts educational experiences also significantly improve school engagement, college aspirations, and artsfacilitated empathy. These findings provide strong evidence that arts educational experiences can produce significant positive impacts on student academic and social development. Policymakers should consider these multifaceted educational benefits when assessing the role and value of the arts in K12 schools.

Reviews of Individual Studies

9

1

Building Assets and Reducing Risks (BARR) Validation Study. Final Report (2019)
This is the final report of a largescale independent evaluation of the Building Assets and Reducing Risks (BARR) model in ninth grade in eleven high schools in Maine, California, Minnesota, Kentucky, and Texas. This sample of schools included large and small schools in urban, suburban, and rural areas, serving students from a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Funded with a validation grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) program and carried out by researchers at the American Institutes for Research (AIR), this evaluation used random assignment of ninthgrade students to BARR and control conditions to estimate the impacts of the BARR model after one year. The evaluation also assessed the fidelity of implementation of BARR in the eleven study schools and identified barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation. The evaluation focused on several teacher and studentlevel outcomes. The teacher outcomes included measures of teacher collaboration, and use of data, among others. The academic outcomes included course failure, students' grade point average (GPA), and performance on the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) standardized reading and mathematics assessments. Studentreported experiences included measures of supportive relationships, perceptions of teachers' expectations of them, student engagement, and others. In addition to these outcomes, the report includes impact estimates for attendance, suspensions, and persistence into 10th grade. [This report was written with Brenna O'Brien, Cheryl Graczewski, So Jung Park, Feng Liu, Ethan AdelmanSil, Lynn Hu.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

9

1

A national experiment reveals where a growth mindset improves achievement. (2019)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

1

A curriculum supplement that integrates transmedia to promote early math learning: A randomized controlled trial of a PBS KIDS intervention. (2019)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

1

The Sequential ScaleUp of an EvidenceBased Intervention: A Case Study (2018)
Policymakers face dilemmas when choosing a policy, program, or practice to implement. Researchers in education, public health, and other fields have proposed a sequential approach to identifying interventions worthy of broader adoption, involving pilot, efficacy, effectiveness, and scaleup studies. In this paper, we examine a scaleup of an early math intervention to the state level, using a cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention, "PreK Mathematics," has produced robust positive effects on children's math ability in prior pilot, efficacy, and effectiveness studies. In the current study, we ask if it remains effective at a larger scale in a heterogeneous collection of preK programs that plausibly represent all lowincome families with a child of preK age who live in California. We find that "PreK Mathematics" remains effective at the state level, with positive and statistically significant effects (effect size = 0.30, p < 0.01). In addition, we develop a framework of the dimensions of scaleup to explain why effect sizes might decrease as scale increases. Using this framework, we compare the causal estimates from the present study to those from earlier, smaller studies. Consistent with our framework, we find that effect sizes have decreased over time. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our study for how we think about the external validity of causal relationships. [This is the online version of an article published in "Evaluation Review."]

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

1

Evaluating the Impact of the Investing in Innovation Fund (i3) UPSTART Project on Rural Preschoolers' Early Literacy Skills (2017)
UPSTART is a federally funded i3 validation project that uses a computerbased program to develop the school readiness skills of preschool children in rural Utah. Researchers used a randomized control trial design to evaluate the impact of the program in advancing children's early literacy skills. Preschoolers in the experimental group were randomly assigned to the UPSTART Reading software, while control group students were assigned to UPSTART Math. Standardized early literacy assessments were administered prior to program commencement and upon completion. Results revealed that there was a significant difference in children's mean scores on measures of letter knowledge and phonological awareness, after controlling for prior knowledge, missing pretest data, and children's school district between those who participated in UPSTART Reading and those in the comparison group. There were no differences between the two groups on assessments measuring vocabulary and oral language or listening comprehension.

Reviews of Individual Studies

K8

1

Effects of DualLanguage Immersion Programs on Student Achievement: Evidence from Lottery Data (2017)
Using data from seven cohorts of language immersion lottery applicants in a large, urban school district, we estimate the causal effects of immersion programs on students' test scores in reading, mathematics, and science, and on English learners' (EL) reclassification. We estimate positive intenttotreat (ITT) effects on reading performance in fifth and eighth grades, ranging from 13 to 22 percent of a standard deviation, reflecting 7 to 9 months of learning. We find little benefit in terms of mathematics and science performance, but also no detriment. By sixth and seventh grade, lottery winners' probabilities of remaining classified as EL are three to four percentage points lower than those of their counterparts. This effect is stronger for ELs whose native language matches the partner language. [This article was published in: "American Educational Research Journal" v54 n1 suppl p282S306S Apr 2017 (EJ1155308).]

Reviews of Individual Studies

9

1

I3 BARR Validation Study (2017)

Reviews of Individual Studies

K4

1

Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of ContentArea Literacy Instruction (CALI) (2017)
With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed contentarea literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized) instructional program for kindergarteners through 4th graders to build science and social studies knowledge. We developed CALI to be implemented in general education classrooms, over multiple iterations (n = 230 students), using principles of designbased implementation research. The aims were to develop CALI as a usable and feasible instructional program that would, potentially, improve science and social studies knowledge, and could be implemented during the literacy block without negatively affecting students' reading gains (i.e., no opportunity cost). We then evaluated the efficacy of CALI in a randomized controlled field trial with 418 students in kindergarten through 4th grade. Results reveal that CALI demonstrates promise as a usable and feasible instructional individualized general education program, and is efficacious in improving social studies (d = 2.2) and science (d = 2.1) knowledge, with some evidence of improving oral and reading comprehension skills (d = 0.125).

Reviews of Individual Studies

K

1

Testing the Efficacy of a Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention by Small Group Size (2017)
This study used a randomized controlled trial design to investigate the ROOTS curriculum, a 50lesson kindergarten mathematics intervention. Ten ROOTSeligible students per classroom (n = 60) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a ROOTS fivestudent group, a ROOTS twostudent group, and a notreatment control group. Two primary research questions were investigated as part of this study: What was the overall impact of the treatment (the ROOTS intervention) as compared with the control (business as usual)? Was there a differential impact on student outcomes between the two treatment conditions (two vs. fivestudent group)? Initial analyses for the first research question indicated a significant impact on three outcomes and positive but nonsignificant impacts on three additional measures. Results for the second research question, comparing the two and fivestudent groups, indicated negligible and nonsignificant differences. Implications for practice are discussed. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED578431.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

611

1

Texting Parents: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary (2017)
This report presents the findings from an efficacy trial and process evaluation of the Parent Engagement Programme (PEP). The PEP was a schoollevel intervention designed to improve pupil outcomes by engaging parents in their children's learning. The programme was developed collaboratively by research teams from the University of Bristol and Harvard University and was delivered between September 2014 and July 2015. The study was conducted by the Centre for Effective Education, Queen's University Belfast between February 2014 and February 2016. The trial involved 15,697 students in Years 7, 9, and 11 from 36 English secondary schools, with schools sending an average of 30 texts to each parent over the period of the trial. The developers of the intervention managed its delivery to ensure optimal implementation. It was a cluster randomised controlled trial with randomisation at the Key Stage level, designed to determine the impact of the intervention on the academic outcomes of students in English, maths, and science, and the impact on absenteeism. A process evaluation used focus groups, telephone surveys, interviews, and an online survey to provide data on implementation and to capture the perceptions and experiences of participating parents, pupils, and teachers. Key conclusions include: (1) Children who had the intervention experienced about one month of additional progress in maths compared to other children. This positive result is unlikely to have occurred by chance; (2) Children who had the intervention had reduced absenteeism compared to other children. This positive result is unlikely to have occurred by chance; (3) Children who had the intervention appeared to experience about one month of additional progress in English compared to other children. However, analysis suggests that this finding might have been affected by bias introduced by missing data, so evaluators cannot reliably draw this conclusion. There is no evidence to suggest that the intervention had an impact on science attainment; (4) Schools embraced the programme and liked its immediacy and low cost. Many respondents felt that the presence of a dedicated coordinator would be valuable to monitor the accuracy and frequency of texts. Schools should consider whether they would be able to provide this additional resource; and (5) The vast majority of parents were accepting of the programme, including the content, frequency, and timing of texts. [Note: The postreporting appendix was added in June 2017.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

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The Effect of an AnalysisofPractice, VideocaseBased, Teacher Professional Development Program on Elementary Students' Science Achievement (2017)
This article describes the effects of an analysisofpractice professional development (PD) program on elementary school students' (Grades 46) science outcomes. The study design was a clusterrandomized trial with an analysis sample of 77 schools, 144 teachers and 2,823 students. Fortytwo schools were randomly assigned to treatment, (88.5 hours) of integrated analysisofpractice and content deepening PD (over the course of one year) while 35 schools were randomly assigned to receive an equal number of PD hours in science content deepening alone. Students' content knowledge, as measured by a projectspecific test, was compared across treatment groups. The effect size for this comparison was 0.52 standard deviations in favor of students whose teachers participated in the PD that included analysisofpractice. This effect compares favorably to that of other elementary school interventions whose effectiveness was studied with a narrowly focused outcome measure. Analysis of the demographics of the study schools suggests that the treatment effect could be relevant outside the local study context. Implications for future research include tests of mediation for teacherlevel outcomes and efficacy tests of specific teaching strategies (intervention subcomponents).

Reviews of Individual Studies

7

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Online Mathematics Homework Increases Student Achievement (2016)
In a randomized field trial with 2,850 seventhgrade mathematics students, we evaluated whether an educational technology intervention increased mathematics learning. Assigning homework is common yet sometimes controversial. Building on prior research on formative assessment and adaptive teaching, we predicted that combining an online homework tool with teacher training could increase learning. The online tool ASSISTments (a) provides timely feedback and hints to students as they do homework and (b) gives teachers timely, organized information about students' work. To test this prediction, we analyzed data from 43 schools that participated in a random assignment experiment in Maine, a state that provides every seventhgrade student with a laptop to take home. Results showed that the intervention significantly increased student scores on an endoftheyear standardized mathematics assessment as compared with a control group that continued with existing homework practices. Students with low prior mathematics achievement benefited most. The intervention has potential for wider adoption. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED575159.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

9

1

i3 BARR validation study impact findings: Cohort 1. (2016)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

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Effects of Tutorial Interventions in Mathematics and Attention for LowPerforming Preschool Children (2016)
Two intervention approaches designed to address the multifaceted academic and cognitive difficulties of lowincome children who enter preK with very low math knowledge were tested in a randomized experiment. Blocking on classroom, children who met screening criteria were assigned to a Math + Attention condition in which the PreKindergarten Mathematics Tutorial (PKMT) intervention was implemented (4 days/week for 24 weeks) in addition to 16 adaptive attention training sessions, a MathOnly condition using the PKMT intervention, or a businessasusual condition. Five hundred eighteen children were assessed at pretest and posttest. There was a significant effect of the PKMT intervention on a broad measure of informal mathematical knowledge and a small but significant effect on a measure of numerical knowledge. Attention training was associated with small effects on attention, but did not provide additional benefit for mathematics. A main effect of state on math outcomes was associated with a stronger, numeracyfocused Tier 1 mathematics curriculum in one state. Findings are discussed with respect to increasing intensity of mathspecific and domaingeneral interventions for young children at risk for mathematical learning difficulties.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PS

1

Should Students Assessed as Needing Remedial Mathematics Take CollegeLevel Quantitative Courses Instead? A Randomized Controlled Trial (2016)
Many college students never take, or do not pass, required remedial mathematics courses theorized to increase collegelevel performance. Some colleges and states are therefore instituting policies allowing students to take collegelevel courses without first taking remedial courses. However, no experiments have compared the effectiveness of these approaches, and other data are mixed. We randomly assigned 907 students to (a) remedial elementary algebra, (b) that course with workshops, or (c) collegelevel statistics with workshops (corequisite remediation). Students assigned to statistics passed at a rate 16 percentage points higher than those assigned to algebra (p < 0.001), and subsequently accumulated more credits. A majority of enrolled statistics students passed. Policies allowing students to take collegelevel instead of remedial quantitative courses can increase student success.

Reviews of Individual Studies

K3

1

New Mexico StartSmart K3 Plus validation study. Evaluator's report. (2015)

Reviews of Individual Studies

910

1

Not too late: Improving academic outcomes for disadvantaged youth (Working paper WP1501) (2015)

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68

1

Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes. Final Report of KIPP's "Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation" (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longerterm outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first highquality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other nonKIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (LotteryBased Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (LotteryBased Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (MatchedStudent Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (MatchedStudent Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (MatchedSchool Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

78

1

The impact of eMINTS professional development on teacher instruction and student achievement. Year 3 report. (2015)

Reviews of Individual Studies

10

1

An Efficacy Trial of ResearchBased Curriculum Materials with CurriculumBased Professional Development (2015)
This study examined the efficacy of a curriculumbased intervention for high school science students. Specifically, the intervention was two years of researchbased, multidisciplinary curriculum materials for science supported by comprehensive professional development for teachers that focused on those materials. A modest positive effect was detected when comparing outcomes from this intervention to those of businessasusual materials and professional development. However, this effect was typical for interventions at this grade span that are tested using a state achievement test. Tests of mediation suggest a large treatment effect on teachers and in turn a strong effect of teacher practice on student achievementreinforcing the hypothesized key role of teacher practice. Tests of moderation indicate no significant treatment by demographic interactions.

Reviews of Individual Studies


1

SchoolBased Mentoring Programs: Using Volunteers to Improve the Academic Outcomes of Underserved Students (2015)
Prior research on mentoring relationships outside of school does point toward relationship closeness and related indicators of the emotional quality of the mentorprotégé tie as important influences on youth outcomes. There is preliminary evidence that this may also be the case for School Based Mentoring (SBM), or at least that closeness promotes protégé and mentor perceptions of relationship quality. The overarching aim of this paper is to enrich the field's understanding of how volunteer mentors can best support the academic mission of schools. The central empirical analysis investigates whether emotionally closer relationships between mentors and protégés lead to better academic outcomes. The sample for the study consists of the students who participated in the randomized control trial of the Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA) SBM program during the 20042005 school year. Study participants were recruited by 10 BBBSA study agencies across the country, each with four or more years of experience in SBM. Evidence is found that a close mentoring relationship positively affects academic performance. Effect sizes, obtained by dividing the impact coefficients reported in the table by the standard deviation of the appropriate outcome measure, range from 0.13 standard deviations (for overall academic performance and scholastic efficacy) to 0.18 standard deviations (for completeness of schoolwork), and are consistent across alternative specifications. A table is appended.

Reviews of Individual Studies

6

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The Effects of Math Video Games on Learning: A Randomized Evaluation Study with Innovative Impact Estimation Techniques. CRESST Report 841 (2014)
A largescale randomized controlled trial tested the effects of researcherdeveloped learning games on a transfer measure of fractions knowledge. The measure contained items similar to standardized assessments. Thirty treatment and 29 control classrooms (~1500 students, 9 districts, 26 schools) participated in the study. Students in treatment classrooms played fractions games and students in the control classrooms played solving equations games. Multilevel multidimensional item response theory modeling of the outcome measure produced scaled scores that were more sensitive to the instructional treatment than standard measurement approaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of the scaled scores showed that the treatment condition performed significantly higher on the outcome measure than the control condition. The effect (d = 0.58) was medium to large (Cohen, 1992). Two appendices are included: (1) Descriptive Statistics of Pretest and Posttest Scores by Schools and Conditions; and (2) Summary of Efficacy Trial Procedures.

Reviews of Individual Studies

612

1

The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows Programs. NCEE 20134015 (2013)
Teach For America (TFA) and the Teaching Fellows programs are an important and growing source of teachers of hardtostaff subjects in highpoverty schools, but comprehensive evidence of their effectiveness has been limited. This report presents findings from the first largescale random assignment study of secondary math teachers from these programs. The study separately examined the effectiveness of TFA and Teaching Fellows teachers, comparing secondary math teachers from each program with other secondary math teachers teaching the same math courses in the same schools. The study focused on secondary math because this is a subject in which schools face particular staffing difficulties.The study had two main findings, one for each program studied: (1) TFA teachers were more effective than the teachers with whom they were compared. On average, students assigned to TFA teachers scored 0.07 standard deviations higher on endofyear math assessments than students assigned to comparison teachers, a statistically significant difference. This impact is equivalent to an additional 2.6 months of school for the average student nationwide; and (2) Teaching Fellows were neither more nor less effective than the teachers with whom they were compared. On average, students of Teaching Fellows and students of comparison teachers had similar scores on endofyear math assessments. By providing rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of secondary math teachers from TFA and the Teaching Fellows programs, the study can shed light on potential approaches for improving teacher effectiveness in hardtostaff schools and subjects. The study findings can provide guidance to school principals faced with the choice of hiring teachers who have entered the profession via different routes to certification. The findings can also aid policymakers and funders of teacher preparation programs by providing information on the effectiveness of teachers from various routes to certification that use different methods to identify, attract, train, and support their teachers. Seven appendixes present: (1) Supplementary Technical Information on Study Design and Data Collection; (2) Supplementary Information on Analytic Methods; (3) Supplementary Information on Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Programs; (4) Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers Compared with Comparison Teachers by Entry Route (Alternative or Traditional); (5) Supplementary Information on Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers Compared with Comparison Teachers; (6) Supplementary Analyses of the Impacts of Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers; and (7) Supplementary Findings on Factors Associated with Teacher Effectiveness. (Contains 96 tables, 21 figures, and 30 footnotes.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

58

1

Staying on Track: Testing Higher Achievement's LongTerm Impact on Academic Outcomes and High School Choice (2013)
One crucial decision that middle schoolers (and their families) make is where they will attend high school. Many districts employ school choice systems designed to allow students to pick a high school that will meet their needs and interests. Yet most students prefer high schools that are close to home, and for youth in lowincome neighborhoods, this often means attending a more disadvantaged, lower performing school (Nathanson et al. 2013). Youth who defy these odds and choose a competitive high school instead have much to gain. Cullen et al. (2005), for instance, found that Chicago public middle school students who chose to attend a higherachieving high school were substantially more likely to graduate. However, even as eighth graders, these students already differed in many ways from their peers who chose a neighborhood schoolthey had better selfreported grades and higher expectations for the future, felt more prepared for high school, and were more likely to have spoken with their parents about what school to attend. These findings raise the question of how we can prepare more disadvantaged students to take the many steps necessarythroughout the middle school yearsto successfully transition to a competitive, highquality high school that can ultimately launch them toward college and careers. The Washington, DCbased Higher Achievement program is taking on this challenge. Higher Achievement targets rising fifth and sixth graders from "atrisk communities" and serves them throughout the middle school years. Its goal is to strengthen participants' academic skills, attitudes and behaviors, reinforce high aspirations and help students and their families navigate the process of applying to and selecting a highquality high school. In 2006, the authors began a comprehensive multiyear evaluation of Higher Achievement to test its impact on participants' academic performance, attitudes and behaviors and on their high school enrollment. The evaluation used random assignmentthe most rigorous design available to researchersto assess program impacts. This brief summarizes the study's findings. Findings suggest that the program does appear to expand the options available to its students by making them more likely to apply to and attend private schools and less likely to apply to and attend weaker public magnet and charter schools. This, in turn, may position youth for better outcomes in high school and beyond. [This research was made possible by grants from The Atlantic Philanthropies, Bank of America, the Smith Richardson Foundation, the Spencer Foundation, The Wallace Foundation and the William T. Grant Foundation.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

38

1

Transfer Incentives for HighPerforming Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment. NCEE 20144003 (2013)
One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highestperforming teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention can improve student test scores and other outcomes in lowachieving schools. The intervention, known to participants as the Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI), was implemented in 10 school districts in seven states. The highestperforming teachers in each districtthose who ranked in roughly the top 20 percent within their subject and grade span in terms of raising student achievement year after year (an approach known as value added)were identified. These teachers were offered $20,000, paid in installments over a twoyear period, if they transferred into and remained in designated schools that had low average test scores. The main findings from the study include: (1) The transfer incentive successfully attracted high valueadded teachers to fill targeted vacancies; (2) The transfer incentive had a positive impact on test scores (math and reading) in targeted elementary classrooms; and (3) The transfer incentive had a positive impact on teacherretention rates during the payout period; retention of the highperforming teachers who transferred was similar to their counterparts in the fall immediately after the last payout. Seven appendixes are included: (1) Supplemental Materials for Chapters I and II; (2) ValueAdded Analysis to Identify HighestPerforming Teachers; (3) Supplemental Materials for Chapter III; (4) Identification of Focal Teachers; (5) Supplemental Materials for Chapter IV; (6) Supplemental Materials for Chapter V; and (7) Supplemental Materials for Chapter VI. (Contains 114 footnotes, 61 figures, and 92 tables.) [For the executive summary, see ED544268.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

4

1

Improving AtRisk Learners' Understanding of Fractions (2013)
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of an intervention designed to improve atrisk 4th graders' understanding of fractions and to examine the processes by which effects occurred. The intervention focused more on the measurement interpretation of fractions; the control condition focused more on the partwhole interpretation of fractions and on procedures. Intervention was also designed to compensate for atrisk students' limitations in the domaingeneral abilities associated with fraction learning. Atrisk students (n = 259) were randomly assigned to intervention and control. Wholenumber calculation skill, domaingeneral abilities (working memory, attentive behavior, processing speed, listening comprehension), and fraction proficiency were pretested. Intervention occurred for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session, and then fraction performance was reassessed. On each conceptual and procedural fraction outcome, effects favored intervention over control (effect sizes = 0.29 to 2.50), and the gap between atrisk and lowrisk students narrowed for the intervention group but not the control group. Improvement in the accuracy of children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated intervention effects. Also, intervention effects were moderated by domaingeneral abilities, but not wholenumber calculation skill.

Reviews of Individual Studies

1

1

Effects of FirstGrade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1stgrade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. Atrisk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped atrisk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

1

1

Effects of FirstGrade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1stgrade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. Atrisk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped atrisk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

1

1

Effects of FirstGrade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1stgrade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. Atrisk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped atrisk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

912

1

Sustained Progress: New Findings about the Effectiveness and Operation of Small Public High Schools of Choice in New York City (2013)
In 2002, New York City embarked on an ambitious and wideranging series of education reforms. At the heart of its high school reforms were three interrelated changes: the institution of a district wide high school choice process for all rising ninthgraders, the closure of 31 large, failing high schools with an average graduation rate of 40 percent, and the opening of more than 200 new small high schools. Over half of the new small schools created between the fall of 2002 and the fall of 2008 were intended to serve students in some of the district's most disadvantaged communities and are located mainly in neighborhoods where large, failing high schools had been closed. MDRC has previously released two reports on these "small schools of choice," or SSCs (so called because they are small, are academically nonselective, and were created to provide a realistic choice for students with widely varying academic backgrounds). Those reports found marked increases in progress toward graduation and in graduation rates for the cohorts of students who entered SSCs in the falls of 2005 and 2006. The second report also found that the increase in graduation rates applied to every student subgroup examined, and that SSC graduation effects were sustained even after five years from the time sample members entered high school. This report updates those previous findings with results from a third cohort of students, those who entered ninth grade in the fall of 2007. In addition, for the first time it includes a look inside these schools through the eyes of principals and teachers, as reported in interviews and focus groups held at the 25 SSCs with the strongest evidence of effectiveness. In brief, the report's findings are: (1) SSCs in New York City continue to markedly increase high school graduation rates for large numbers of disadvantaged students of color, even as graduation rates are rising at the schools with which SSCs are compared; (2) The best evidence that exists indicates that SSCs may increase graduation rates for two new subgroups for which findings were not previously available: special education students and English language learners. However, given the stilllimited sample sizes for these subgroups, the evidence will not be definitive until more student cohorts can be added to the analysis; and (3) Principals and teachers at the 25 SSCs with the strongest evidence of effectiveness strongly believe that academic rigor and personal relationships with students contribute to the effectiveness of their schools. They also believe that these attributes derive from their schools' small organizational structures and from their committed, knowledgeable, hardworking, and adaptable teachers. Appended are: (1) Sample, Data, and Analysis; (2) Estimated Effects of Winning a Student's First SSC Lottery; (3) 2008 Requirements for Proposals to Create New SSCs Specified by the New York City Department of Education; and (4) Documentation for Interviews and Focus Groups.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

1

Preschool Teachers Can Use a PBS KIDS Transmedia Curriculum Supplement to Support Young Children's Mathematics Learning: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Summative Evaluation of the CPBPBS "Ready To Learn Initiative" (2013)
This report presents results from the "Ready To Learn" Prekindergarten Transmedia Mathematics Study, a principal part of the summative evaluation of "Ready To Learn," which is a partnership between the US Department of Education, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and PBS. Researchers found that preschool children who experienced a PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement developed essential early mathematics skills. The PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement was centered around public media videos and digital games, played on a selected set of learning technologies (interactive whiteboards and laptop computers). The important skills measurecounting; subitizing; recognizing numerals; recognizing, composing, and representing shapes; and patterningincreased significantly for the study's four and fiveyearold children, who were from traditionally economically disadvantaged communities where children are often less prepared for kindergarten than are their more socially and economically advantaged peers. Also important, preschool teachers who enacted the PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement reported significant changes in their confidence and comfort with early mathematics concepts and teaching with technology. [This report was coproduced by SRI's Center for Technology in Learning (CTL).]

Reviews of Individual Studies

K8

1

Enhancing the Efficacy of Teacher Incentives through Loss Aversion: A Field Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 18237 (2012)
Domestic attempts to use financial incentives for teachers to increase student achievement have been ineffective. In this paper, we demonstrate that exploiting the power of loss aversionteachers are paid in advance and asked to give back the money if their students do not improve sufficientlyincreases math test scores between 0.201 (0.076) and 0.398 (0.129) standard deviations. This is equivalent to increasing teacher quality by more than one standard deviation. A second treatment arm, identical to the loss aversion treatment but implemented in the standard fashion, yields smaller and statistically insignificant results. This suggests it is loss aversion, rather than other features of the design or population sampled, that leads to the stark differences between our findings and past research.

Reviews of Individual Studies

4

1

Differential Effects of Three Professional Development Models on Teacher Knowledge and Student Achievement in Elementary Science (2012)
To identify links among professional development, teacher knowledge, practice, and student achievement, researchers have called for study designs that allow causal inferences and that examine relationships among features of interventions and multiple outcomes. In a randomized experiment implemented in six states with over 270 elementary teachers and 7,000 students, this project compared three related but systematically varied teacher interventions"Teaching Cases, Looking at Student Work, and Metacognitive Analysis"along with notreatment controls. The three courses contained identical science content components, but differed in the ways they incorporated analysis of learner thinking and of teaching, making it possible to measure effects of these features on teacher and student outcomes. Interventions were delivered by staff developers trained to lead the teacher courses in their regions. Each course improved teachers' and students' scores on selectedresponse science tests well beyond those of controls, and effects were maintained a year later. Student achievement also improved significantly for English language learners in both the study year and followup, and treatment effects did not differ based on sex or race/ethnicity. However, only Teaching Cases and Looking at Student Work courses improved the accuracy and completeness of students' written justifications of test answers in the followup, and only Teaching Cases had sustained effects on teachers' written justifications. Thus, the content component in common across the three courses had powerful effects on teachers' and students' ability to choose correct test answers, but their ability to explain why answers were correct only improved when the professional development incorporated analysis of student conceptual understandings and implications for instruction; metacognitive analysis of teachers' own learning did not improve student justifications either year. Findings suggest investing in professional development that integrates content learning with analysis of student learning and teaching rather than advanced content or teacher metacognition alone. (Contains 1 figure and 4 tables.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

48

1

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Final Report. NCEE 20124008 (2012)
This report presents the results of an experiment conducted in Alabama beginning in the 2006/07 school year, to determine the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI), which aims to improve mathematics and science achievement in the state's K12 schools. This study is the first randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of AMSTI in improving mathematics problem solving and science achievement in upperelementary and middle schools. AMSTI is an initiative specific to Alabama and was developed and supported through state resources. An important finding is the positive and statistically significant effect of AMSTI on mathematics achievement as measured by the SAT 10 mathematics problem solving assessment administered by the state to students in grades 48. After one year in the program, student mathematics scores were higher than those of a control group that did not receive AMSTI by 0.05 standard deviation, equivalent to 2 percentile points. Nine of the 10 sensitivity analyses yielded effect estimates that were statistically significant at the 0.025 level, consistent with the main finding. The estimated effect of AMSTI on science achievement measured after one year was not statistically significant. Based on the SAT 10 science test administered by the state to students in grades 5 and 7, no difference between AMSTI and control schools could be discerned after one year. Changes in classroom instructional strategies, especially an emphasis on more activelearning strategies, are important to the AMSTI theory of action. Therefore, a secondary investigation of classroom practices was conducted, based on data from survey responses from teachers. For both mathematics and science, statistically significant differences were found between AMSTI and control teachers in the average reported time spent using the strategies. The effect of AMSTI on these instructional strategies was 0.47 standard deviation in mathematics and 0.32 standard deviation in science. Two years of AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on achievement in mathematics problem solving, compared to no AMSTI. Two years of AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on achievement in science. AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on reading achievement as measured by the SAT 10 test of reading administered by the state to students in grades 48. AMSTI did not appear to have a statistically significant effect on teacherreported content knowledge in mathematics or science after one year. AMSTI did not appear to have statistically significant differential effects on student achievement in mathematics problem solving or science based on racial/ethnic minority status, enrollment in the free or reducedprice lunch program, gender, or pretest level. Appended are: (1) Explanation of primary and secondary confirmatory outcome measures; (2) Explanation of exploratory research questions; (3) Selection and random assignment of schools; (4) Statistical power analysis; (5) Data collection procedures and timeline; (6) Description of program implementation data collected but not used in report; (7) Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) teacher survey #3; (8) Data cleaning and data file construction; (9) Attrition through study stages for samples used in the confirmatory analysis; (10) Description of degree rank; (11) Equivalence of Year 1 baseline and analyzed samples for confirmatory studentlevel and classroom practice outcomes; (12) Internal consistency and validity of active learning measures; (13) Number of students and teachers in schools in analytic samples used to analyze Year 1 confirmatory questions; (14) Attrition through study stages for samples used in Year 1 exploratory analysis; (15) Tests of equivalence for baseline and analytic samples for Year 1 exploratory outcomes; (16) Statistical power analyses for moderator analyses; (17) Derivation and motivation of the BellBradley estimator when measuring estimated twoyear effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI); (18) Attrition through study stages for samples contributing to estimation of twoyear effects; (19) Examination of equivalence in baseline and analytic samples used in the estimation of twoyear effects; (20) Estimation model for twoyear effects of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI); (21) Topics and instructional methods used at the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) summer institute; (22) Parameter estimates on probability scale for oddsratio tests of differences between Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control conditions in Year 1 (associated with summer professional development and inschool support outcomes); (23) Descriptive statistics for variables that change to a binary scale used in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control conditions in Year 1; (24) Comparison of assumed parameter values and observed sample statistics for statistical power analysis after one year; (25) Parameter estimates for Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) mathematics problem solving after one year; (26) Parameter estimates for Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) science after one year; (27) Parameter estimates for active learning in mathematics after one year; (28) Parameter estimates for active learning in science after one year; (29) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) mathematics problem solving achievement after one year; (30) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) science achievement after one year; (31) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on active learning instructional strategies in mathematics classrooms after one year; (32) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on active learning instructional strategies in science classrooms after one year; (33) Tests for violations of factors associated with assumption of equal first year effects on students in Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control schools; (34) Post hoc adjustment to standard error for estimate of twoyear effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on mathematics achievement after two years; (35) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) after two years; (36) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on student reading achievement after one year; (37) Parameter estimates for teacher content and student engagement after one year; (38) Estimates of effects for terms involving the indicator of treatment status in the analysis of the moderating effect of the threelevel pretest variable; (39) Parameter estimates for the analysis of the moderating effect of racial/ethnic minority status on the impact of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading after one year; (40) Parameter estimates for analysis of average effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading by racial/ethnic minority students after one year; and (41) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading for White students after one year. (Contains 26 figures, 136 tables, 1 box and 130 footnotes.)

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Access to Algebra I: The Effects of Online Mathematics for Grade 8 Students. NCEE 20124021 (2011)
This report presents findings from a randomized control trial designed to inform the decisions of policymakers who are considering using online courses to provide access to Algebra I in grade 8. It focuses on students judged by their schools to be ready to take Algebra I in grade 8 but who attend schools that do not offer the course. The study tested the impact of offering an online Algebra I course on students' algebra achievement at the end of grade 8 and their subsequent likelihood of participating in an advanced mathematics course sequence in high school. The study was designed to respond to both broad public interest in the deployment of online courses for K12 students and to calls from policymakers to provide students with adequate pathways to advanced coursetaking sequences in mathematics (National Mathematics Advisory Panel 2008). This study is the first of its kind to rigorously evaluate the impact of offering an online version of Algebra I in schools that otherwise do not typically offer the course, even though they have students who are ready to take it. For educators and students facing similar challenges, the results of this study may be particularly informative and promising. Results showed that offering an online course to AR students is an effective way to broaden access to Algebra I in grade 8 and later, to more challenging mathematics course opportunities. The study demonstrates that an online course as implemented is more effective in promoting students' success in mathematics than existing practices in these schools. Appended are: (1) Study Design, Study Samples, and Statistical Precision; (2) Measures; (3) Intervention Features; (4) Estimation Methods and Hypothesis Testing; (5) Sensitivity Analyses; and (6) Missing Data and Multiple Imputation. (Contains 77 tables, 12 figures and 61 footnotes.)

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Evaluation of Rocketship Education’s use of DreamBox Learning’s online mathematics program. (2011)

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Large scale, randomized cluster design study of the relative effectiveness of reformbased and traditional/verification curricula in supporting student science learning. (2010, March)

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Accommodations for English Language Learner Students: The Effect of Linguistic Modification of Math Test Item Sets. Final Report. NCEE 20094079 (2010)
This study examined the effect of linguistic modification on middle school students' ability to show what they know and can do on math assessments. REL West's study on middle school math assessment accommodations found that simplifying the languageor linguistic modificationon standardized math test items made it easier for English Language learners to focus on and grasp math concepts, and thus was a more accurate assessment of their math skills. The results contribute to the body of knowledge informing assessment practices and accommodations appropriate for English language learner students. The study examined students' performance on two sets of math itemsboth the originally worded items and those that had been modified. Researchers analyzed results from three subgroups of studentsEnglish learners (EL), nonEnglish language arts proficient (NEP), and English language arts proficient (EP) students. Key results include: (1) Linguistically modifying the language of mathematics test items did not change the math knowledge being assessed; (2) The effect of linguistic modification on students' math performance varied between the three student subgroups. The results also varied depending on how scores were calculated for each student; and (3) For each of the four scoring approaches analyzed, the effect of linguistic modification was greatest for EL students, followed by NEP and EP students. The report is structured as follows. Following an Executive Summary and a Study Overview, Chapter 2 describes the study design, sample selection and recruitment, item set development processes, and standardized administration procedures. Chapter 3 describes the implementation of the accommodation (linguistic modification), including discussion of considerations and methods for data analysis. Chapter 4 presents findings from data analyses. Chapter 5 summarizes and interprets key findings, describes study challenges, comments on implications of the findings, and offers recommendations for future research. Appendices include: (1) Power analysis for primary research questions; (2) Operational test administration manual; (3) Student Language Background Survey; (4) Guide for developing a linguistically modified assessment; (5) Workgroup training materials; (6) Overview and protocol for cognitive interviews; (7) Item parameter estimates for IRT models; (8) Descriptive statistics from four scoring approaches; (9) ANOVA findings across four scoring approaches; (10) Crossapproach comparisons; (11) Results of the classical itemlevel analyses; (12) Summary of differential item functioning findings; (13) Exploratory factor analysis results; (14) Operational item setoriginal; and (15) Operational item setlinguistically modified. (Contains 31 tables, 10 figures, and 45 footnotes.)

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Integration of Technology, Curriculum, and Professional Development for Advancing Middle School Mathematics: Three LargeScale Studies (2010)
The authors present three studies (two randomized controlled experiments and one embedded quasiexperiment) designed to evaluate the impact of replacement units targeting student learning of advanced middle school mathematics. The studies evaluated the SimCalc approach, which integrates an interactive representational technology, paper curriculum, and teacher professional development. Each study addressed both replicability of findings and robustness across Texas settings, with varied teacher characteristics (backgrounds, knowledge, attitudes) and student characteristics (demographics, levels of prior mathematics knowledge). Analyses revealed statistically significant main effects, with studentlevel effect sizes of 0.63, 0.50, and 0.56. These consistent gains support the conclusion that SimCalc is effective in enabling a wide variety of teachers in a diversity of settings to extend student learning to more advanced mathematics. (Contains 4 tables, 5 figures, and 1 note.)

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Learning the Control of Variables Strategy in Higher and Lower Achieving Classrooms: Contributions of Explicit Instruction and Experimentation (2010)
Students (n = 797) from 36 4thgrade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy for designing experiments. In the instruct condition, classes were taught in an interactive lecture format. In the manipulate condition, students worked in groups to design and run experiments to determine the effects of four variables. In the both condition, classes received the interactive lecture and also designed and ran experiments. We assessed students' understanding using a written test of their ability to distinguish valid from invalid experimental comparisons. Performance on this test improved from the pretest to the immediate posttest in all conditions, and gains were maintained at a 5month delay. For students from both higher and lower achieving schools, gains ordered as follows: both greater than instruct greater than manipulate. However, students from higher achieving schools showed greater gains in all conditions. Item analyses showed that the interactive lecture improved students' understanding of the need to control irrelevant variables, and experimentation improved students' understanding of the need to vary the focal variable. (Contains 4 tables, 2 figures and 1 footnote.)

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The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study Final Report: The Impact of Supplemental Literacy Courses for Struggling NinthGrade Readers. NCEE 20104021 (2010)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), just over 70 percent of students nationally arrive in high school with reading skills that are below "proficient"defined as demonstrating competency over challenging subject matter. Of these students, nearly half do not exhibit even partial mastery of the knowledge and skills that are fundamental to proficient work at grade level. These limitations in literacy skills are a major source of course failure, high school dropout, and poor performance in postsecondary education. While research is beginning to emerge about the special needs of striving adolescent readers, very little is known about effective interventions aimed at addressing these needs. To help fill this gap and to provide evidencebased guidance to practitioners, the U.S. Department of Education initiated the Enhanced Reading Opportunities (ERO) studya demonstration and rigorous evaluation of supplemental literacy programs targeted to ninthgrade students whose reading skills are at least two years below grade level. As part of this demonstration, 34 high schools from 10 school districts implemented one of two reading interventions: Reading Apprenticeship Academic Literacy (RAAL), designed by WestEd, and Xtreme Reading, designed by the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. These programs were implemented in the study schools for two school years. The U.S. Department of Education's (ED) Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) funded the implementation of these programs, and its Institute of Education Sciences (IES) was responsible for oversight of the evaluation. MDRCa nonprofit, nonpartisan education and social policy research organizationconducted the evaluation in partnership with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Survey Research Management (SRM). The goal of the reading interventionswhich consist of a yearlong course that replaces a ninthgrade elective classis to help striving adolescent readers develop the strategies and routines used by proficient readers, thereby improving their reading skills and ultimately, their academic performance in high school. The first two reports for the study evaluated the programs' impact on the two most proximal outcomes targeted by the interventionsstudents' reading skills and their reading behaviors at the end of ninth grade. This reportwhich is the final of three reports for this evaluationexamines the impact of the ERO programs on the more general outcomes that the programs hope to affectstudents' academic performance in high school (grade point average [GPA], credit accumulation, and state test scores) as well as students' behavioral outcomes (attendance and disciplinary infractions). These academic and behavioral outcomes are examined during the year in which they were enrolled in the ERO programs (ninth grade), as well as the following school year (tenth grade for most students). Appendices include: (1) The ERO Programs and the ERO Teachers; (2) ERO Student Survey Measures; (3) ERO Implementation Fidelity; (4) State Tests Included in the ERO Study; (5) Response Analysis and Baseline Comparison Tables; (6) Technical Notes for Impact Findings; (7) Statistical Power and Minimum Detectable Effect Size; (8) Supplementary Impact Findings; (9) Baseline and Impact Findings, by Cohort; (10) The Association Between Reading Outcomes and Academic Performance in High School; (11) Variation in Impacts Across Sites and Cohorts; (12) Program Costs; and (13) Poststudy Adolescent Literacy Programming in the ERO Schools: Methodology and Additional Findings. (Contains 97 tables, 23 figures, 2 boxes, and 185 footnotes.) [This paper was written with Edmond Wong. For the firstyear report, see ED499778. For the second report, see ED503380.]

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Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools (2010)
Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school environments by creating improved systems and procedures that promote positive change in student behavior by targeting staff behaviors. This study uses data from a 5year longitudinal randomized controlled effectiveness trial of SWPBIS conducted in 37 elementary schools to examine the impact of training in SWPBIS on implementation fidelity as well as student suspensions, office discipline referrals, and academic achievement. Schoollevel longitudinal analyses indicated that the schools trained in SWPBIS implemented the model with high fidelity and experienced significant reductions in student suspensions and office discipline referrals. (Contains 1 table and 5 figures.)

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Head Start Impact Study. Final Report (2010)
This report addresses the following four questions by reporting on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and 1st grade years: (1) What difference does Head Start make to key outcomes of development and learning (and in particular, the multiple domains of school readiness) for lowincome children? (2) What difference does Head Start make to parental practices that contribute to children's school readiness? (3) Under what circumstances does Head Start achieve the greatest impact? What works for which children? (4) What Head Start services are most related to impact? The Head Start Impact Study was conducted with a nationally representative sample of 84 grantee/delegate agencies and included nearly 5,000 newly entering, eligible 3 and 4yearold children who were randomly assigned to either: (1) a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or (2) a control group that did not have access to Head Start, but could enroll in other early childhood programs or nonHead Start services selected by their parents. The study was designed to separately examine two cohorts of children, newly entering 3and 4yearolds. This design reflects the hypothesis that different program impacts may be associated with different age of entry into Head Start. Differential impacts are of particular interest in light of a trend of increased enrollment of the 3yearolds in some grantee/delegate agencies presumably due to the growing availability of preschool options for 4yearolds. Consequently, the study included two separate samples: a newly entering 3yearold group (to be studied through two years of Head Start participation i.e., Head Start year and age 4 year, kindergarten and 1st grade), and a newly entering 4yearold group (to be studied through one year of Head Start participation, kindergarten and 1st grade). The study showed that the two age cohorts varied in demographic characteristics, making it even more appropriate to examine them separately. The racial/ethnic characteristics of newly entering children in the 3yearold cohort were substantially different from the characteristics of children in the newly entering 4yearold cohort. While the newly entering 3yearolds were relatively evenly distributed between Black children and Hispanic children (Black children 32.8%, Hispanic children 37.4%, and White/other children 29.8%), about half of newly entering 4yearolds were Hispanic children (Black children 17.5%, Hispanic children 51.6%, and White/other children 30.8%). The ethnic difference is also reflected in the agegroup differences in child and parent language. This report presents the findings from the preschool years through children's 1st grade experience. This document consists of the Executive Summary and nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents the study background, including a literature review of related Head Start research and the study purpose and objectives. Chapter 2 provides details about the study design and implementation. It discusses the experimental design, sample selection prior to random assignment, data collection, and data analysis. To provide a context in which to understand the impact findings, Chapter 3 examines the impact of Head Start on the services and child care settings that children experience prior to starting school. It also provides the impact of Head Start on the educational and child care settings, setting characteristics, and services that children experience during kindergarten and 1st grade. Chapters 4 through 7 present the impact of Head Start on children's outcomes and parenting practices for the years before school and then for kindergarten and 1st grade. Chapter 4 presents the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive development, Chapter 5 presents the impact of Head Start on children's socialemotional development, Chapter 6 presents the impact of Head Start on children's health status and access to health services, and Chapter 7 presents the impact of Head Start on parenting practices in the areas of educational activities, discipline practices, and school involvement. Chapter 8 examines variation in impacts by child characteristics, parent and family characteristics, and community characteristics. Chapter 9 provides an overall summary of the findings, implications for the Head Start Program, and unanswered questions. Appendices in this volume include the Head Start Impact Study legislation, a list of the official Head Start Impact Study Advisory Committee members, the language decision form used to determine the language in which the child was assessed, and data tables that elaborate on the findings presented in the volume (e.g., Impact on Treated (IOT) findings). The findings from a sample of programs in Puerto Rico are also provided in an appendix. Programs in Puerto Rico were included in the study with the intent that data on children in these programs would be analyzed along with the data on children in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, once children reached schoolage. (Contains 1 figure, 117 footnotes, and 114 exhibits.) [The ERIC version of this document contains the following supplementary materials: Head Start Impact Study Main Impact Tables, 2003 through 2006; and Head Start Impact Study Subgroup Impact Tables, 2003 through 2006. For the "Head Start Impact Study Technical Report," see ED507846. For the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report. Executive Summary," see ED507847.]

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Can Interdistrict Choice Boost Student Achievement? The Case of Connecticut's Interdistrict Magnet School Program (2009)
Connecticut's interdistrict magnet schools offer a model of choicebased desegregation that appears to satisfy current legal constraints. This study presents evidence that interdistrict magnet schools have provided students from Connecticut's central cities access to less racially and economically isolated educational environments and estimates the impact of attending a magnet school on student achievement. To address potential selection biases, the analyses exploit the random assignment that results from lotterybased admissions for a small set of schools, as well as valueadded and fixedeffect estimators that rely on premagnet school measures of student achievement to obtain effect estimates for a broader set of interdistrict magnet schools. Results indicate that attendance at an interdistrict magnet high school has positive effects on the math and reading achievement of central city students and that interdistrict magnet middle schools have positive effects on reading achievement. (Contains 20 notes, 8 tables, and 1 figure.)

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Evaluation of the Computer and Team Assisted Mathematical Acceleration (CATAMA) Lab for Urban, HighPoverty, High Minority Middle Grade Students. Final Report to the Institute of Education Sciences (2008)
This project entailed a threeyear efficacy evaluation of the Computer and Team Assisted Mathematical Acceleration (CATAMA) Lab developed by the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University. The CATAMA Lab was proposed as an immediate and practical approach to addressing the different types of math deficits held by students at urban highpoverty schools. The Lab required only 1 teacher per school reducing staff and professional development requirements. It used multiple instructional techniques (including individualized computer instruction, direct instruction, pair and team learning, and individual instruction) to teach math concepts and skills. By taking the place of an elective it allowed students to continue with their ongrade math class. For a more detailed description of the Lab see Appendix 2. The original goal of the project was to establish the Lab at three urban schools serving highpoverty highminority middle grade students (grades 58). Students underperforming in mathematics (as established by district standardized tests) were to take a trimester course of study in the Lab to increase their knowledge of math concepts and skills taught by a regular math teacher receiving extensive ongoing professional development. Students were to take the Lab as an elective course while continuing with their regular math class. From each school's pool of students eligible to participate, students were to be randomly assigned to take the Lab. An implementation analysis was to measure the teaching of the concepts and skills to be taught in the Lab. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, students' math achievement, as measured by standardized math tests, was to be compared to eligible students not assigned to the Lab. This report discusses the project in three sections: (1) A comparison of the actual project with the planned project; (2) The descriptive results from the project; (a) Description of the sample; (b) Description of implementation of the CATAMA Lab; and (3) The evaluative results from the project.

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Alternative Routes to Teaching: The Impacts of Teach for America on Student Achievement and Other Outcomes (2006)
This paper reports on a randomized experiment to study the impact of an alternative teacher preparation program, Teach for America (TFA), on student achievement and other outcomes. We found that TFA teachers had a positive impact on math achievement and no impact on reading achievement. The size of the impact on math scores was about 15 percent of a standard deviation, equivalent to about one month of instruction. The general conclusions did not differ substantially for subgroups of teachers, including novice teachers, or for subgroups of students. We found no impacts on other student outcomes such as attendance, promotion, or disciplinary incidents, but TFA teachers were more likely to report problems with student behavior than were their peers. The findings contradict claims that such programs allowing teachers to bypass the traditional route to the classroom harm students.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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The Effects of Teach For America on Students: Findings from a National Evaluation. Discussion Paper no. 128504 (2004)
Teach For America (TFA) was founded in 1989 to address the educational inequities facing children in lowincome communities across the United States by expanding the pool of teacher candidates available to the schools those children attend. TFA recruits seniors and recent graduates from colleges around the country, people who are willing to commit to teach for a minimum of two years in lowincome schools. TFA focuses its recruitment on people with strong academic records and leadership capabilities, whether or not they have planned to teach or have taken education courses. TFA is particularly interested in candidates that have the potential to be effective in the classroom but in the absence of TFA would not consider a teaching career. Consequently, most TFA recruits do not have educationrelated majors in college and therefore have not received the same training that traditional teachers are expected to have. After an executive summary and introduction, this discussion paper addresses the following: (1) How TFA Works; (2) Study Design; (3) Who Teaches in the Schools Where TFA Places Teachers?; (4) What Does Our Sample of Students Look Like?; (5) Were TFA Teachers Effective in the Classroom?; and (6) Did TFA Have an Impact on Other Student Outcomes? Primary findings from the study include: from the perspective of a community or a school faced with the opportunity to hire TFA teachers, TFA offers an appealing pool of candidates; from the perspective of TFA and its funders, the organization is making progress toward its primary mission of reducing inequities in educationit supplies lowincome schools with academically talented teachers who contribute positively to the academic achievement of their students; and from the perspective of policymakers who are trying to improve the educational opportunities of children in poor communities, many of the control teachers in the study were not certified or did not have formal preservice training, highlighting the need for programs or policies that offer the potential of attracting good teachers to schools in the most disadvantaged communitiesthe findings show that TFA is one such program. Appended are: (1) Supplementary Tables; and (2) Estimation Approach. (Contains 17 tables and 6 figures.)

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Implementation study of Chemistry That Applies (2002–2003): SCALEuP Report No. 2. (2004)

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Improving science achievement  Is it possible? evaluating the efficacy of a high school chemistry and physics projectbased learning intervention (2022)

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Effects of an InquiryOriented Curriculum and Professional Development Program on Grade 7 Students' Understanding of Statistics and on Statistics Instruction. REL 2021055 (2021)
On average, Florida students earn only half of the points possible in the statistics content area of the state's annual mathematics assessment. Leaders in Broward County Public Schools, a large, diverse, urban school district, viewed changes to statistics curriculum and instruction as one way to address this issue. This study randomly assigned 40 middle schools in the district to either implement a replacement curriculum unit with four days of teacher professional development in probability and statistics or continue with their practiceasusual instruction in probability and statistics. The replacement unit supported teaching and learning of all the probability and statistics standards in the grade 7 course description. The replacement unit with the associated professional development, called the Supporting Teacher Enactment of the Probability and Statistics Standards program, improved student understanding of statistics and statistics instruction. The magnitude of the effect on student understanding was 23 percent of 1 standard deviation, which is comparable to an increase of 9 percentile points for an average student. [For the appendixes, see ED610168. For the study snapshot, see ED610167.]

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G[superscript 2]ROW STEM: Girls and Guys Realizing Opportunities with STEM (2021)
"G[superscript 2]ROW STEM" is an Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant funded by the Office of Innovation and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. "G[superscript 2]ROW STEM" targets highneed middle school students, particularly females and minorities, that tend to be underrepresented in STEM careers. "G[superscript 2]ROW STEM" focuses on providing students with engaging, handson, projectbased, extendedlearning experiences to inspire interest in STEM and improve achievement. The impact evaluation used a quasiexperimental design (QED) to examine the effect of "G[superscript 2]ROW STEM" on academic achievement in science and math. "G[superscript 2]ROW STEM" student enrollment began during the 201617 school year and students were followed for three years, through the 201819 school year. Academic achievement outcomes for "G[superscript 2]ROW STEM" students were compared to a matched sample of students within the same grade in the same schools who participated in businessasusual, traditional academic instruction with no extended learning experiences. Academic achievement for comparison students was also tracked over a threeyear period. Results showed statistically significant differences between treatment and comparison groups in achievement test scores across both math and science. Overall, treatment students gained seven NCE score points more than the comparison group students did after up to three years in the "G[superscript 2]ROW STEM" program. This is roughly equivalent to onethird of a standard deviation. Significant differences were also noted for student subgroups with nonminority students realizing slightly higher gains in NCE scores than minority students by the end of the program (over all analyses a difference of 2.25 NCE points).

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2015 Collaborative Regional Education (CORE) i3 Validation Study: Implementation and Impact Study Results. Final Report (2020)
Purpose: The purpose of this twoyear study was to assess the impact of the CORE program, a model that integrates technology and active learning modules in high schools by providing multidisciplinary teams of teachers and administrators with professional development and resources to support the development of students' noncognitive skills and increase their college and career readiness. A fidelity of implementation study was also conducted to assess the seven key program components were being implemented as intended. Methods: This Randomized Control Trial (RCT) study followed a cohort of 9th and 10th grade high school students in 28 treatment and control schools; students completed the CWRA+ assessment and noncognitive skills, engagement, and selfefficacy scales at three timepoints. Using the hierarchical linear model (HLM), the study assessed oneyear program impact and twoyear program impact. The twoyear program impact model suffered a high attrition (due to COVID19) and the study became a quasiexperimental design (QED) study after propensity score matching analysis was applied. Results: Findings highlight how students at CORE schools showed increased scores across the twoyear program intervention. Specifically, standardized effects on CWRA+ scores, the noncognitive skills scale, engagement scale, and efficacy scale were respectively, 0.22, 0.22, 0.23, and 0.32. The effect size for the efficacy scale (0.32) was large enough to be considered important. To selectively mention exploratory findings, the level of program exposure both in terms of whether students were enrolled in the programtrained teachers' courses and whether teachers participated in PD activities seemed correlated with a higher growth in student's CWRA+ scores. Another set of exploratory findings implied that the program impact may interact with demographic characteristics of students. Findings demonstrate a need for further testing of differences between student subgroups based on demographics, as well as the importance of buyin from program implementers to provide the customized PD support that educators and partners at rural schools need to more effectively serve their students. The exploratory findings suggested that the program exposure of teachers and students may be a key to enhance the CORE program impact. [This report was submitted by the ICF Evaluation Team.]

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Evaluating a Unit Aimed at Helping Students Understand Matter and Energy for Growth and Activity (2019)
To support implementation of the "Next Generation Science Standards," we designed a high school biology unit, "Matter and Energy for Growth and Activity" (MEGA), that engages students in explaining physical and life science phenomena using evidence, models, and science ideas about matter and energy changes within systems and transfers between systems. The unit's promise was evaluated using a randomized control trial (RCT) involving fifteen teachers from two schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to implement either the MEGA unit or districtdeveloped activities that targeted the same learning goals. Pre and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. Here we describe the unit and report on RCT results. Our data showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students in the treatment group performed better on the posttest than the students in the comparison group, indicating the MEGA unit has promise in improving students' understanding. We also discuss a number of challenges that arose when developing and evaluating the unit.

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Preparing School Leaders for Success: Evaluation of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals Program, 20122017 (2019)
A growing body of research points to the ways in which principals influence teachers, classrooms, and, ultimately, student achievement. New Leaders aims to prepare transformational school leaders by partnering with districts and charter schools to offer rigorous, researchbased training for aspiring principals. The Aspiring Principals program is New Leaders' signature program and has three core features: selective recruitment and admission, training and endorsement, and support for principals early in their tenure. This report is a followup to the 2014 evaluation of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals program. Focusing on the revised program, which was first implemented in 2012, the authors present evidence of the effectiveness of the revised Aspiring Principals program and share lessons that can inform principalpreparation policy and practice. To assess the effect of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals program, researchers analyzed whether schools and students led by graduates of the program outperformed comparison schools and students in the same district, focusing on student achievement and principal retention. They also examined program graduate placement and satisfaction with the Aspiring Principals program. [For the appendixes, see ED605724.]

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A StateWide QuasiExperimental Effectiveness Study of the Scaleup of SchoolWide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2019)
The threetiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework promotes the development of systems and data analysis to guide the selection and implementation of evidencebased practices across multiple tiers. The current study examined the effects of universal (tier 1) or schoolwide PBIS (SWPBIS) in one state's scaleup of this tier of the framework. Annual propensity score weights were generated to examine the longitudinal effects of SWPBIS from 200607 through 201112. Schoollevel archival and administrative data outcomes were examined using panel models with an autoregressive structure. The sample included 1,316 elementary, middle, and high schools. Elementary schools trained in SWPBIS demonstrated statistically significantly lower suspensions during the fourth and fifth study years (i.e., small effect size) and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the first two study years as well as in one and two later years (i.e., small to large effect sizes), respectively. Secondary schools implementing SWPBIS had statistically significantly lower suspensions and truancy rates during the second study year and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the second and third study years. These findings demonstrate medium effect sizes for all outcomes except suspensions. Given the widespread use of SWPBIS across nearly 26,000 schools in the U.S., this study has important implications for educational practices and policies. [This paper was published in the "Journal of School Psychology" v73 p4155 Apr 2019 (ISSN 00224405).]

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8

2

Equipping and empowering 8th grade mathematics teachers to create dynamic learning activities promoting conceptual understanding (2018, April 14)

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48

2

A yearlong statewide RCT of the Minnesota Math Corps: Final report to Laura and John Arnold Foundation (2018)

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35

2

Effects of the first year of a threeyear CGI teacher professional development program on grades 3–5 student achievement: A multisite clusterrandomized trial. (Research Report No. 201825) (2018)

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PK

2

Effects of the Tennessee Prekindergarten Program on children’s achievement and behavior through third grade (2018)

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K3

2

English Language and Literacy AcquisitionValidation (ELLAV) i3 Evaluation (Valid 22). Final Report (2018)
The English Language and Literacy AcquisitionValidation (ELLAV) study was a fiveyear evaluation of a program that provided professional development, coaching, and curricula that targeted Englishasasecondlanguage (ESL) instruction for teachers of K3 English learners (ELs). ELLAV was implemented in 10 school districts in Texas in the 201314 through 201617 school years. The project was federally funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund (PR/Award Number U411B120047). Professors at Texas A&M University were the recipients of the grant and developed the professional development, the coaching program, and the curricula. Researchers at the Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE) at Johns Hopkins University were contracted to conduct the independent evaluation. The evaluation of ELLAV was a multisite cluster randomized trial designed to meet the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for rigorous education research (WWC, 2017). The study used a mixed method design to estimate program impacts on student and teacher outcomes and document the fidelity of implementation and perceived quality of the program. [This report was published at the Center for Research and Reform in Education (ED594703). Principal Investigators were Rafael LaraAlecio, Beverly Irby, and Fuhui Tong. Cindy Guerrero and Laura CajiaoWingenbach were Lead Coordinators.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

K8

2

A comprehensive model of teacher induction: Implementation and impact on teachers and students. Evaluation of the New Teacher Center’s i3 Validation Grant, Final Report (2017)

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58

2

Enhancing Middle School Science Lessons with Playground Activities: A Study of the Impact of Playground Physics (2017)
Playground Physics is a technologybased application and accompanying curriculum designed by New York Hall of Science (NYSCI) to support middle school students' science engagement and learning of force, energy, and motion. The program includes professional development, the Playground Physics app, and a curriculum aligned with New York State Learning Standards, Common Core State Standards, and Next Generation Science Standards. The iOS app allows students to record and review videos through three "lenses": (1) motion; (2) force (Newton's third law); and (3) energy, and the curriculum integrates informal and formal, inquirybased learning strategies to promote greater student knowledge and understanding of physics. The program was designed to be implemented in a formal school setting during the regular school day. This report describes the results of an experimental study of the Playground Physics program's impact on learning of physics concepts, student engagement, and sciencerelated attitudes. Sixty New York City middle grade teachers were randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. Treatment teachers were asked to participate in Playground Physics professional development and use Playground Physics as part of their physics instruction during the 201516 academic year; control teachers were asked to use their regular instruction. In total, 15 teachers left the study. The final sample included student data from 24 treatment teachers and 21 control teachers. The following are appended: (1) Playground Physics Curriculum Activities; (2) Student Outcome Measures; (3) Teacher Survey; (4) Impact Analysis Technical Approach; (5) Output from Statistical Models; (6) Knowledge Assessment Responses and Standards Alignment; (7) 201415 Fidelity of Implementation Analysis; and (8) Supplemental Analysis.

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68

2

The Urban Advantage: The impact of informal science collaborations on student achievement (2017)

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78

2

Impact Results of the eMINTS Professional Development Validation Study: Professional Development Validation Study (2016)
This article presents the findings of an evaluation of the eMINTS (enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies) professional development program. eMINTS is an intensive teacher professional development program designed to promote inquirybased learning, support highquality lesson design, build community among students and teachers, and create technologyrich learning environments. This evaluation included 60 highpoverty rural schools across Missouri that were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions and a control condition, with approximately 200 teachers and 3,000 students in the 20112012 baseline academic year. The researchers conclude that after 3 years, the eMINTS treatment group and an eMINTS treatment group with an additional year of Intel support resulted in changed teacher instructional behaviors and increased student achievement in mathematics.

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38

2

National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from Washington State (2016)
We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National BoardCertified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on valueadded models in math and reading, we find that NBPTScertified teachers are about 0.010.05 student standard deviations more effective than nonNBCTS with similar levels of experience. Certification effects vary by subject, grade level, and certification type, with greater effects for middle school math certificates. We find mixed evidence that teachers who pass the assessment are more effective than those who fail, but that the underlying NBPTS assessment score predicts student achievement.

Reviews of Individual Studies

38

2

Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of SocialEmotional and Misconduct Behaviors (2016)
Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the "Positive Action" program (PA) on behavioral trajectories of socialemotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a clusterrandomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately lowincome, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "High/declining" and "Low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "Low/rising" and "High/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other schoolbased universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of schoolwide improvements in student outcomes. [This paper was published in "Prevention Science" v18 p214224 2017.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

7

2

Effects of a ResearchBased Intervention to Improve SeventhGrade Students' Proportional Problem Solving: A Cluster Randomized Trial (2015)
This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of a researchbased intervention, schemabased instruction (SBI), on students' proportional problem solving. SBI emphasizes the underlying mathematical structure of problems, uses schematic diagrams to represent information in the problem text, provides explicit problem solving and metacognitive strategy instruction, and focuses on the flexible use of multiple solution strategies. Eightytwo teachers/classrooms with a total of 1,999 seventhgrade students across 50 school districts were randomly assigned to a treatment (SBI) or control (businessasusual) condition. An observational measure provided evidence that the SBI intervention was implemented with fidelity. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that the SBI group scored on average significantly higher than the control group on the posttest and retention test (9 weeks later) and also showed significantly more growth in proportional problem solving. There were no treatment effects on the Process and Applications subtest of the Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation. These results demonstrate that SBI can be more effective than the control approach in improving students' proportional problem solving. [This paper was published in the "Journal of Educational Psychology," (EJ1082754).]

Reviews of Individual Studies

68

2

Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes. Final Report of KIPP's "Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation" (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longerterm outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first highquality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other nonKIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (LotteryBased Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (LotteryBased Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (MatchedStudent Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (MatchedStudent Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (MatchedSchool Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

1

2

Intervention for First Graders with Limited Number Knowledge: LargeScale Replication of a Randomized Controlled Trial (2015)
Replication studies are extremely rare in education. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scaleup replication of Fuchs et al., which in a sample of 139 found a statistically significant positive impact for Number Rockets, a smallgroup intervention for atrisk first graders that focused on building understanding of number operations. The study was relatively small scale (one site) and highly controlled. This replication was implemented at a much larger scalein 76 schools in four urban districts; 994 atrisk students participated. Intervention students participated in approximately 30 hours of smallgroup work in addition to classroom instruction; control students received typical instruction and whatever assistance the teacher would normally provide. Intervention students showed significantly superior performance on a broad measure of mathematics proficiency.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

2

A Randomized Control Trial of a Statewide Voluntary Prekindergarten Program on Children's Skills and Behaviors through Third Grade. Research Report (2015)
In 2009, Vanderbilt University's Peabody Research Institute, in coordination with the Tennessee Department of Education's Division of Curriculum and Instruction, initiated a rigorous, independent evaluation of the state's Voluntary Prekindergarten program (TN VPK). TNVPK is a fullday prekindergarten program for fouryearold children expected to enter kindergarten the following school year. The program in each participating school district must meet standards set by the State Board of Education that require each classroom to have a teacher with a license in early childhood development and education, an adultstudent ratio of no less than 1:10, a maximum class size of 20, and an approved ageappropriate curriculum. TNVPK is an optional program focused on the neediest children in the state. It uses a tiered admission process, with children from lowincome families who apply to the program admitted first. Any remaining seats in a given location are then allocated to otherwise atrisk children, including those with disabilities and limited English proficiency. The current report presents findings from this evaluation summarizing the longitudinal effects of TNVPK on prekindergarten through third grade achievement and behavioral outcomes for an Intensive Substudy Sample of 1076 children, of which 773 were randomly assigned to attend TNVPK classrooms and 303 were not admitted. Both groups have been followed since the beginning of the prek year.

Reviews of Individual Studies

912

2

Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes. Final Report of KIPP's "Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation" (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longerterm outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first highquality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other nonKIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (LotteryBased Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (LotteryBased Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (MatchedStudent Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (MatchedStudent Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (MatchedSchool Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

K12

2

Preparing Principals to Raise Student Achievement: Implementation and Effects of the New Leaders Program in Ten Districts. Research Report (2014)
New Leaders is a nonprofit organization with a mission to ensure high academic achievement for all students by developing outstanding school leaders to serve in urban schools. Its premise is that a combination of preparation and improved working conditions for principals, especially greater autonomy, would lead to improved student outcomes. Its approach involves both preparing principals and partnering with school districts and charter management organizations (CMOs) to improve the conditions in which its highly trained principals work. As part of the partnerships, New Leaders agrees to provide carefully selected and trained principals who can be placed in schools that need principals and to provide coaching and other support after those principals are placed. The districts and CMOs agree to establish working conditions that support, rather than hinder, the principals' efforts to improve student outcomes. This report describes how the New Leaders program was implemented in partner districts, and it provides evidence of the effect that New Leaders has on student achievement. [The research in this report was produced within RAND Education. For the appendices that accompany this report, see ED561154. For the research brief, "Principal Preparation Matters: How Leadership Development Affects Student Achievement. Research Brief," see ED561155.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

312

2

The Effects of Teacher Entry Portals on Student Achievement (2014)
The current teacher workforce is younger, less experienced, more likely to turnover, and more diverse in preparation experiences than the workforce of two decades ago. Research shows that inexperienced teachers are less effective, but we know little about the effectiveness of teachers with different types of preparation. In this study, we classify North Carolina public school teachers into "portals"fixed and mutually exclusive categories that capture teachers' formal preparation and qualifications upon first entering the professionand estimate the adjusted average test score gains of students taught by teachers from each portal. Compared with undergraduateprepared teachers from instate public universities, (a) outofstate undergraduateprepared teachers are less effective in elementary grades and high school, (b) alternative entry teachers are less effective in high school, and (c) Teach For America corps members are more effective in STEM subjects and secondary grades.

Reviews of Individual Studies

25

2

Alignment of game design features and state mathematics standards: Do results reflect intentions? (2014)

Reviews of Individual Studies

12

2

After Two Years, Three Elementary Math Curricula Outperform a Fourth. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 20134019 (2013)
This brief aims to help educators understand the implications of math curriculum choice in the early elementary grades by presenting new findings from a study that examined how four math curricula affect students' achievement across two yearsfrom 1st through 2nd grades. The four curricula were (1) Investigations in Number, Data, and Space (Investigations); (2) Math Expressions; (3) Saxon Math (Saxon); and (4) Scott ForesmanAddison Wesley Mathematics (SFAW), which the developer revised and renamed enVision Math (enVision) during the study. These curricula are widely used and differ in their approaches to teaching and learning. Within districts, we randomly assigned one of the four curricula to each school that participated in the study. After one year (by the end of 1st grade), students taught with Math Expressions and Saxon made greater gains in achievement than students taught with Investigations and SFAW. After two years (by the end of 2nd grade), Investigations students continued to lag behind Math Expressions and Saxon students, while SFAW/enVision students caught up to Math Expressions and Saxon students. Therefore, Math Expressions, Saxon, and SFAW/enVision improved 1stthrough2ndgrade math achievement by similar amounts, and all three outperformed Investigations. Our findings also suggest that switching between some of the study's curricula does not harm student achievement and can even be beneficial. (Contains 24 endnotes, 3 figures, and 2 tables.) [For "After Two Years, Three Elementary Math Curricula Outperform a Fourth. NCEE Technical Appendix. NCEE 20134019", see ED544187.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

68

2

Impacts of Five Expeditionary Learning Middle Schools on Academic Achievement (2013)
Expeditionary Learning (EL) is a growing provider of curriculum and professional development services to teachers and school leaders. The EL model combines an interdisciplinary instructional approach with ongoing training and coaching for teachers and school leaders. The EL curriculum uses an experiential approach in which students conduct research projects to share with outside audiences. Learning expeditionscasestudies of academic topicsoften bring together teachers from different subjects to coordinate shared projects; this curriculum includes several elements that are closely aligned with the Common Core standards for Englishlanguage arts and literacy. As of the 20102011 school year, EL's network included a total of 161 schools in 30 states. This report presents findings from the first rigorous study of the impacts of EL schools. This research aims to use the best available quasiexperimental methods to estimate the impacts of five urban EL middle schools on students' reading and math test scores. Using the study's data on student characteristics, the report also provides additional descriptive information on the types of students who enroll in EL schools. [The report was submitted to Expeditionary Learning.]

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5

2

Evaluation of the 20102011 Reasoning Mind program in Beaumont ISD. (2013)

Reviews of Individual Studies

1

2

Evaluating Math Recovery: Assessing the Causal Impact of a Diagnostic Tutoring Program on Student Achievement (2013)
Mathematics Recovery (MR) is designed to identify first graders who are struggling in mathematics and provide them with intensive onetoone tutoring. We report findings from a 2year evaluation of MR conducted in 20 elementary schools across five districts in two states. The design allowed for the estimation of the counterfactual growth trajectory based on those students randomly assigned either to a tutoring cohort with a delayed start or to a wait list. Results demonstrate strong end of first grade effects on a diagnostic measure developed by MR and weak to moderate effects (effect size, 0.150.30) on measures administered by external evaluators. By the end of second grade, no significant effects were found on any measures. Practical and research implications are discussed. (Contains 7 tables, 3 figures, and 5 notes.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

48

2

An Evaluation of the Chicago Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP) after Four Years. Final Report (2012)
In 2007, using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began piloting its version of a schoolwide reform model called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP). Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and take on increased responsibilities through promotion (to mentor teacher or master teacher), and they become eligible for annual performance bonuses based on a combination of their contribution to student achievement (known as "value added") and observed performance in the classroom. The model calls for weekly meetings of teachers and mentors ("cluster groups"), and regular classroom observations by a school leadership team to help teachers meet their performance goals. The idea behind TAP is that giving teachers performance incentives, along with tools to track their performance and improve instruction, will help schools attract and retain talented teachers and help all teachers raise student achievement. This report is the last in a series of reports providing evidence on the impacts of CPS' version of TAP, called "Chicago TAP." It presents findings from the fouryear implementation period, with special emphasis on the 20092010 and 20102011 school years, the third and fourth years of the program's rollout in Chicago. Earlier reports (Glazerman et al. 2009; Glazerman and Seifullah 2010) provide detailed data on each of the first two years of the program, respectively. CPS implemented Chicago TAP as a pilot program intended for 40 highneed schools. The program began in 10 schools in the first year (cohort 1) with a rollout plan to add 10 more Chicago TAP schools (cohorts 2, 3, and 4) in each year of the TIF grant's fouryear implementation period. The authors address three research questions regarding Chicago TAP: (1) How was the program implemented?; (2) What impact did the program have on student achievement?; and (3) What impact did the program have on teacher retention within schools? To assess the first year under Chicago TAP for schools that began the program in fall 2009 (cohort 3), the authors looked at how teacher development and compensation practices in Chicago TAP schools differ from practices normally implemented in CPS schools. The authors found that teachers in Chicago TAP schools reported receiving significantly more mentoring support than teachers in similar nonTAP (control) schools. This finding reflects the fact that under the Chicago TAP model, teachers are guided by mentor teachers, and cluster groups meet weekly. They also found that veteran teachers in Chicago TAP schools were more likely than their control group counterparts to provide mentoring support to their colleagues; this finding is consistent with the fact that under Chicago TAP, teachers have the opportunity to assume leadership roles and responsibilities as Chicago TAP mentor or lead teachers. Teachers in Chicago TAP schools (veteran and novice) were aware of their eligibility for performancebased compensation. The authors found that the amount of compensation they expected approached the amount that was eventually paid out; that is, the average expectation was about $900, and the actual amount paid out in bonuses to this group was an average of about $1,100 per teacher. They generally did not find evidence of an impact of Chicago TAP on teacher attitudes or school climate. While the introduction of Chicago TAP led to real changes inside the schools, the program did not consistently raise student achievement as measured by growth in Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) scores. The authors found evidence of both positive and negative test score impacts in selected subjects, years, and cohorts of schools, but overall there was no detectable impact on math, reading, or science achievement that was robust to different methods of estimation. For example, impacts on science scores overall (across years and cohorts) were positive, but not statistically significant unless they used one particular matching method that excluded some Chicago TAP schools from the analysis. The authors did find evidence suggesting that Chicago TAP increased schools' retention of teachers, although the impacts were not uniform or universal across years, cohorts, and subgroups of teachers. They found that teachers who were working in Chicago TAP schools in 2007 returned in each of the following three years at higher rates than teachers in comparable nonTAP schools. For example, the authors found that 67 percent of classroom teachers in cohort 1 schools in fall 2007 returned to their same school in fall 2010 compared to about 56 percent of teachers in nonTAP schools, an impact of nearly 12 percentage points. In other words, teachers in Chicago TAP schools in fall 2007 were about 20% more likely than teachers in comparison schools to be in those same schools three years later. When the authors looked at teachers who were working in schools that started Chicago TAP in later years, some of the impact estimates were not statistically significant. The authors also found some evidence of impacts on retention for subgroups of teachers, such as those with less experience, but the pattern of findings was not consistent. When they considered retention of teachers in the district, the authors did not find consistent evidence of a measurable impact. Given that Chicago TAP is a schoolspecific program, their main focus was on schoollevel retention, as opposed to retention in the district. Appended are: (1) Propensity Score Matching; and (2) Supplemental Tables. (Contains 32 tables, 6 figures and 27 footnotes.) [For related reports, see "An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year One Impact Report. Final Report" (ED507502) and "An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report" (ED510712).]

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48

2

Evaluation of Teach For America in Texas schools. (2012)

Reviews of Individual Studies

310

2

MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fifth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #29 (2012)
This is the final report in a fiveyear evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 200607. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides governmentfunded vouchers for lowincome children to attend private schools in the City of Milwaukee. The maximum voucher amount in 201011 was $6,442, and 20,996 children used a voucher to attend either secular or religious private schools. The MPCP is the oldest and largest urban school voucher program in the United States. This evaluation was authorized by 2005 Wisconsin Act 125, which was enacted in 2006. The primary purpose of the evaluation is twofold: 1) to analyze the effectiveness of the MPCP in promoting growth in student achievement as compared to MPS; and 2) to examine the educational attainmentmeasured by high school graduation and college enrollment ratesof MPCP and MPS students. The first purpose is accomplished by gauging growth in student achievementas measured by the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examinations (WKCE) in math and reading in grades 3 through 8 and grade 10over a fiveyear period for a sample of MPCP students and a carefully matched group of MPS students. The second purpose is accomplished by following the 200607 8th and 9th grade MPCP and matched MPS cohorts over a fiveyear period during which they would have had the opportunity to graduate from high school and enroll in college. Appended are: (1) Descriptive Statistics; (2) Attrition Study; and (3) Stability of the Sample. (Contains 4 figures, 12 tables and 14 footnotes.) [For the "MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fourth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 23", see ED518597. Additional support for this report was provided by the Robertson Foundation.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

912

2

Evaluation of Green Dot's Locke Transformation Project: Findings for Cohort 1 and 2 Students. CRESST Report 815 (2012)
With funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, CRESST conducted a multiyear evaluation of a major school reform project at Alain Leroy Locke High School, historically one of California's lowest performing secondary schools. Beginning in 2007, Locke High School transitioned into a set of smaller, Green Dot Charter High Schools, subsequently referred to as Green Dot Locke (GDL) in this report. Based on 9th grade students who entered GDL in 2007 and 2008 respectively, CRESST used a range of student outcomes to monitor progress of the GDL transformation. The CRESST evaluation, employing a strong quasiexperimental design with propensity score matching, found statistically significant, positive effects for the GDL transformation including improved achievement, school persistence, and completion of college preparatory courses. Appended are: (1) Demographic Characteristics and Achievement of the Freshmen at GDL and LAUSD; (2) Cohort Specific Descriptives; and (3) General Descriptives. (Contains 17 figures, 43 tables and 6 footnotes.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

2

Scaling up the Implementation of a PreKindergarten Mathematics Intervention in Public Preschool Programs (2012)
A socioeconomic status (SES) gap in mathematical knowledge emerges early and widens prior to school entry. To address this gap, a curricular intervention, "PreK Mathematics," was developed and found to be effective in prior efficacy research. In the present project, the next step was taken in evaluating this intervention. Specifically, an effectiveness study was conducted to determine the degree to which the intervention improves prekindergarten (4yearold) children's mathematical knowledge when implemented by local program staff in multiple settings that serve a heterogeneous population of lowSES families. In contrast with the prior efficacy study, the effectiveness study required that all teachers, rather than volunteer teachers, in their public preschool programs be available for random selection and random assignment. It also used curriculum coaches who were either members of the participating school districts or Head Start programs' permanent training staff or independent contractors, depending on the way a program a routinely supported teacher learning for its inservice teaching staff. Participating programs included publicly funded Head Start and state preschool programs serving lowincome, ethnically/racially diverse, urban families in California and lowincome, predominantly White, rural families in Kentucky and Indiana. A traineroftrainers model was used (1) to train curriculum coaches to support teachers' implementation and (2) to train teachers to implement PreK Mathematics with adequate fidelity. A twocondition (treatment and control) RCT was conducted, with clusters of prekindergarten classrooms as the unit of randomization. Treatment teachers implemented PreK Mathematics and control teachers continued their usual classroom practices. Children were assessed at pretest, posttest, and kindergarten follow up using the Child Math Assessment (CMA) and the Test of Early Mathematics Ability, 3rd Edition (TEMA3). Classroom observations were made to measure the nature and amount of math support provided by treatment and control teachers during the school year. Coaches supported implementation and teachers implemented with adequate to high levels of fidelity. Multilevel analyses revealed that treatment children made significantly greater gains in mathematical knowledge than control children during the prekindergarten year as measured by the CMA (ES = 0.83) and TEMA3 (ES = 0.45). A multilevel mediation analysis found evidence that time spent in mathematically focused smallgroup activities had a significant indirect effect on children's math outcomes. Thus, this effectiveness study found that the PreK Mathematics intervention had a significant positive effect on lowSES children's mathematical knowledge. An implication of this finding is that early mathematics intervention is a promising educational strategy for reducing the SES gap in mathematical knowledge.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PKK

2

Longitudinal evaluation of a scaleup model for teaching mathematics with trajectories and technologies. (2012)
We used a cluster randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a researchbased model for scaling up educational interventions, focusing on the persistence of effects with and without a followthrough intervention. The instantiation of the Technologyenhanced, Researchbased, Instruction, Assessment, and professional Development (TRIAD) model emphasized teaching early mathematics for understanding via learning trajectories and technology. The TRIAD implementation began in 42 schools in two city districts serving lowresource communities, randomly assigned to three conditions. In prekindergarten, the 2 experimental interventions were identical, but 1 included followthrough in the kindergarten year, including knowledge of the preK intervention and ways to build upon that knowledge using learning trajectories. Intenttotreat analyses showed that students in both the followthrough condition (g = 0.33) and nonfollowthrough condition (g = 0.22) scored statistically significantly higher than children in the control condition. Both groups outperformed the control condition in treatmentonthetreated analyses (g = 0.38, followthrough; g = 0.30 nonfollowthrough). Moderators and mediators were also analyzed. We conclude that the instantiation of the TRIAD model was successful and that follow through may contribute to the persistence of the effects of preschool interventions. (Contains 5 tables and 3 figures.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

912

2

Making a Difference? The Effects of Teach For America in High School (2011)
Teach For America (TFA) selects and places graduates from the most competitive colleges as teachers in the lowestperforming schools in the country. This paper is the first study that examines TFA effects in high school. We use rich longitudinal data from North Carolina and estimate TFA effects through crosssubject student and school fixed effects models. We find that TFA teachers tend to have a positive effect on high school student test scores relative to nonTFA teachers, including those who are certified in field. Such effects offset or exceed the impact of additional years of experience and are particularly strong in science. (Contains 1 figure, 14 tables and 14 footnotes.)

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The Impact of the NISL Executive Development Program on School Performance in Massachusetts: Cohort 2 Results (2011)
School leaders are increasingly being asked, whether by rhetoric or policy, to measurably improve student achievement. The resultant need to assist school leaders in their ability to improve teaching and learning for all students in their schools led to the establishment of the National Institute of School Leadership's (NISL's) Executive Development Program. The NISL program emphasizes the role of principals as strategic thinkers, instructional leaders, and creators of a just, fair, and caring culture in which all students meet high standards. The current national focus on the importance of effective, instructional leadership has, in turn, led to calls for principal evaluation to be tied directly to student achievement (Davis, Kearney, Sanders, Thomas, and Leon, 2011). Within this milieu, effective and proven principal leadership development programs are crucial. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.) [This report was produced by the Center for Educational Partnerships, Old Dominion University.]

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Achievement Effects of Four Early Elementary School Math Curricula: Findings for First and Second Graders. NCEE 20114001 (2010)
National achievement data show that elementary school students in the United States, particularly those from low socioeconomic backgrounds, have weak math skills (National Center for Education Statistics 2009). In fact, data show that, even before they enter elementary school, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are behind their more advantaged peers in basic competencies such as numberline ordering and magnitude comparison (Rathburn and West 2004). Furthermore, after a year of kindergarten, disadvantaged students still have less extensive knowledge of mathematics than their more affluent peers (Denton and West 2002). This study examines whether some early elementary school math curricula are more effective than others at improving student math achievement in disadvantaged schools. A small number of curricula, which are based on different approaches for developing student math skills, dominate elementary math instruction7 curricula make up 91 percent of those used by K2 educators, according to a 2008 survey (Resnick et al. 2010). Little rigorous evidence exists to support one approach over another, however, which means that research does not provide educators with much useful information when choosing a math curriculum to use. The key findings in this report include the following: (1) Teachers used their assigned curriculum, and the instructional approaches of the four curriculum groups differed as expected; (2) Math instruction varied in other notable ways across the curriculum groups; (3) In terms of student math achievement, the curriculum used by the study schools mattered; and (4) The curriculum used in different contexts also mattered, and some of these findings are consistent with findings based on all students whereas others are not. Appendices include: (1) Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) TeacherReported Frequency of Implementing Other CurriculumSpecific Activities; (3) Glossary of CurriculumSpecific Terms; and (4) Constructing the Analyses Samples and Estimating Curriculum Effects. (Contains 82 tables, 7 figures and 97 footnotes.) [For the executive summary, see ED512553.]

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San Francisco Bay Area KIPP schools: A study of early implementation and achievement. Final report. (2008)

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Use of a Progress Monitoring System to Enable Teachers to Differentiate Mathematics Instruction (2007)
We explored how a progress monitoring and instructional management system can be used to help educators differentiate instruction and meet the wideranging learning needs of their increasingly diverse classrooms. We compared classrooms in 24 states that used a curriculumbased progress monitoring and instructional management system, Accelerated Math, to same school control classrooms that did not use it. Among the major findings were the following: (1) At every grade level there were large differences in grade equivalent score and percentile gains for students in the experimental and control classrooms; (2) Gains were experienced across the achievement spectrum. An analysis of low, middle, and highachieving students showed consistent rates of gain for each math objective mastered; (3) Intervention integrity had a significant effect on student achievement; (4) Teachers using the progress monitoring and instructional management system spent more time providing individual versus group instruction and felt better able to meet the individual needs of their students; and (5) Significantly more students who were in classrooms where teachers used the progress monitoring and instructional management system reported that they like math, help each other with math, and like math better this year than last year. Addition of a progress monitoring and instructional management system to ongoing mathematics instruction improves mathematics outcomes for students. The effects of the program clearly are a function of intervention integrity; when progress monitoring and instructional management practices are implemented with high fidelity or integrity, the mathematics performance of all students is significantly enhanced. Implications for practice are discussed.

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Mastery learning and student teams: A factorial experiment in urban general mathematics classes. (1984)

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Reasoning Mind students outperform comparison on Singapore Math Test. (in press)

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Examining the Impact of a First Grade Whole Number Intervention by Group Size (2022)
This study utilized a partially nested randomized control design to investigate the impact of Fusion, a first grade math intervention. Blocking on classrooms, students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a Fusion two student group, a Fusion five student group, or a no treatment control group. Two primary research questions were examined: What was the overall impact of the Fusion intervention as compared to a businessasusual comparison condition? and Was there a differential impact on student outcomes between the 2:1 Fusion and the 5:1 Fusion conditions? Analyses found a positive effects on four outcome measures favoring Fusion groups over control with two of the differences statistically significant. Results between Fusion groups found positive effects favoring the Fusion 2:1 group compared to the Fusion 5:1 group on all four outcome measures with two of the differences statistically significant. On a second grade follow up measure no difference was found between Fusion groups and control but a statistically significant difference was found between Fusion groups favoring the 2:1 Fusion group. Future research directions and implications for practice are discussed. [This paper will be published in the "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness."]

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Putting Fractions Together (2021)
Learning fractions is a critical step in children's mathematical development. However, many children struggle with learning fractions, especially fraction arithmetic. In this article, we propose a general framework for integrating understanding of individual fractions and fraction arithmetic, and we use the framework to generate interventions intended to improve understanding of both individual fractions and fraction addition. The framework, Putting Fractions Together (PFT), emphasizes that both individual fractions and sums of fractions are composed of unit fractions and can be represented by concatenating them (putting them together). To illustrate, both "3/9" and "2/9 + 1/9" can be represented by concatenating three 1/9s; similarly, 2/9 + 1/8 can be represented by concatenating two 1/9s and one 1/8. Interventions based on the PFT framework were tested in 2 experiments with fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children. The interventions led to improved performance on number line estimation and magnitude comparison tasks involving individual fractions and sums of fractions with equal and unequal denominators. Especially large improvements were observed on relatively difficult unequaldenominator fraction sum problems. The findings suggest that viewing individual nonunit fractions and sums of fractions as concatenations of unit fractions provides a sound conceptual foundation for improving children's knowledge of both. We discuss implications of the research for teaching and learning fractions, children's numerical development, and mathematics education in general.

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An Evaluation of the LiteracyInfused Science Using Technology Innovation Opportunity (LISTO) i3 Evaluation (Valid 45) Final Report (2021)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LiteracyInfused Science Using Technology Innovation Opportunity (LISTO) validation project (Valid 45). LISTO was funded by the Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund and involved a multiyear intervention that provided virtual professional development and coaching, and literacyinfused science curricula to fifthgrade science teachers who taught predominantly lowincome students and in predominantly rural public schools in Texas. The overarching goal of LISTO is to validate, via a 5year longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) study, literacyinfused science (LIS) instructional and curricular innovations to increase instructional capacity of teachers and to improve students' science and reading/writing literacy achievement in rural/nonrural schools for economically challenged (EC), inclusive of English language learners (ELL) students. Outcomes collected in the 201718 school year were considered to be exploratory, given the timing of Hurricane Harvey, which impacted Texas in August of 2017. Outcomes in the 201819 school year served as the confirmatory contrasts. LISTO resulted in increased teacher capacity to implement researchbased strategies while teaching science content, yet this improvement did not necessarily translate into improved student achievement in science or reading. The LISTO professional development and coaching covered pedagogical strategies for teaching science, including those that have been shown to improve literacy and be particularly effective for ELs. There was a negative impact on students' science achievement in both 201718 (ES = 0.10) and in 201819 (ES = 0.13). There was a negative program impact on students' science interest (ES = 0.14), as measured by a survey, in 201718, and no impact in 201819. These quantitative findings were in conflict with qualitative data collected from LISTO teachers, who indicated that the program led to improvements in both science vocabulary and engagement and selfefficacy in science for students. LISTO had positive effects on teacher practices for a subsample of teachers, specifically on increased delivery of researchbased instruction to teach science content as rated on a rubric by external reviewers (ES = +1.12). LISTO appeared to improve instructional practices for a sample of teachers who implemented the program for two years with complete data but did not positively impact student or teacher outcomes more broadly. However, results should be cautiously interpreted due to limitations of delayed and incomplete implementation in the first year of the project due to Hurricane Harvey. Encouragingly, teachers' overall positive reactions to the program suggest its potential to improve student affect and learning, but more extensive implementation experience by teachers and multiyear exposure by students starting from early grades may be needed to yield measurable benefits. Clearly, such focuses emerge as a highly recommended topic for future research.

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Putting Fractions Together (2021)
Learning fractions is a critical step in children's mathematical development. However, many children struggle with learning fractions, especially fraction arithmetic. In this article, we propose a general framework for integrating understanding of individual fractions and fraction arithmetic, and we use the framework to generate interventions intended to improve understanding of both individual fractions and fraction addition. The framework, Putting Fractions Together (PFT), emphasizes that both individual fractions and sums of fractions are composed of unit fractions and can be represented by concatenating them (putting them together). To illustrate, both "3/9" and "2/9 + 1/9" can be represented by concatenating three 1/9s; similarly, 2/9 + 1/8 can be represented by concatenating two 1/9s and one 1/8. Interventions based on the PFT framework were tested in 2 experiments with fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children. The interventions led to improved performance on number line estimation and magnitude comparison tasks involving individual fractions and sums of fractions with equal and unequal denominators. Especially large improvements were observed on relatively difficult unequaldenominator fraction sum problems. The findings suggest that viewing individual nonunit fractions and sums of fractions as concatenations of unit fractions provides a sound conceptual foundation for improving children's knowledge of both. We discuss implications of the research for teaching and learning fractions, children's numerical development, and mathematics education in general. [The article was published in "Journal of Educational Psychology" (EJ1291033).]

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Can feedback, correct, and incorrect worked examples improve numerical magnitude estimation precision? (2021)

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Alternative Paths to Improved WordProblem Performance: An Advantage for Embedding Prealgebraic Reasoning Instruction within WordProblem Intervention (2021)
The purpose of this study was to explore the paths by which wordproblem intervention, with versus without embedded prealgebraic reasoning instruction, improved wordproblem performance. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD; n = 304) were randomly assigned to a businessasusual condition or 1 of 2 variants of wordproblem intervention. The prealgebraic reasoning component targeted relational understanding of the equal sign as well as standard and nonstandard equation solving. Intervention occurred for 16 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session. Sequential mediation models revealed main effects, in which each intervention condition significantly and substantially outperformed the businessasusual condition, corroborating prior research on the efficacy of schema wordproblem intervention. Yet despite comparable effects on wordproblem outcomes between the two wordproblem conditions, the process by which effects accrued differed: An indirect path via equalsign understanding and then equation solving was significant only for the wordproblem intervention condition with embedded prealgebraic reasoning instruction. Additionally, the effect of this condition on equalsign reasoning was strong. Given the link between equalsign reasoning for success with algebra and the importance of algebra for success with advanced mathematics, results suggest an advantage for embedding prealgebraic reasoning instruction within wordproblem intervention.

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Can feedback, correct, and incorrect worked examples improve numerical magnitude estimation precision? (2021)

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Evaluation of Los Angeles City College's STEM Pathways program: Impacts of the Supplemental Instruction program on student outcomes (2021)

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First in the World  AmpUp, Union County College: Final Evaluation Report (2020)
In 2016, Union County College began a fouryear experiment with corequisite developmental mathematics as part of a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's First in the World (FITW) program. In this experiment, students assessed as needing to take developmental mathematics courses would be eligible to receive a waiver from their developmental requirements and instead proceed to collegelevel mathematics courses. Students selected to receive a waiver would also be required to participate weekly in tutoring services offered by the college. The Education and Employment Research Center at Rutgers University served as the external evaluator for the study. The evaluation focuses on three key outcomes: continuous enrollment, passing collegelevel mathematics, and degree completion. The outcomes assessment found that students assigned to the intervention group  those who had the immediate opportunity to proceed to collegelevel mathematics with support  benefitted primarily from the intervention itself. In other words, intervention group students were substantially more likely to have passed a collegelevel mathematics course within three years than their counterparts in the comparison group, who would have had to first complete a developmental mathematics sequence prior to enrolling in collegelevel math. Assignment to the treatment group did not, however, have a measurable impact on either student persistence at the college or on degree completion in the study period. [This report was produced by Rutgers' Education and Employment Research Center.]

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Accelerating Mathematics: Findings from the AMPUP Program at Bergen Community College (2020)
In 2015, Bergen Community College (BCC) received a grant from the U.S. Department of Education First in the World Grant Program. The grant entitled Alternatives to Mathematics Education: An Unprecedented Program (AMPUP), was awarded to conduct a randomized control trial on a corequisite approach to developmental math education. This study was conducted by researchers at the Education and Employment Research Center (EERC) at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. EERC investigated whether an accelerated delivery of developmental and collegelevel mathematics coursework would improve student retention, gateway course completion, credit accumulation, and degree completion over three years. The intervention group enrolled in accelerated developmental and collegelevel coursework; those in the group who placed into developmental arithmetic also participated in a selfpaced Summer Bridge program. The comparison group followed the college's usual developmental mathematics sequence, generally enrolling in their first math course in the Fall term of their first year. The study found that both groups enrolled in a similar number of terms over three years. But in that period, intervention group students were 13 percentage points more likely to complete a developmental mathematics course and 30 percentage points more likely to complete a collegelevel mathematics course. The intervention group also earned 5.1 more credits and was 8 percentage points more likely to complete a degree in the study period. [This report was published by Rutgers' Education and Employment Research Center at the School of Management and Labor Relations.]

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Addressing Challenging Mathematics Standards with AtRisk Learners: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effects of Fractions Intervention at Third Grade (2020)
The purposes of this study were to assess the effects of fractions intervention for students who are atrisk for poor outcomes and to examine whether a component that combines selfregulated learning with growth mindset instruction (SRGM) provides added value for improving outcomes. Atrisk students (N = 84) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: fractions intervention, fractions intervention with embedded SRGM, and a control group. Intervention was conducted 3 times per week for 35 min per session for 13 weeks. Multilevel models indicated both fractions intervention conditions produced strong effects, with no added value for SRGM. Posttest fractions achievement gaps for both intervention conditions held steady, narrowed, or closed, while the control group's gaps remained sizeable or grew. Results suggest that intervention can address challenging mathematics standards for atrisk learners and that SRGM instruction may not be necessary in the context of strong intervention. [This is the in press version of an article published in "Exceptional Children."]

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Effects of Super Solvers fractions intervention for atrisk third graders: A research report (2019)

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Embedding SelfRegulation Instruction within Fractions Intervention for Third Graders with Mathematics Difficulties (2019)
The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of fractions intervention with and without an embedded selfregulation (SR) component for thirdgrade students at risk for mathematics disabilities. Fractions intervention focused on magnitude understanding and word problems. Embedded SR was designed to support a growth mindset (fostering belief that intellectual and academic abilities can be developed) along with SR processes in which students set goals, selfmonitor, and use strategies to engage motivationally, metacognitively, and behaviorally through challenging tasks. Students (n = 69) were randomly assigned to businessasusual control and the two versions of fractions intervention. Multilevel models, accounting for the nested structure of the data, identified a moderation effect on fraction word problems: For students receiving fractions intervention with embedded SR, response to intervention was robust across the continuum of students' pretest word problem skill; by contrast, without SR, response to fractions intervention depended on students' pretest word problem skill. On the remaining outcomes, results reflected stronger outcomes when fractions intervention embedded SR instruction without moderation. [This paper will be published in the "Journal of Learning Disabilities."]

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The Role of PreAlgebraic Reasoning within a WordProblem Intervention for ThirdGrade Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2019)
Students in the elementary grades often experience difficulty setting up and solving word problems. Using an equation to represent the structure of the problem serves as an effective tool for solving word problems, but students may require specific prealgebraic reasoning instruction about the equal sign as a relational symbol to set up and solve such equations successfully. We identified students with mathematics difficulty (n = 138) from a sample of 916 thirdgrade students. We randomly assigned students to a wordproblem intervention with a prealgebraic reasoning component, a wordproblem intervention without prealgebraic reasoning, or the businessasusual. Students in the 2 active intervention conditions participated in 45 individual sessions and learned about 3 additive wordproblem schemas. Students who received wordproblem intervention with a prealgebraic reasoning component demonstrated improved nonstandard equation solving, equal sign understanding, and wordproblem solving compared to students in the other two conditions. [The paper will be published in "ZDM Mathematics Education."]

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Relational Scaffolding Enhances Children's Understanding of Scientific Models (2019)
Models are central to the practice and teaching of science. Yet people often fail to grasp how scientific models explain their observations of the world. Realizing the explanatory power of a model may require aligning its relational structure to that of the observable phenomena. The present research tested whether "relational scaffolding"guided comparisons between observable and modeled eventsenhances children's understanding of scientific models. We tested relational scaffolding during instruction about the daynight cycle, a topic that involves relating "Earthbased" observations to a "spacebased" model of Earth rotation. Experiment 1 found that 3rd graders (N = 108) learned more from instruction that incorporated relational scaffolding. Experiment 2 (N = 99) found that guided comparisonnot merely viewing observable and modeled eventsis a critical component of relational scaffolding, especially for children with low initial knowledge. Relational scaffolding could be applied broadly to assist the many students who struggle with science. [This is the in press version of an article to be published in "Psychological Science."]

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Does an integrated focus on fractions and decimals improve atrisk students’ rational number magnitude performance? (2019)

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Does an integrated focus on fractions and decimals improve atrisk students’ rational number magnitude performance? (2019)

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Effects of Fourth and FifthGrade Super Solvers Intervention on Fraction Magnitude Understanding and Calculation Skill (2019)

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Effects of Fourth and FifthGrade Super Solvers Intervention on Fraction Magnitude Understanding and Calculation Skill (2019)

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Improving Fraction Understanding in Sixth Graders with Mathematics Difficulties: Effects of a Number Line Approach Combined with Cognitive Learning Strategies (2019)
The effectiveness of an experimental middle school fraction intervention was evaluated. The intervention was centered on the number line and incorporated key principles from the science of learning. Sixth graders (N = 51) who struggled with fraction concepts were randomly assigned at the student level to the experimental intervention (n = 28) or to a businessasusual control who received their school's intervention (n = 23). The experimental intervention occurred over 6 weeks (27 lessons). Fraction number line estimation, magnitude comparisons, concepts, and arithmetic were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest. The experimental group demonstrated significantly more learning than the control group from pretest to posttest, with meaningful effect sizes on measures of fraction concepts (g = 1.09), number line estimation as measured by percent absolute error (g = 0.85), and magnitude comparisons (g = 0.82). These improvements held at delayed posttest 7 weeks later. Exploratory analyses showed a significant interaction between classroom attentive behavior and intervention group on fraction concepts at posttest, suggesting a buffering effect of the experimental intervention on the normally negative impact of low attentive behavior on learning. A number linecentered approach to teaching fractions that also incorporates researchbased learning strategies helps struggling learners to make durable gains in their conceptual understanding of fractions. [This paper will be published in the "Journal of Educational Psychology."]

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Schemabased wordproblem intervention with and without embedded language comprehension instruction (2019)

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Schemabased wordproblem intervention with and without embedded language comprehension instruction (2019)

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The Effects of FullDay Prekindergarten: Experimental Evidence of Impacts on Children's School Readiness (2019)
This study is a randomized control trial of full versus halfday prekindergarten (preK) in a school district near Denver, Colorado. Fouryearold children were randomly assigned an offer of halfday (4 days/week) or fullday (5 days/week) preK that increased class time by 600 hours. The fullday preK offer produced substantial, positive effects on children's receptive vocabulary skills (0.275 standard deviations) by the end of preK. Among children enrolled in district schools, fullday participants also outperformed their peers on teacherreported measures of cognition, literacy, math, physical, and socioemotional development. At kindergarten entry, children offered full day still outperformed peers on a widely used measure of basic literacy. The study provides the first rigorous evidence on the impact of fullday preschool on children's school readiness skills.

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Red Light, Purple Light! Results of an Intervention to Promote School Readiness for Children from LowIncome Backgrounds (2019)
Considerable research has examined interventions that facilitate school readiness skills in young children. One intervention, "Red Light, Purple Light Circle Time Games" (RLPL; Tominey and McClelland, 2011; Schmitt et al., 2015), includes music and movement games that aim to foster selfregulation skills. The present study (N = 157) focused on children from families with lowincome and compared the RLPL intervention (SR) to a revised version of RLPL that included literacy and math content (SR+) and a BusinessAsUsual (BAU) control group. In both versions of the intervention, teachers were trained to administer the selfregulation intervention in preschool classrooms with coaching support. Although not statistically significant, children receiving either version of the intervention gained more in selfregulation on the HeadToesKneesShoulders (HTKS) over the preschool year compared to the BAU group (ß = 0.09, p = 0.082, Cohen's d = 0.31). Effect sizes were similar to previous studies (Schmitt et al., 2015; Duncan et al., 2018) and translated to a 21% difference in selfregulation over and above the BAU group at posttest. Furthermore, children participating in either version of the intervention gained significantly more in math across the school year compared to children in the BAU group (ß = 0.14; p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.38), which translated to a 24% difference in math over and above the BAU group at posttest. Results were somewhat stronger for the SR+ version, although effect sizes across intervention conditions were comparable. There were no statistically significant differences across groups for literacy skills. Results extend previous research and suggest that the RLPL intervention, which includes an explicit focus on selfregulation through music and movement games, may improve children's selfregulation and math scores over the preschool year. [This article was published in "Frontiers in Psychology" 2019.]

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A study of the developing relations between selfregulation and mathematical knowledge in the context of an early math intervention (2019)

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Evaluating the Efficacy of a Learning Trajectory for Early Shape Composition (2019)
Although basing instruction on learning trajectories (LTs) is often recommended, there is little direct evidence regarding the premise of a LT approachthat instruction should be presented (only) one LT level beyond a child's present level. We evaluated this hypothesis in the domain of early shape composition. One group of preschoolers, who were at least two levels below the target instructional LT level, received instruction based on an empirically validated LT. The counterfactual (skiplevels) group received an equal amount of instruction focused only on the target level. At posttest, children in the LT condition exhibited significantly greater learning than children in the skiplevels condition, mainly on neartransfer items; no childlevel variables were significant moderators. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED594902.]

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Improving High Schools through STEM Early College Strategies: The Impact of the STEM Early College Expansion Partnership (SECEP) (2019)
The STEM Early College Expansion Project is an effort to integrate STEM strategies with the early college model and implement this in comprehensive high schools. This report summarizes findings from two separate quasiexperimental impact studies of the model in Michigan and Connecticut. Results from Michigan showed statistically significant impacts on enrollment in collegelevel courses and on attainment of college credits. Treatment schools in Michigan also had descriptively lower dropout rates. The Connecticut impact study had challenges with the study design that resulted in an inability to make clear causal claims about the impact.

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Effectiveness of "Enhanced Units": A Report of a Randomized Experiment in California and Virginia. Research Report (2019)
Empirical Education Inc. is the independent evaluator of SRI International's 2014 Investing in Innovation (i3) Development grant called Redesigning Secondary Courses to Improve Academic Outcomes for Adolescents with Disabilities and Other Underperforming Adolescents. The goal of the grant is to develop "Enhanced Units" that combine researchbased content enhancement routines, collaboration strategy, and technology components for secondary U.S. History and biology classes. This report presents findings of a randomized control trial (RCT) during the 201718 school year. The RCT measured the impact of "Enhanced Units" on higher order content skills (as measured through unit tests) in high school biology and U.S. History classes in three districts in Virginia and California. SRI, the Center for Applied Special Education Technology (CAST), and their research and practitioner partners developed "Enhanced Units" (EU) with the goal of integrating researchbased content enhancement routines with technological enhancements to improve student content learning and higher order reasoning, especially for students with disabilities or other learning challenges. This study also documents the extent to which the core components of EU were implemented with fidelity. The authors provide descriptive results on classroom practices (as measured by teacher surveys) and contextual factors that support or hinder implementation (as described during teacher interviews). Future improvements to EU should focus on answering the question: "What is/are the best way(s) for teachers to present SIM routines to their students, particularly for students with learning challenges through SIM intervention?"

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Building number sense among English learners: A multisite randomized controlled trial of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention (2019)

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Evaluation of Learning by Making i3 Project: STEM Success for Rural Schools (2018)
The Learning by Making (LbyM) project is funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation Fund (i3). As a fiveyear development project (20142018), Sonoma State University (SSU), in partnership with highneed schools and districts, has been developing an innovative, integrated high school Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum. The curriculum consists of Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) in earth science and biology as described in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, 2013) and utilizes an easytouse Logo programming language that conducts data transfer and network communications in support of studentdesigned investigations. The purpose of this study is to understand how LbyM is implemented in high school classrooms in rural environments, to observe the influences of this curriculum on student learning and engagement, and to explore how teachers' instructional practices and technological capacities evolve while using the curriculum. The study used a quasiexperimental design. One hundred thirtyseven students were recruited to enroll in eight LbyM STEM classes in six participating high schools. Three of the participating high schools are small schools, and it is not possible to find comparison students from these small schools. Therefore, all comparison students were recruited from the larger schools, with a total of 141 comparison students from six classrooms in three out of six participating high schools. The results from the study indicated that the LbyM curriculum that was developed by SSU helped teachers integrate NGSS and projectbased learning into classroom instruction. Teachers reported spending more instructional time supporting students to collect, organize, display, and present data. Students were highly engaged with the LbyM curriculum and demonstrated increased confidence and problem solving stamina. Teachers reported that some students who typically struggle to participate in class exhibited higher levels of participation in LbyM and even demonstrated leadership. They also reported that some students with special needs, while still requiring extra attention, remained engaged with the curriculum and were even quicker to complete certain activities than the other students. The LbyM curriculum was positively associated with significant gains in students' science content knowledge. It helped lowachieving students improve math understanding.

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A Fraction Sense Intervention for Sixth Graders with or at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties (2018)
The efficacy of a researchbased fraction sense intervention for sixth graders with or at risk for mathematics difficulties (N = 52) was examined. The intervention aimed to build understanding of fraction magnitudes on the number line. Key concepts were taught with a narrow range of denominators to develop deep understanding. The intervention was centered on a visual number line in the meaningful context of a color run race. Students were randomly assigned to the fraction sense intervention (n = 25) or a businessasusual control group (n = 27). Students in the intervention condition received 21 lessons in small groups (45 min each) during their regular mathematics intervention period. Students in the intervention group performed significantly better than those in the control group on a measure of fraction number line estimation and a more general measure of fraction concepts, both at immediate posttest and delayed posttest, with large effect sizes; lesser effects were shown for fraction arithmetic. [This paper will be published in "Remedial and Special Education."]

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Impact of a Tier 2 Fractions Intervention on FifthGrade Students' Fractions Achievement: A Technical Report (2018)
The goal of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the effectiveness of a smallgroup intervention in fractions for fifthgraders who are performing below grade level in mathematics. The impact of the fractions intervention was assessed on fifthgrade atrisk students' understanding of foundational fractions concepts and procedural competence with fractions. For the fractions intervention, lessons from the "TransMath"® curriculum (Level 2; Woodward & Stroh, 2015) were modified to create 52 thirtyfiveminute lessons focused only on fourth and fifthgrade level fractions content that could be used in a smallgroup setting. In this rigorous largescale RCT, a sample of 1,123 students from three school districts across two U.S. states were screened at the beginning of the school year using a fractions measure developed by the research team. Two hundred and five students who scored between the 15th and the 37th percentile on the screening measure and received parental consent to participate were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 102) and comparison (n = 103) conditions. Students in the fractions intervention condition received 35minute tutoring sessions 34 times a week. Fraction instruction using the 52 "TransMath" lessons was provided by trained tutors. The comparison condition (n = 103) was business as usual instruction (i.e., core classroom fractions instruction, including intervention or support traditionally provided by the school). Results from the final analytic sample of 186 students (87 in intervention, 99 in comparison) showed that the intervention group significantly outperformed the comparison group on all outcome measures, which included an array of assessments used to measure both student understanding of foundational fractions concepts as well as procedural competence with gradelevel fraction material (Hedges' g = 0.66 to 1.08; p < 0.0001).

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Causal Connections between Mathematical Language and Mathematical Knowledge: A Dialogic Reading Intervention (2017)
The acquisition of early mathematical knowledge is critical for successful longterm academic development. Mathematical language is one of the strongest predictors of children's early mathematical success. Findings from previous studies have provided correlational evidence supporting the importance of mathematical language to the development of children's mathematics skills, but there is limited causal evidence supporting this link. To address this research gap, 47 Head Start children were randomly assigned to a mathematical language intervention group or a businessasusual group. Over the course of eight weeks, interventionists implemented a dialogic reading intervention focused on quantitative and spatial mathematical language. At posttest, students in the intervention group significantly outperformed the students in the comparison group not only on a mathematical language assessment, but on a mathematical knowledge assessment as well. These findings indicate that increasing children's exposure to mathematical language can positively affect their general mathematics skills. This study is an important first step in providing causal evidence of the importance of early mathematical language for children's general mathematical knowledge and the potential for mathematical language interventions to increase children's overall mathematics abilities.

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Effects of an Early Numeracy Intervention on Struggling Kindergarteners' Mathematics Performance (2016)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an early numeracy intervention delivered by kindergarten teachers to students identified as having mathematics difficulties. A multigroup growthmodelingwithrandomassignmenttointerventioncondition design was employed. Thirtytwo teachers were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. A total of 71 students participated in the study, 47 in the treatment group and 24 in the comparison group. Results indicated that the treatment condition students outperformed comparison students (g* = 0.99) and demonstrated statistically significantly higher scores on all proximal measures of early numeracy. Also, about 80% to 100% of the variance was accounted for at the student level. Performance on distal measures was less impressive, with no significant differences between groups; the effect size was 0.44. Teachers rated components of the intervention highly, reflecting strong teacher satisfaction.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Testing the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention: A Conceptual Replication Study (2016)
The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the counterfactual. Similar to the original investigation, however, the current study tested the same intervention, used the same outcome measures and statistical analyses, and involved the same population of learners. A total of 319 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 36 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Students who were randomly assigned to the treatment condition received the intervention in smallgroup formats, with 2 or 5 students per group. Control students participated in a notreatment control condition. Significant effects on proximal and distal measures of mathematics achievement were found. Effect sizes obtained for all measures fell within or exceeded the upper bound of the effects reported in the initial study. Implications for systematically situating replication studies in larger frameworks of intervention research and reporting rates of treatment response across replication studies are discussed.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Testing the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention: A Conceptual Replication Study (2016)
The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the counterfactual. Similar to the original investigation, however, the current study tested the same intervention, used the same outcome measures and statistical analyses, and involved the same population of learners. A total of 319 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 36 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Students who were randomly assigned to the treatment condition received the intervention in smallgroup formats, with 2 or 5 students per group. Control students participated in a notreatment control condition. Significant effects on proximal and distal measures of mathematics achievement were found. Effect sizes obtained for all measures fell within or exceeded the upper bound of the effects reported in the initial study. Implications for systematically situating replication studies in larger frameworks of intervention research and reporting rates of treatment response across replication studies are discussed. [This paper was published in "Exceptional Children" (EJ1116305).]

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Improving Mathematics Learning of Kindergarten Students through ComputerAssisted Instruction (2016)
This study evaluated the effects of a mathematics software program, the Building Blocks software suite, on young children's mathematics performance. Participants included 247 Kindergartners from 37 classrooms in 9 schools located in lowincome communities. Children within classrooms were randomly assigned to receive 21 weeks of computerassisted instruction (CAI) in mathematics with Building Blocks or in literacy with Earobics Step 1. Children in the Building Blocks condition evidenced higher posttest scores on tests of numeracy and Applied Problems after controlling for beginningofyear numeracy scores and classroom nesting. These findings, together with a review of earlier CAI, provide guidance for future work on CAI aiming to improve mathematics performance of children from lowincome backgrounds. [This paper was published in "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" (EJ1100307).]

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Supported SelfExplaining during Fraction Intervention (2016)
The main purposes of this study were to test the effects of teaching atrisk 4th graders to provide explanations for their mathematics work and examine whether those effects occur by compensating for limitations in cognitive processes. We randomly assigned 212 children to 3 conditions: a control group and 2 variants of a multicomponent fraction intervention. Both intervention conditions included 36 sessions, each lasting 35 min. All but 7 min of each session were identical. In the 7min component, students were taught to provide high quality explanations when comparing fraction magnitudes or to solve fraction word problems. Children were pretested on cognitive variables and pre/posttested on fraction knowledge. On accuracy of magnitude comparisons and quality of explanations, children who received the explaining intervention outperformed those in the wordproblem condition. On word problems, children who received the wordproblem intervention outperformed those in the explaining condition. Moderator analyses indicated that the explaining intervention was more effective for students with weaker working memory, while the wordproblem intervention was more effective for students with stronger reasoning ability.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Supported SelfExplaining during Fraction Intervention (2016)
The main purposes of this study were to test the effects of teaching atrisk 4th graders to provide explanations for their mathematics work and examine whether those effects occur by compensating for limitations in cognitive processes. We randomly assigned 212 children to 3 conditions: a control group and 2 variants of a multicomponent fraction intervention. Both intervention conditions included 36 sessions, each lasting 35 min. All but 7 min of each session were identical. In the 7min component, students were taught to provide high quality explanations when comparing fraction magnitudes or to solve fraction word problems. Children were pretested on cognitive variables and pre/posttested on fraction knowledge. On accuracy of magnitude comparisons and quality of explanations, children who received the explaining intervention outperformed those in the wordproblem condition. On word problems, children who received the wordproblem intervention outperformed those in the explaining condition. Moderator analyses indicated that the explaining intervention was more effective for students with weaker working memory, while the wordproblem intervention was more effective for students with stronger reasoning ability.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Supported SelfExplaining during Fraction Intervention (2016)
The main purposes of this study were to test the effects of teaching atrisk 4th graders to provide explanations for their mathematics work and examine whether those effects occur by compensating for limitations in cognitive processes. We randomly assigned 212 children to 3 conditions: a control group and 2 variants of a multicomponent fraction intervention. Both intervention conditions included 36 sessions, each lasting 35 min. All but 7 min of each session were identical. In the 7min component, students were taught to provide high quality explanations when comparing fraction magnitudes or to solve fraction word problems. Children were pretested on cognitive variables and pre/posttested on fraction knowledge. On accuracy of magnitude comparisons and quality of explanations, children who received the explaining intervention outperformed those in the wordproblem condition. On word problems, children who received the wordproblem intervention outperformed those in the explaining condition. Moderator analyses indicated that the explaining intervention was more effective for students with weaker working memory, while the wordproblem intervention was more effective for students with stronger reasoning ability.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Effects of Intervention to Improve AtRisk Fourth Graders' Understanding, Calculations, and Word Problems with Fractions (2016)
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction wordproblem (WP) intervention delivered as part of the larger program. Atrisk 4th graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned at the individual level to receive the school's businessasusual program or 1 of 2 variants of the core fraction intervention (each 12 weeks, 3 sessions/week). In each session of the 2 variants, 28 min were identical, focused mainly on the measurement interpretation of fractions. The other 7 min addressed fraction WPs: multiplicative WPs versus additive WPs. Children were pre and posttested on fraction understanding, calculations, and WPs. On understanding and calculations, both intervention conditions outperformed the control group, and the effect of intervention versus control on released fraction items from the National Assessment of Education Progress were mediated by children's improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions. On multiplicative WPs, multiplicative WP intervention was superior to the other 2 conditions, but additive WP intervention and the control group performed comparably. By contrast, on additive WPs, there was a stepdown effect in which additive WP intervention was superior to multiplicative WP intervention, which was superior to control. [This paper was published in "Elementary School Journal," v116 n4 p625661 Jun 2016 (EJ1103953).]

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Effects of Intervention to Improve AtRisk Fourth Graders' Understanding, Calculations, and Word Problems with Fractions (2016)
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction wordproblem (WP) intervention. Atrisk fourth graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned to the school's businessasusual program, or one of two variants of the core fraction intervention (each 12 weeks, 36 sessions). In each session of the two variants, 28 minutes were identical, focused mainly on the measurement interpretation of fractions. The other 7 minutes addressed multiplicative WPs versus additive WPs. Children were pre/posttested on fraction understanding, calculations, and WPs. On understanding and calculations, both intervention conditions outperformed the control group. The effect of intervention versus control on released fraction items from the National Assessment of Education Progress was mediated by children's improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions. On multiplicative WPs, multiplicative WP intervention was superior to the other conditions, but additive WP intervention and the control group performed comparably. On additive WPs, additive WP intervention was superior to multiplicative WP intervention, which was superior to control.

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The Benefits of ComputerGenerated Feedback for Mathematics Problem Solving (2016)
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. In a randomized experiment, secondgrade children (N = 75) received instruction on a correct problemsolving strategy and then solved a set of relevant problems. Children were assigned to receive no feedback, immediate feedback, or summative feedback from the computer. On a posttest the following day, feedback resulted in higher scores relative to no feedback for children who started with low prior knowledge. Immediate feedback was particularly effective, facilitating mastery of the material for children with both low and high prior knowledge. Results suggest that minimal computergenerated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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The Benefits of ComputerGenerated Feedback for Mathematics Problem Solving (2016)
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. In a randomized experiment, secondgrade children (N = 75) received instruction on a correct problemsolving strategy and then solved a set of relevant problems. Children were assigned to receive no feedback, immediate feedback, or summative feedback from the computer. On a posttest the following day, feedback resulted in higher scores relative to no feedback for children who started with low prior knowledge. Immediate feedback was particularly effective, facilitating mastery of the material for children with both low and high prior knowledge. Results suggest that minimal computergenerated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving.

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An Examination of the Promise of the NumberShire Level 1 Gaming Intervention for Improving Student Mathematics Outcomes (2016)
The purpose of this study was to test the promise of the NumberShire Level 1 Gaming Intervention (NS1) to accelerate math learning for firstgrade students with or at risk for math difficulties. The NS1 intervention was developed through the Institute of Education Sciences, Small Business Innovation Research Program (Gause, Fien, Baker, & Clarke, 2011 Gause, M., Fien, H., Baker, S. K., & Clarke, B. (2011). Project NumberShire I: A gamebased integrated learning and assessment system to target whole number concepts. This study used a randomized controlled trial design to test the promise of the NS1 intervention. In total, 250 firstgrade students were randomly assigned within classrooms to the treatment condition or a control condition. Results indicate significant effects favoring the treatment group on proximal measures of wholenumber concepts and skills. Intervention effects were not statistically significant for distal outcome measures. Treatment effects were not moderated by special education or English learner status; however, the condition by initial skill level interaction approached significance. Additionally, there was no relationship between dosage variables and students' response to the intervention. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. [This paper was published in "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness" (EJ1115268).]

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Effects of a Multitier Support System on Calculation, Word Problem, and Prealgebraic Performance among AtRisk Learners (2015)
The focus of the present study was enhancing word problem and calculation achievement in ways that support prealgebraic thinking among secondgrade students at risk for mathematics difficulty. Intervention relied on a multitier support system (i.e., responsiveness to intervention, or RTI) in which atrisk students participate in general classroom instruction and receive supplementary smallgroup tutoring. Participants were 265 students in 110 classrooms in 25 schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: calculation RTI, word problem RTI, or businessasusual control. Intervention lasted 17 weeks. Multilevel modeling indicated that calculation RTI improved calculation but not word problem outcomes, word problem RTI enhanced proximal word problem outcomes as well as performance on some calculation outcomes, and word problem RTI provided a stronger route than calculation RTI to prealgebraic knowledge.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Effects of a Multitier Support System on Calculation, Word Problem, and Prealgebraic Performance among AtRisk Learners (2015)
The focus of the present study was enhancing word problem and calculation achievement in ways that support prealgebraic thinking among secondgrade students at risk for mathematics difficulty. Intervention relied on a multitier support system (i.e., responsiveness to intervention, or RTI) in which atrisk students participate in general classroom instruction and receive supplementary smallgroup tutoring. Participants were 265 students in 110 classrooms in 25 schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: calculation RTI, word problem RTI, or businessasusual control. Intervention lasted 17 weeks. Multilevel modeling indicated that calculation RTI improved calculation but not word problem outcomes, word problem RTI enhanced proximal word problem outcomes as well as performance on some calculation outcomes, and word problem RTI provided a stronger route than calculation RTI to prealgebraic knowledge.

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The Effect of Tutoring with Nonstandard Equations for Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2015)
Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equalsign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, secondgrade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and notutoring control. Combined tutoring students demonstrated greater gains on equationsolving assessments and equalsign tasks compared to the other two conditions. Standard tutoring students demonstrated improved skill on equation solving over control students, but combined tutoring students' performance gains were significantly larger. Results indicate that exposure to and practice with nonstandard equations positively influence student understanding of the equal sign.

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The Effect of Tutoring with Nonstandard Equations for Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2015)
Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equalsign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, secondgrade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and notutoring control. Combined tutoring students demonstrated greater gains on equationsolving assessments and equalsign tasks compared to the other two conditions. Standard tutoring students demonstrated improved skill on equation solving over control students, but combined tutoring students' performance gains were significantly larger. Results indicate that exposure to and practice with nonstandard equations positively influence student understanding of the equal sign.

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Does Teacher Evaluation Improve School Performance? Experimental Evidence from Chicago's Excellence in Teaching Project (2015)
Chicago Public Schools initiated the Excellence in Teaching Project, a teacher evaluation program designed to increase student learning by improving classroom instruction through structured principalteacher dialogue. The pilot began in fortyfour elementary schools in 200809 (cohort 1) and scaled up to include an additional fortyeight elementary schools in 200910 (cohort 2). Leveraging the experimental design of the rollout, cohort 1 schools performed better in reading and math than cohort 2 schools at the end of the first year, though the math effects are not statistically significant. We find the initial improvement for cohort 1 schools remains even after cohort 2 schools adopted the program. Moreover, the pilot differentially impacted schools with different characteristics. Higherachieving and lowerpoverty schools were the primary beneficiaries, suggesting the intervention was most successful in more advantaged schools. These findings are relevant for policy makers and school leaders who are implementing evaluation systems that incorporate classroom observations.

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Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms (2015)
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in cotaught general education classrooms. Results showed that students in the EAI condition improved their performance on math skills contained in several of the standards. Effect sizes were especially large for students with MD when the special education teacher more actively participated in the instructional activities with the math teacher. Classroom observations provided examples of how teachers can work together to benefit students in inclusive math settings.

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The effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness (REL 2015096) (2015)

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Interleaved Practice Improves Mathematics Learning (2015)
A typical mathematics assignment consists primarily of practice problems requiring the strategy introduced in the immediately preceding lesson (e.g., a dozen problems that are solved by using the Pythagorean Theorem). This means that students know which strategy is needed to solve each problem before they read the problem. In an alternative approach known as "interleaved practice," problems from the course are rearranged so that a portion of each assignment includes different kinds of problems in an interleaved order. Interleaved practice requires students to choose a strategy on the basis of the problem itself, as they must do when they encounter a problem during a comprehensive examination or subsequent course. In the experiment reported here, 126 seventhgrade students received the same practice problems over a threemonth period, but the problems were arranged so that skills were learned by interleaved practice or by the usual blocked approach. The practice phase concluded with a review session, followed 1 or 30 days later by an unannounced test. Compared to blocked practice, interleaved practice produced higher scores on both the immediate and delayed tests (Cohen's d = 0.42 and 0.79, respectively). Two appendices include: (1) Serial Position of Each Graph and Slope Problem in the Assignments (table); and (2) Frequency of Responses of Three Teachers to Statements About Interleaved Practice (table). [Note: This article was "in press" at the time of submission. No citation information is available at this time.]

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A Kindergarten NumberSense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for LowAchieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a researchbased numbersense intervention for lowachieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a numbersense intervention followed by a numberfact practice session, an identical numbersense intervention followed by a numberlist practice session, or a businessasusual control group. The numberfact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the numberlist practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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A Kindergarten NumberSense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for LowAchieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a researchbased numbersense intervention for lowachieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a numbersense intervention followed by a numberfact practice session, an identical numbersense intervention followed by a numberlist practice session, or a businessasusual control group. The numberfact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the numberlist practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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A Kindergarten NumberSense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for LowAchieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a researchbased numbersense intervention for lowachieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a numbersense intervention followed by a numberfact practice session, an identical numbersense intervention followed by a numberlist practice session, or a businessasusual control group. The numberfact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the numberlist practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Easy as ABCABC: Abstract Language Facilitates Performance on a Concrete Patterning Task (2015)
The labels used to describe patterns and relations can influence children's relational reasoning. In this study, 62 preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 4.4 years) solved and described eight pattern abstraction problems (i.e., recreated the relation in a model pattern using novel materials). Some children were exposed to concrete labels (e.g., blueredbluered) and others were exposed to abstract labels (e.g., ABAB). Children exposed to abstract labels solved more problems correctly than children exposed to concrete labels. Children's correct adoption of the abstract language into their own descriptions was particularly beneficial. Thus, using concrete learning materials in combination with abstract representations can enhance their utility for children's performance. Furthermore, abstract language may play a key role in the development of relational thinking.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Strengthening school readiness for Head Start children: Evaluation of a selfregulation intervention (2015)

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The Benefit of Interleaved Mathematics Practice Is Not Limited to Superficially Similar Kinds of Problems (2014)
Most mathematics assignments consist of a group of problems requiring the same strategy. For example, a lesson on the quadratic formula is typically followed by a block of problems requiring students to use the quadratic formula, which means that students know the appropriate strategy before they read each problem. In an alternative approach, different kinds of problems appear in an interleaved order, which requires students to choose the strategy on the basis of the problem itself. In the classroombased experiment reported here, grade seven students (n = 140) received blocked or interleaved practice over a nineweek period, followed two weeks later by an unannounced test. Mean test scores were greater for material learned by interleaved practice rather than by blocked practice (72% vs. 38%, d = 1.05). This interleaving effect was observed even though the different kinds of problems were superficially dissimilar from each other, whereas previous interleaved mathematics studies required students to learn nearly identical kinds of problems. We conclude that interleaving improves mathematics learning not only by improving discrimination between different kinds of problems but also by strengthening the association between each kind of problem and its corresponding strategy. [This article was published in: "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review" v21 n5 p13231330 Oct 2014; http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3758/s1342301405883.]

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A Randomized Study of a LiteracyIntegrated Science Intervention for LowSocioEconomic Status Middle School Students: Findings from FirstYear Implementation (2014)
This paper presents the findings from a randomized control trial study of reading/literacyintegrated science inquiry intervention after 1 year of implementation and the treatment effect on 5thgrade lowsocioeconomic AfricanAmerican and Hispanic students' achievement in science and English reading. A total of 94 treatment students and 194 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted of ongoing professional development and specific instructional science lessons with inquirybased learning, direct and explicit vocabulary instruction, and integration of reading and writing. Results suggested that (a) there was a significantly positive treatment effect as reflected in students' higher performance in districtwide curriculumbased tests of science and reading and standardized tests of science, reading, and English reading fluency; (b) males and females did not differ significantly from participating in science inquiry instruction; (c) AfricanAmerican students had lower chance of sufficiently mastering the science concepts and achieving above the state standards when compared with Hispanic students across gender and condition, and (d) belowpoverty AfricanAmerican females are the most vulnerable group in science learning. Our study confirmed that even a modest amount of literacy integration in inquirybased science instruction can promote students' science and reading achievement. Therefore, we call for more experimental research that focus on the quality of literacyintegrated science instruction from which middle grade students, particularly lowsocioeconomic status students, can benefit.

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Effects of blended instructional models on math performance (2014)

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Does Working Memory Moderate the Effects of Fraction Intervention? An AptitudeTreatment Interaction (2014)
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve atrisk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a businessasusual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects. Atrisk students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to control and 2 intervention conditions. The interventions each lasted 12 weeks, with three 30min sessions per week. The major focus of both intervention conditions was the measurement interpretation of fractions. Across the 2 conditions, only 5 min of each 30min session differed. One condition completed activities to build fluency with 4 measurement interpretation topics; in the other, activities were completed to consolidate understanding on the same 4 topics. Results revealed a significant aptitudetreatment interaction, in which students with very weak WM learned better with conceptual activities but children with more adequate (but still low) WM learned better with fluency activities. Both intervention conditions outperformed the control group on all outcomes, and improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Does Working Memory Moderate the Effects of Fraction Intervention? An AptitudeTreatment Interaction (2014)
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve atrisk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a businessasusual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects. Atrisk students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to control and 2 intervention conditions. The interventions each lasted 12 weeks, with three 30min sessions per week. The major focus of both intervention conditions was the measurement interpretation of fractions. Across the 2 conditions, only 5 min of each 30min session differed. One condition completed activities to build fluency with 4 measurement interpretation topics; in the other, activities were completed to consolidate understanding on the same 4 topics. Results revealed a significant aptitudetreatment interaction, in which students with very weak WM learned better with conceptual activities but children with more adequate (but still low) WM learned better with fluency activities. Both intervention conditions outperformed the control group on all outcomes, and improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Does Working Memory Moderate the Effects of Fraction Intervention? An AptitudeTreatment Interaction (2014)
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve atrisk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a businessasusual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects. Atrisk students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to control and 2 intervention conditions. The interventions each lasted 12 weeks, with three 30min sessions per week. The major focus of both intervention conditions was the measurement interpretation of fractions. Across the 2 conditions, only 5 min of each 30min session differed. One condition completed activities to build fluency with 4 measurement interpretation topics; in the other, activities were completed to consolidate understanding on the same 4 topics. Results revealed a significant aptitudetreatment interaction, in which students with very weak WM learned better with conceptual activities but children with more adequate (but still low) WM learned better with fluency activities. Both intervention conditions outperformed the control group on all outcomes, and improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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The effect of phonicsenhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of sixyearold pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools. (2014)

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Preliminary Evaluation of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention for FirstGrade Students: Using a Theory of Change to Guide Formative Evaluation Activities (2014)
This pilot study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 firstgrade mathematics intervention program targeting wholenumber understanding for students at risk in mathematics. The study used a randomized block design. Students (N = 89) were randomly assigned to treatment (Fusion) or control (standard district practice) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. A series of randomeffects models were estimated to compare gains between treatment and control conditions. Gain scores of intervention students were significantly greater than those of control peers on a proximal measure of mathematics achievement. The role of a strong theoryofchange model in the development and evaluation of mathematics interventions is articulated. Implications for researchers and educators designing and delivering instruction for atrisk students in a responsetointervention model are discussed.

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Building assets and reducing risks whole ninthgrade strategy reduces coursework failure for students of color. (2013, April/May)

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The Effectiveness of Teaching Number Relationships in Preschool (2013)
Number relationships, which go far beyond counting skills, refer to the ability to represent a quantity in multiple, flexible ways. It is arguably among the most important mathematics concepts in number and quantity. The current study examined the effectiveness of number relationships instruction in preschool classrooms. Participants included 73 children and 4 teachers from a halfday preschool program in a local school district. For the intervention group, two teachers provided number relationships instruction to 37 of the children in their classrooms (four sections total). No treatment occurred for the control group consisting of the remaining 36 children taught by two teachers. Before and after the 12week treatment period, the TEMA3 (Test of Early Mathematics Ability3rd Edition) was administered both as a pretest and a posttest to assess children's understanding of number and quantity. Results indicated that children in the intervention group who received mathematics instruction with the emphasis on teaching number relationships scored significantly higher on the posttest than their counterparts in the control group. However, results of the current study did not reveal any advantages by age group for number relationships instruction. Small sample size may have limited this analysis.

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Effects of Cognitive Strategy Interventions and Cognitive Moderators on Word Problem Solving in Children at Risk for Problem Solving Difficulties (2013)
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and cognitive abilities on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Elementary school children (N = 120) with and without MD were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: generalheuristic (e.g., underline question sentence), visualschematic presentation (diagrams), generalheuristic + visualschematic, and an untreated control. When compared to the control condition that included children with MD, an advantage at posttest was found for children with MD for the visualschematicalone condition on measures of problem solving and calculation accuracy, whereas all strategy conditions facilitated posttest performance in correctly identifying problem solving components. The results also suggested that strategy conditions drew upon different cognitive resources. The Generalheuristic condition drew primarily upon the executive component of working memory (WM), Visualschematic condition drew upon the visual component of WM and the combined strategies condition drew upon number processing skills.

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of SchemaBased Instruction on Mathematical Outcomes for ThirdGrade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2013)
This study compared the effects of delivering a supplemental, smallgroup tutoring intervention on the mathematics outcomes of thirdgrade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD) who were randomly assigned to either a schemabased instruction (SBI) or control group. SBI emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of additive problems. All students at risk for MD identified through screening received a mathematics intervention in groups of 24 for 12 weeks across the school year. Results revealed that students in the SBI group outperformed students in the control group on a word problem solving (WPS) posttest ("g" = 0.46). The effect of SBI proved to be equivalent for students in both high and low atrisk subgroups. On a districtadministered mathematics achievement test, SBI students scored significantly higher than control students (g = 0.34); however, there were no significant effects on the WPS retention test (8 weeks later). (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

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Improving AtRisk Learners' Understanding of Fractions (2013)
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of an intervention designed to improve atrisk 4th graders' understanding of fractions and to examine the processes by which effects occurred. The intervention focused more on the measurement interpretation of fractions; the control condition focused more on the partwhole interpretation of fractions and on procedures. Intervention was also designed to compensate for atrisk students' limitations in the domaingeneral abilities associated with fraction learning. Atrisk students (n = 259) were randomly assigned to intervention and control. Wholenumber calculation skill, domaingeneral abilities (working memory, attentive behavior, processing speed, listening comprehension), and fraction proficiency were pretested. Intervention occurred for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session, and then fraction performance was reassessed. On each conceptual and procedural fraction outcome, effects favored intervention over control (effect sizes = 0.29 to 2.50), and the gap between atrisk and lowrisk students narrowed for the intervention group but not the control group. Improvement in the accuracy of children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated intervention effects. Also, intervention effects were moderated by domaingeneral abilities, but not wholenumber calculation skill.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Improving AtRisk Learners' Understanding of Fractions (2013)
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of an intervention designed to improve atrisk 4th graders' understanding of fractions and to examine the processes by which effects occurred. The intervention focused more on the measurement interpretation of fractions; the control condition focused more on the partwhole interpretation of fractions and on procedures. Intervention was also designed to compensate for atrisk students' limitations in the domaingeneral abilities associated with fraction learning. Atrisk students (n = 259) were randomly assigned to intervention and control. Wholenumber calculation skill, domaingeneral abilities (working memory, attentive behavior, processing speed, listening comprehension), and fraction proficiency were pretested. Intervention occurred for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session, and then fraction performance was reassessed. On each conceptual and procedural fraction outcome, effects favored intervention over control (effect sizes = 0.29 to 2.50), and the gap between atrisk and lowrisk students narrowed for the intervention group but not the control group. Improvement in the accuracy of children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated intervention effects. Also, intervention effects were moderated by domaingeneral abilities, but not wholenumber calculation skill.

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Impact of SmallGroup Tutoring Interventions on the Mathematical Problem Solving and Achievement of ThirdGrade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2013)
This intervention study compared the efficacy of smallgroup tutoring on the mathematics learning of thirdgrade students at risk for mathematics difficulty using either a schoolprovided standardsbased curriculum (SBC) or a schemabased instruction (SBI) curriculum. The SBI curriculum placed particular emphasis on the underlying mathematical structure of additive problems to represent and solve word problems. Atrisk students (N = 136) from 35 classrooms scoring below a proficiency level on their district accountability assessment were assigned randomly to treatment groups. Results indicated interaction effects on the word problemsolving (WPS) posttest and retention tests such that SBI students with higher incoming (pretest) WPS scores outperformed SBC students with higher pretest scores, whereas SBC students with lower pretest scores outperformed SBI students with lower pretest scores. No effects were found on number combinations automaticity, and mathematics and reading achievement. Implications to improve the problemsolving performance of atrisk students are discussed. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)

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The Effects of Response to Intervention on the Mathematics Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students (2013)
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of a systemwide Response to Intervention (RTI) program on the mathematical achievement of seventh and eighth grade students. The study consisted of five district schools with a total of 502 participants. The students were identified as belonging to one of two tiers, which differed in regard to amount of intervention. The first tier (Tier 1) of students only received the regular classroom instruction while the second tier (Tier 2/3) received an additional thirty minutes of intervention strategies. The students receiving interventions, the Tier 2/3 students, were divided into two groups. One group received primarily teacherdirected instruction (TDI) as an intervention while the other group received computerassisted instruction (CAI) as an intervention. For the purpose of this study, the CAI intervention involved the use of the commercial program, Odyssey Math. The students were benchmark tested at the beginning and end of the 20102011 school year using the STAR Math assessment program and also progress monitored on a regular basis. In an attempt to determine the effectiveness of the RTI program, a gain score ANOVA was conducted using the scaled scores of the two tiers from the beginning and the end of the school year. The analysis indicated that Tier 2/3 students did demonstrate greater growth than the students in Tier 1. The gain scores of the two groups of Tier 2/3 students were also used in a gain score ANOVA to measure differences in growth. An additional analysis of their mean scores was also conducted using ANCOVA. Both analyses indicated that the CAI group demonstrated greater gains. A third analysis was conducted in order to determine how accurately the STAR Math assessment program could predict student success (reaching either a Proficient or Advanced level) on the state assessment. While the STAR Math program did not accurately predict the students' level in every case, the logistic regression analysis did indicate that the program was successful in identifying struggling students. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 18005210600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/enUS/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]

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Developing Procedural Flexibility: Are Novices Prepared to Learn from Comparing Procedures? (2012)
Background: A key learning outcome in problemsolving domains is the development of procedural flexibility, where learners know multiple procedures and use them appropriately to solve a range of problems (e.g., Verschaffel, Luwel, Torbeyns, & Van Dooren, 2009). However, students often fail to become flexible problem solvers in mathematics. To support flexibility, teaching standards in many countries recommend that students be exposed to multiple procedures early in instruction and be encouraged to compare them. Aims: We experimentally evaluated this recommended instructional practice for supporting procedural flexibility during a classroom lesson, relative to two alternative conditions. The alternatives reflected the common instructional practice of delayed exposure to multiple procedures, either with or without comparison of procedures. Sample: Grade 8 students from two public schools (N= 198) were randomly assigned to condition. Students had not received prior instruction on multistep equation solving, which was the topic of our lessons. Method: Students learned about multistep equation solving under one of three conditions in math class for about 3 hr. They also completed a pretest, posttest, and 1monthretention test on their procedural knowledge, procedural flexibility, and conceptual knowledge of equation solving. Results: Novices who compared procedures immediately were more flexible problem solvers than those who did not, even on a 1month retention test. Although condition had limited direct impact on conceptual and procedural knowledge, greater flexibility was associated with greater knowledge of both types. Conclusions: Comparing procedures can support flexibility in novices and early introduction to multiple procedures may be one important reason. (Contains 5 tables and 2 figures.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

K2

3

A Randomised Control Trial of a Tier2 SmallGroup Intervention ("MiniLit") for Young Struggling Readers (2012)
The responsetointervention model is predicated upon increasingly intensive tiers of instruction. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a Tier2 smallgroup literacy intervention ("MiniLit") designed for young readers who are still struggling after experiencing wholeclass initial instruction. A total of 22 students in Kindergarten and Year 2 at a New South Wales public school were randomly allocated to form two comparable groups. The experimental group received the Tier2 smallgroup literacy intervention for one hour per day for four days per week for three school terms (27 weeks of instruction) while the control group continued to receive regular wholeclass literacy instruction during this time. All students were assessed on four measures of reading and related skills before the intervention commenced, again after two terms of instruction and once more after three terms of instruction. Large and statistically significant mean differences between the two groups were evident at posttest on two of the four tests employed measuring phonological recoding and single word reading. Large effect sizes provided evidence for the efficacy of the smallgroup intervention for young struggling readers. (Contains 5 figures, 1 table and 1 note.)

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The impact of curriculumbased professional development on science instruction: Results from a clusterrandomized trial. (2011, March)
This research is part of a larger, IESfunded study titled: "Measuring the Efficacy and Student Achievement of Researchbased Instructional Materials in High School Multidisciplinary Science" (Award # R305K060142). The larger study seeks to use a clusterrandomized trial design, with schools as the unit of assignment, to make causal inferences about the effect of treatment on both students and teachers. The research described in this report addresses the following research question associated with path "a" in Figure 1: (1) What is the mean difference in teacher outcome (i.e., instruction) across the treatment groups? (a) What is the effect size (practical significance)? (b) Is the difference statistically significant at the alpha = 0.05 level?; and (2) If practically or statistically significant differences in instruction exist across treatment groups, to what extent can the differences be attributed to the treatment (instructional materials and PD)? The research takes place in both suburban and rural high schools in the state of Washington. In particular, the suburban schools are clustered near Seattle/Tacoma and the rural schools are clustered near Yakima. The data from this analysis suggest that the PD treatment was more effective in fostering reformoriented science instruction, on average, than was the extant PD experienced by the businessasusual comparison group. This difference was both statistically and practically significant. Applying this result to the authors' hypothesis of mediation, they now have confidence that one of the causal paths (path a) that are necessary to argue mediation is trustworthy. Further study of path b is necessary to understand whether instruction is serving as a mediator of the treatment effect. That said, there is evidence in the literature suggesting that the possibility of a significant b path is quite real. For example, Hedges and Hedberg (2007) found that in schoollevel interventions, a considerable amount of the variance in outcomes was attributable to teacher and /or classroom effects. Threats to internal validity that are noteworthy include limitations in the authors' confidence that the postintervention differences in RTOP scores were not preexisting (i.e., not attributable to the treatment). Unfortunately, they did not have a baseline RTOP measure that could have served as a covariate in the main effect analysis of treatment. Use of such a covariate would have likely provided a more precise estimate of the treatment effect. Further, because the comparison group received businessasusual PD, this experience was highly variable across teachers. The research team has only cursory knowledge of the nature and duration of extant PD experienced by the comparison group. As such, there is limited clarity in the PD experiences to which the treatment is being compared. In the context of an efficacy trial, external validity (i.e., generalizability) of findings is not paramount. However, it should be noted again that the authors' sampling approach was not random. Therefore, they are cautious not to suggest that their treatment effect estimates would generalize far beyond their sample of rural and suburban schools in Washington state. (Contains 1 figure and 6 tables.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

3

Reducing the Gap in Numerical Knowledge between Low and MiddleIncome Preschoolers (2011)
We compared the learning from playing a linear number board game of preschoolers from middleincome backgrounds to the learning of preschoolers from lowincome backgrounds. Playing this game produced greater learning by both groups than engaging in other numerical activities for the same amount of time. The benefits were present on number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and arithmetic learning. Children with less initial knowledge generally learned more, and children from lowincome backgrounds learned at least as much, and on several measures more, than preschoolers from middleincome backgrounds with comparable initial knowledge. The findings suggest a class of intervention that might be especially effective for reducing the gap between lowincome and middleincome children's knowledge when they enter school.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PS

3

Enhancing selfreflection and mathematics achievement of atrisk urban technical college students. (2011)

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Benefits of Practicing 4 = 2 + 2: Nontraditional Problem Formats Facilitate Children's Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence (2011)
This study examined whether practice with arithmetic problems presented in a nontraditional problem format improves understanding of mathematical equivalence. Children (M age = 8;0; N = 90) were randomly assigned to practice addition in one of three conditions: (a) traditional, in which problems were presented in the traditional "operations on left side" format (e.g., 9 + 8 = 17); (b) nontraditional, in which problems were presented in a nontraditional format (e.g., 17 = 9 + 8); or (c) no extra practice. Children developed a better understanding of mathematical equivalence after receiving nontraditional practice than after receiving traditional practice or no extra practice. Results suggest that minor differences in early input can yield substantial differences in children's understanding of fundamental concepts.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Early Numeracy Intervention Program for FirstGrade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2011)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an early numeracy preventative Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of firstgrade students with mathematics difficulties. Researchers used a pretestposttest control group design with randomized assignment of 139 students to the Tier 2 treatment condition and 65 students to the comparison condition. Systematic instruction, visual representations of mathematical concepts, purposeful and meaningful practice opportunities, and frequent progress monitoring were used to develop understanding in early numeracy skills and concepts. Researchers used progressmonitoring measures and a standardized assessment measure to test the effects of the intervention. Findings showed that students in the treatment group outperformed students in the comparison group on the progressmonitoring measures of mathematics performance and the measures that focused on wholenumber computation. There were no differences between groups on the problemsolving measures. (Contains 5 tables.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

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The acquisition of problem solving skills in mathematics: How animations can aid understanding of structural problem features and solution procedures. (2010, September)
In this paper the augmentation of worked examples with animations for teaching problemsolving skills in mathematics is advocated as an effective instructional method. First, in a cognitive task analysis different knowledge prerequisites are identified for solving mathematical word problems. Second, it is argued that so called hybrid animations would be most effective for acquiring these prerequisites, because they show the continuous transition from a concrete, but superficial problem representation to a more abstract, mathematical problem model that forms a basis for solving a problem. An experiment was conducted, where N = 32 pupils from a German high school studied either only textbased worked examples explaining different problem categories from the domain of algebra or worked examples augmented with hybrid animations. Learners with hybrid animations showed superior problemsolving performance for problems of different transfer distance relative to those in the textonly condition.

Reviews of Individual Studies

K

3

Efficacy of Supplemental PhonicsBased Instruction for LowSkilled Kindergarteners in the Context of Language Minority Status and Classroom Phonics Instruction (2010)
This study tested the efficacy of supplemental phonics instruction for 84 lowskilled language minority (LM) kindergarteners and 64 nonLM kindergarteners at 10 urban public schools. Paraeducators were trained to provide the 18week (JanuaryMay) intervention. Students performing in the bottom half of their classroom language group (LM and nonLM) were randomly assigned either to individual supplemental instruction (treatment) or to classroom instruction only (control). Irrespective of their language status, treatment students (n = 67) significantly outperformed controls (n = 81) at posttest in alphabetics, word reading, spelling, passage reading fluency, and comprehension (average treatment d = 0.83); nevertheless, LM students tended to have lower posttest performance than nonLM students (average LM d = 0.30) and were significantly less responsive to treatment on word reading. When we examined the contribution of classroom phonics time to student outcomes, we found that the treatment effect on spelling was greater for students in lower phonics classrooms, whereas the treatment effect on comprehension was greater for those in higher phonics classrooms. Finally, when we examined LM students alone, we found that pretest English receptive vocabulary positively predicted most posttests and interacted with treatment only on phonological awareness. In general, pretest vocabulary did not moderate kindergarten LM treatment response. (Contains 6 tables and 2 figures.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

K12

3

Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Final Report. NCEE 20104018 (2010)
The District of Columbia School Choice Incentive Act of 2003, passed by Congress in January 2004, established the first federally funded, private school voucher program in the United States. Since that time, more than 8,400 students have applied for what is now called the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP), and a rigorous evaluation of the Program, mandated by Congress, has been underway. This last formal report from the ongoing evaluation describes the impacts of the Program at least four years after families who applied and were given the option to move from a public school to a participating private school of their choice. The research priorities for the evaluation were shaped largely by the primary topics of interest specified in the statute. This legislative mandate led the evaluators to focus on the following research questions: (1) What is the impact of the Program on student academic achievement? (2) What is the impact of the Program on other student measures? (3) What effect does the Program have on school safety and satisfaction? (4) What is the effect of attending private versus public schools? (5) To what extent is the Program influencing public schools and expanding choice options for parents in Washington, DC? These research questions are consistent with the topics that scholars and policymakers have identified as important questions of interest surrounding private school scholarship programs. The report found that that the Program had mixed longerterm effects on participating students and their parents, including: (1) No conclusive evidence that the OSP affected student achievement overall, or for the highpriority group of students who applied from "schools in need of improvement"; (2) The Program significantly improved students' chances of graduating from high school, according to parent reports. Overall, 82 percent of students offered scholarships received a high school diploma, compared to 70 percent of those who applied but were not offered scholarships. This graduation rate improvement also held for the subgroup of OSP students who came from "schools in need of improvement."; and (3) Although parents had higher satisfaction and rated schools as safer if their child was offered or used an OSP scholarship, students reported similar ratings for satisfaction and safety regardless of whether they were offered or used a scholarship. Appendices include: (1) Research Methodology; (2) BenjaminiHochberg Adjustments for Multiple Comparisons; (3) Sensitivity Testing; (4) Relationship Between Attending a Private School and Key Outcomes; (5) Detailed ITT Tables; (6) Exploration of Whether Parents Get What They Seek From School Choice; (7) To What Extent Are Treatment Effects of the OSP Observed Across the Outcome TestScore Distribution? Quantile Regression Analysis of the OSP; and (8) Intermediate Outcome Measures. (Contains 99 tables, 31 figures, and 61 footnotes.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

1

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ComputerAssisted Instruction to Prevent Early Reading Difficulties in Students at Risk for Dyslexia: Outcomes from Two Instructional Approaches (2010)
The relative effectiveness of two computerassisted instructional programs designed to provide instruction and practice in foundational reading skills was examined. Firstgrade students at risk for reading disabilities received approximately 80 h of smallgroup instruction in four 50min sessions per week from October through May. Approximately half of the instruction was delivered by specially trained teachers to prepare students for their work on the computer, and half was delivered by the computer programs. At the end of first grade, there were no differences in student reading performance between students assigned to the different intervention conditions, but the combinedintervention students performed significantly better than control students who had been exposed to their school's normal reading program. Significant differences were obtained for phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, reading accuracy, rapid automatic naming, and reading comprehension. A followup test at the end of second grade showed a similar pattern of differences, although only differences in phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, and rapid naming remained statistically reliable.

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Financial Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from Randomized Trials. NBER Working Paper No. 15898 (2010)
This paper describes a series of schoolbased randomized trials in over 250 urban schools designed to test the impact of financial incentives on student achievement. In stark contrast to simple economic models, our results suggest that student incentives increase achievement when the rewards are given for inputs to the educational production function, but incentives tied to output are not effective. Relative to popular education reforms of the past few decades, student incentives based on inputs produce similar gains in achievement at lower costs. Qualitative data suggest that incentives for inputs may be more effective because students do not know the educational production function, and thus have little clue how to turn their excitement about rewards into achievement. Several other models, including lack of selfcontrol, complementary inputs in production, or the unpredictability of outputs, are also consistent with the experimental data.

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

3

The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2010)
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal versus distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated wordproblem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 46 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 2030 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math wordproblem tutoring was replicated. (Contains 6 tables.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

3

The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2010)
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal versus distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated wordproblem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 46 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 2030 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math wordproblem tutoring was replicated. (Contains 6 tables.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings After the First Year of Implementation. NCEE 20104009 (2010)
Student achievement in mathematics has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. The National Research Council's 2001 report and the recent report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) both called attention to student achievement in mathematics, and both called for all students to learn algebra by the end of eighth grade. Reports have argued, further, that achieving this goal requires that students first successfully learn several topics in rational numbersfractions, decimals, ratio, rate, proportion, and percent. These topics are typically covered in grades 4 through 7, yet many students continue to struggle with them beyond the seventh grade. The National Mathematics Advisory Panel wrote thatdifficulty with fractions (including decimals and percent) is pervasive and is a major obstacle to further progress in mathematics, including algebra. The panel also specified that by the end of seventh grade, students should be able to solve problems involving percent, ratio, and rate, and extend this work to proportionality. The U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE)within the Institute of Education Sciencesinitiated the Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study to test the impact of a professional development (PD) program for teachers that was designed to address the problem of low student achievement in topics in rational numbers. The study focuses on seventh grade, the culminating year for teaching those topics and has three central research questions: (1) What impact did the PD program provided in this study have on teacher knowledge of rational number topics? (2) What impact did the PD program provided in this study have on teacher instructional practices? and (3) What impact did the PD program provided in this study have on student achievement in rational number topics? The study produced the following results: (1) The study's PD program was implemented as intended; (2) The PD program did not produce a statistically significant impact on teacher knowledge of rational numbers (effect size = 0.19, pvalue = 0.15); (3) The PD program had a statistically significant impact on the frequency with which teachers engaged in activities that elicited student thinking, one of the three measures of instructional practice used in the study (effect size = 0.48); and (4) The PD program did not produce a statistically significant impact on student achievement (effect size = 0.04, pvalue = 0.37). This report presents the study's findings after 1 year of implementing the PD in the treatment schools. A subsequent report will present findings after 2 years of implementing the PD. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the study. Chapter 2 describes the study design and its realization, including a description of the sample and tests of baseline equivalence of the treatment and control groups on observed characteristics. Chapter 3 describes the design and implementation of the PD program and the extent of service contrast between the treatment and control groups. Chapter 4 addresses the impact of the PD program on teacher knowledge, instructional practice, and student mathematics achievement. Chapter 5 provides several nonexperimental analyses that explore additional questions related to the impact findings. Appended are: (1) Data Collection; (2) Details of the Study Samples and Analytic Approaches; (3) Supplemental Information on the Design and Implementation of the PD Program; (4) Supporting Tables and Figures for Impact Analyses; and (5) Exploratory Analyses: Approaches and Additional Results. (Contains 9 exhibits, 9 figures, and 90 tables.)

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An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report (2010)
In 2007, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began implementing a schoolwide reform called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations. Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and responsibilities through promotion to mentor or master teacher as well as annual performance bonuses based on a combination of their value added to student achievement and observed performance in the classroom. The idea behind the program is that performance incentives, combined with tools for teachers to track performance and improve instruction, should help schools attract and retain talented teachers and help all teachers produce greater student achievement. This report provides evidence on the impacts of TAP during the 20082009 school year, the second year of the program's rollout in CPS. Appended are: (1) Propensity Score Matching; and (2) Longitudinal Analysis of Test Score Data. (Contains 18 tables, 7 figures and 14 footnotes.) [For the Year One Impact Report, see ED507502.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Compared with What? The Effects of Different Comparisons on Conceptual Knowledge and Procedural Flexibility for Equation Solving (2009)
Researchers in both cognitive science and mathematics education emphasize the importance of comparison for learning and transfer. However, surprisingly little is known about the advantages and disadvantages of what types of things are being compared. In this experimental study, 162 seventh and eighthgrade students learned to solve equations (a) by comparing equivalent problems solved with the same solution method, (b) by comparing different problem types solved with the same solution method, or (c) by comparing different solution methods to the same problem. Students' conceptual knowledge and procedural flexibility were best supported by comparing solution methods and to a lesser extent by comparing problem types. The benefits of comparison are augmented when examples differ on relevant features, and contrasting methods may be particularly useful in mathematics learning. (Contains 3 figures, 8 tables, and 1 footnote.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

3

Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial (2009)
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 2030 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. (Contains 5 tables and 8 footnotes.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

3

Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial (2009)
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 2030 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. (Contains 5 tables and 8 footnotes.)

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Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning (2009)
This study tests the hypothesis that cultural differences in group orientation predict an interaction between the student variableethnicityand a learning context variablereward structureon math performance after group learning. One hundred and thirtytwo AfricanAmerican and EuropeanAmerican female and male fourth and fifth grade students studied math estimation in one of three group learning contexts. The learning contexts operationalized were: intergroup competitive, interpersonally competitive, and communalno reward. ANCOVA confirmed a predicted interaction of ethnicity with learning context on post study session performance. Although there was no difference overall, AfricanAmerican and EuropeanAmerican students performed best in the aggregate in different contexts. Independent ratings of students' grouppositive behaviors mirrored the twoway interaction between learning context and ethnicity. The findings suggest that important student variables interact with the variable elements of group learning and should be studied in greater detail. They also support Boykin's (1994) contention that the cultural context of learning is a critical mediator of children's achievement. (Contains 4 tables, 3 figures and 7 footnotes.)

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Impact of ForProfit and Nonprofit Management on Student Achievement: The Philadelphia Intervention, 20022008.Working Paper Series PEPG 0902 (2009)
At the request of the State of Pennsylvania, the School District of Philadelphia, in the summer of 2002, asked three forprofit firms to assume responsibility for 30 of its lowestperforming schools and it asked four nonprofit managers to assume the management of 16 other lowperforming schools. A differenceindifferences analysis is used to estimate the impact of nonprofit and forprofit management on individual student achievement. Gains in test scores at the treated schools are estimated by comparing them with gains in other lowperforming schools in the district. Students at schools under forprofit management outperformed those at schools under nonprofit management in all six years in both reading and math. Most estimations are statistically significant. Impacts of forprofit management relative to district management were positive in math, but no reading impacts could be detected. At nonprofits, students appear to have learned substantially less, especially in math, at nonprofit schools, than had their school remained under regular district management. However, impacts fell short of statistical significance. (Propensity Score Analysis is appended. Contains 21 endnotes and 9 tables.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

3

Effects of Fact Retrieval Tutoring on ThirdGrade Students with Math Difficulties with and without Reading Difficulties (2009)
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MDonly) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring conditions: fact retrieval practice, conceptual fact retrieval instruction with practice, procedural computation/estimation instruction, and control (no tutoring). Tutoring occurred for 45 sessions over 15 weeks for 1525 minutes per session. Results provided evidence of an interaction between tutoring condition and MD subtype status for assessment of fact retrieval. For MDonly students, students in both fact retrieval conditions achieved comparably and outperformed MDonly students in the control group as well as those in the procedural computation/estimation instruction group. By contrast, for MDRD students, there were no significant differences among intervention conditions.

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

3

Effects of Fact Retrieval Tutoring on ThirdGrade Students with Math Difficulties with and without Reading Difficulties (2009)
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MDonly) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring conditions: fact retrieval practice, conceptual fact retrieval instruction with practice, procedural computation/estimation instruction, and control (no tutoring). Tutoring occurred for 45 sessions over 15 weeks for 1525 minutes per session. Results provided evidence of an interaction between tutoring condition and MD subtype status for assessment of fact retrieval. For MDonly students, students in both fact retrieval conditions achieved comparably and outperformed MDonly students in the control group as well as those in the procedural computation/estimation instruction group. By contrast, for MDRD students, there were no significant differences among intervention conditions.

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Effectiveness of Reading and Mathematics Software Products: Findings From Two Student Cohorts. NCEE 20094041 (2009)
In the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Congress called for the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to conduct a rigorous study of the conditions and practices under which educational technology is effective in increasing student academic achievement. A 2007 report presenting study findings for the 20042005 school year, indicated that, after one school year, differences in student test scores were not statistically significant between classrooms that were randomly assigned to use software products and those that were randomly assigned not to use products. School and teacher characteristics generally were not related to whether products were effective. The second year of the study examined whether an additional year of teaching experience using the software products increased the estimated effects of software products on student test scores. The evidence for this hypothesis is mixed. For reading, there were no statistically significant differences between the effects that products had on standardized student test scores in the first year and the second year. For sixth grade math, product effects on student test scores were statistically significantly lower (more negative) in the second year than in the first year, and for algebra I, effects on student test scores were statistically significantly higher in the second year than in the first year. The study also tested whether using any of the 10 software products increased student test scores. One product had a positive and statistically significant effect. Nine did not have statistically significant effects on test scores. Five of the insignificant effects were negative and four were positive. Study findings should be interpreted in the context of design and objectives. The study examined a range of reading and math software products in a range of diverse school districts and schools. But it did not study many forms of educational technology and it did not include many types of software products. How much information the findings provide about the effectiveness of products that are not in the study is an open question. Products in the study also were implemented in a specific set of districts and schools, and other districts and schools may have different experiences with the products. The findings should be viewed as one element within a larger set of research studies that have explored the effectiveness of software products. Three appendixes are included: (1) SecondYear Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Description of Sample for the 10 Products; and (3) Details of Estimation Methods. (Contains 29 footnotes, 4 figures and 24 tables.

Reviews of Individual Studies

K12

3

Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after Three Years. NCEE 20094050 (2009)
The "District of Columbia School Choice Incentive Act of 2003," passed by the Congress in January 2004, established the first federally funded, private school voucher program in the United States. The purpose of the new scholarship program was to provide lowincome residents, particularly those whose children attend schools in need of improvement or corrective action under the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act," with "expanded opportunities to attend higher performing schools in the District of Columbia" (Sec. 303). As part of this legislation, the Congress mandated a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of the Program, now called the "DC Opportunity Scholarship Program" (OSP). This report presents findings from the evaluation on the impacts three years after families who applied were given the option to move from a public school to a participating private school of their choice. The evaluation is based on a randomized controlled trial design that compares the outcomes of eligible applicants randomly assigned to receive (treatment group) or not receive (control group) a scholarship through a series of lotteries. The main findings of the evaluation so far include: (1) After 3 years, there was a statistically significant positive impact on reading test scores, but not math test scores; (2) The OSP had a positive impact overall on parents' reports of school satisfaction and safety, but not on students' reports; (3) This same pattern of findings holds when the analysis is conducted to determine the impact of using a scholarship rather than being offered a scholarship; (4) The OSP improved reading achievement for 5 of the 10 subgroups examined; and (5) No achievement impacts were observed for five other subgroups of students, including those who entered the Program with relative academic disadvantage. Six appendices are included: (1) Research Methodology; (2) BenjaminiHochberg Adjustments for Multiple Comparisons; (3) Sensitivity Testing; (4) Detailed ITT Tables; (5) Relationship Between Attending a Private School and Key Outcomes; and (6) Intermediate Outcome Measures.. (Contains 115 footnotes, 15 figures and 129 tables.) [For Executive Summary, see ED504784. For "Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after Two Years", see ED501696. For "Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after One Year", see ED497154.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

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3

Playing Linear Number Board Gamesbut Not Circular OnesImproves LowIncome Preschoolers' Numerical Understanding (2009)
A theoretical analysis of the development of numerical representations indicated that playing linear number board games should enhance preschoolers' numerical knowledge and ability to acquire new numerical knowledge. The effect on knowledge of numerical magnitudes was predicted to be larger when the game was played with a linear board than with a circular board because of a more direct mapping between the linear board and the desired mental representation. As predicted, playing the linear board game for roughly 1 hr increased lowincome preschoolers' proficiency on the 2 tasks that directly measured understanding of numerical magnitudesnumerical magnitude comparison and number line estimationmore than playing the game with a circular board or engaging in other numerical activities. Also as predicted, children who had played the linear number board game generated more correct answers and better quality errors in response to subsequent training on arithmetic problems, a task hypothesized to be influenced by knowledge of numerical magnitudes. Thus, playing linear number board games not only increases preschoolers' numerical knowledge but also helps them learn from future numerical experiences. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

3

Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes LowIncome Children's Numerical Development (2008)
The numerical knowledge of children from lowincome backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middleincome backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of preschoolers from lowincome families lagged behind that of peers from more affluent backgrounds. Experiment 2 indicated that playing a simple numerical board game for four 15minute sessions eliminated the differences in numerical estimation proficiency. Playing games that substituted colors for numbers did not have this effect. Thus, playing numerical board games offers an inexpensive means for reducing the gap in numerical knowledge that separates less and more affluent children when they begin school.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

3

Promoting Broad and Stable Improvements in LowIncome Children's Numerical Knowledge through Playing Number Board Games (2008)
Theoretical analyses of the development of numerical representations suggest that playing linear number board games should enhance young children's numerical knowledge. Consistent with this prediction, playing such a game for roughly 1 hr increased lowincome preschoolers' (mean age = 5.4 years) proficiency on 4 diverse numerical tasks: numerical magnitude comparison, number line estimation, counting, and numeral identification. The gains remained 9 weeks later. Classmates who played an identical game, except for the squares varying in color rather than number, did not improve on any measure. Also as predicted, home experience playing number board games correlated positively with numerical knowledge. Thus, playing number board games with children from lowincome backgrounds may increase their numerical knowledge at the outset of school.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

3

Effects of a PreKindergarten Mathematics Intervention: A Randomized Experiment (2008)
Research indicates that a socioeconomic statusrelated gap in mathematical knowledge appears early and widens during early childhood. Young children from economically disadvantaged families receive less support for mathematical development both at home and in preschool. Consequently, children from different socioeconomic backgrounds enter elementary school at different levels of readiness to learn a standardsbased mathematics curriculum. One approach to closing this gap is the development and implementation of effective mathematics curricula for public preschool programs enrolling economically disadvantaged children. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 Head Start and state preschool classrooms, with 278 children, to determine whether a prekindergarten mathematics intervention was effective. Intervention teachers received training that enabled them to implement with fidelity, and a large majority of parents regularly used math activities teachers sent home. Intervention and control groups did not differ on math assessments at pretest; however, gain scores of intervention children were significantly greater than those of control children at posttest. Thus, the intervention reduced the gap in children's early mathematical knowledge. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

3

Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness. Report from the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Initiative. NCER 20082009 (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood centerbased programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young atrisk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public prekindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3 to 5yearold children from lowincome families were enrolled in either partday or fullday early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly lowincome children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from prekindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summerfall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacherchild interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 213, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the sitespecific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]

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912

3

Cognitive Tutor Algebra I: Evaluation of results (1993–1994). (2008)

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3

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Effects of Preventative Tutoring on the Mathematical Problem Solving of ThirdGrade Students with Math and Reading Difficulties (2008)
This study assessed the effects of preventative tutoring on the math problem solving of thirdgrade students with math and reading difficulties. Students (n = 35) were assigned randomly to continue in their general education math program or to receive secondary preventative tutoring 3 times per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks. Schemabroadening tutoring taught students to (a) focus on the mathematical structure of 3 problem types; (b) recognize problems as belonging to those 3 problemtype schemas; (c) solve the 3 wordproblem types; and (d) transfer solution methods to problems that include irrelevant information, 2digit operands, missing information in the first or second positions in the algebraic equation, or relevant information in charts, graphs, and pictures. Also, students were taught to perform the calculation and algebraic skills foundational for problem solving. Analyses of variance revealed statistically significant effects on a wide range of word problems, with large effect sizes. Findings support the efficacy of the tutoring protocol for preventing wordproblem deficits among thirdgrade students with math and reading deficits. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

3

Effects of SmallGroup Tutoring with and without Validated Classroom Instruction on AtRisk Students' Math Problem Solving: Are Two Tiers of Prevention Better than One? (2008)
This study assessed the effects of smallgroup tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on atrisk students' math problem solving. Stratifying within schools, 119 3rdgrade classes were randomly assigned to conventional or validated problemsolving instruction (Hot Math, schemabroadening instruction). Students identified as at risk (n = 243) were randomly assigned, within classroom conditions, to receive or not receive Hot Math tutoring. Students were tested on problemsolving and math applications measures before and after 16 weeks of intervention. Analyses of variance, which accounted for the nested structure of the data, revealed that the tutored students who received validated classroom instruction achieved better than the tutored students who received conventional classroom instruction (effect size = 1.34). However, the advantage for tutoring over no tutoring was similar whether students received validated or conventional classroom instruction (effect sizes = 1.18 and 1.13). Tutoring, not validated classroom instruction, reduced the prevalence of math difficulty. Implications for responsivenesstointervention prevention models and for enhancing math problemsolving instruction are discussed. (Contains 5 tables, 1 figure and 1 footnote.)

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

3

Effects of SmallGroup Tutoring with and without Validated Classroom Instruction on AtRisk Students' Math Problem Solving: Are Two Tiers of Prevention Better than One? (2008)
This study assessed the effects of smallgroup tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on atrisk students' math problem solving. Stratifying within schools, 119 3rdgrade classes were randomly assigned to conventional or validated problemsolving instruction (Hot Math, schemabroadening instruction). Students identified as at risk (n = 243) were randomly assigned, within classroom conditions, to receive or not receive Hot Math tutoring. Students were tested on problemsolving and math applications measures before and after 16 weeks of intervention. Analyses of variance, which accounted for the nested structure of the data, revealed that the tutored students who received validated classroom instruction achieved better than the tutored students who received conventional classroom instruction (effect size = 1.34). However, the advantage for tutoring over no tutoring was similar whether students received validated or conventional classroom instruction (effect sizes = 1.18 and 1.13). Tutoring, not validated classroom instruction, reduced the prevalence of math difficulty. Implications for responsivenesstointervention prevention models and for enhancing math problemsolving instruction are discussed. (Contains 5 tables, 1 figure and 1 footnote.)

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25

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National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from a Random Assignment Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 14608 (2008)
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assesses teaching practice based on videos and essays submitted by teachers. We compared the performance of classrooms of elementary students in Los Angeles randomly assigned to NBPTS applicants and to comparison teachers. We used information on whether each applicant achieved certification, along with information on each applicant's NBPTS scaled score and subscores, to test whether the NBPTS score was related to teacher impacts on student achievement. We found that students randomly assigned to highlyrated applicants performed better than students assigned to comparison teachers, while students assigned to poorlyrated applicants performed worse. Estimates were similar using data on pairs of teachers that were not randomly assigned. Our results suggest a number of changes that would improve the predictive power of the NBPTS process.

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3

3

Remediating Computational Deficits at Third Grade: A Randomized Field Trial (2008)
The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rdgrade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and randomly assigned to 4 conditions: word recognition (control) tutoring or 1 of 3 computation tutoring conditions: fact retrieval, procedural computation and computational estimation, and combined (fact retrieval + procedural computation and computational estimation). Results revealed that fact retrieval tutoring enhanced fact retrieval skill, and procedural computation and computational estimation tutoring (whether in isolation or combined with fact retrieval tutoring) enhanced computational estimation skill. Remediation was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. (Contains 4 tables and 1 footnote.)

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Learning Science in Grades 38 Using Probeware and Computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II Project (2008)
The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquirybased instructional science units for teaching in grades 38. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of realworld phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or pressure) or, in one case, virtual environments based on mathematical models. TEEMSS units were used in more than 100 classrooms by over 60 teachers and thousands of students. This paper reports on cases in which groups of teachers taught science topics without TEEMSS materials in school year 20042005 and then the same teachers taught those topics using TEEMSS materials in 20052006. There are eight TEEMSS units for which such comparison data are available. Students showed significant learning gains for all eight. In four cases (sound and electricity, both for grades 34; temperature, grades 56; and motion, grades 78) there were significant differences in science learning favoring the students who used the TEEMSS materials. The effect sizes are 0.58, 0.94, 1.54, and 0.49, respectively. For the other four units there were no significant differences in science learning between TEEMSS and nonTEEMSS students. We discuss the implications of these results for science education.

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Teaching Science as a Language: A "ContentFirst" Approach to Science Teaching (2008)
Our research project was guided by the assumption that students who learn to understand phenomena in everyday terms prior to being taught scientific language will develop improved understanding of new concepts. We used webbased software to teach students using a "contentfirst" approach that allowed students to transition from everyday understanding of phenomena to the use of scientific language. This study involved 49 minority students who were randomly assigned into two groups for analysis: a treatment group (taught with everyday language prior to using scientific language) and a control group (taught with scientific language). Using a preposttest control group design, we assessed students' conceptual and linguistic understanding of photosynthesis. The results of this study indicated that students taught with the "contentfirst" approach developed significantly improved understanding when compared to students taught in traditional ways. (Contains 8 tables and 2 figures.)

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Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving (2008)
A key learning outcome in problemsolving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on multiple strategies. Participants were 132 sixthgrade students who solved linear equations for three hours. Both interventions improved students' flexibility in problem solving and did not replace, nor interfere with, one another. Overall, the study provides causal evidence that exposure to multiple strategies leads to improved flexibility in problem solving and that discovery learning and direct instruction are compatible instructional approaches. (Contains 6 tables.)

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Does Comparing Solution Methods Facilitate Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge? An Experimental Study on Learning to Solve Equations (2007)
Encouraging students to share and compare solution methods is a key component of reform efforts in mathematics, and comparison is emerging as a fundamental learning mechanism. To experimentally evaluate the effects of comparison for mathematics learning, the authors randomly assigned 70 seventhgrade students to learn about algebra equation solving by either (a) comparing and contrasting alternative solution methods or (b) reflecting on the same solution methods one at a time. At posttest, students in the compare group had made greater gains in procedural knowledge and flexibility and comparable gains in conceptual knowledge. These findings suggest potential mechanisms behind the benefits of comparing contrasting solutions and ways to support effective comparison in the classroom.

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Scaling up SimCalc project: Can a technology enhanced curriculum improve student learning of important mathematics? (Technical Report 01). (2007)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

3

Effects of a Preschool Mathematics Curriculum: Summative Research on the "Building Blocks" Project (2007)
This study evaluated the efficacy of a preschool mathematics program based on a comprehensive model of developing researchbased software and print curricula. Building Blocks, funded by the National Science Foundation, is a curriculum development project focused on creating researchbased, technologyenhanced mathematics materials for preK through grade 2. In this article, we describe the underlying principles, development, and initial summative evaluation of the first set of resulting materials as they were used in classrooms with children at risk for later school failure. Experimental and comparison classrooms included two principal types of public preschool programs serving lowincome families: state funded and Head Start prekindergarten programs. The experimental treatment group score increased significantly more than the comparison group score; achievement gains of the experimental group approached the soughtafter 2sigma effect of individual tutoring. This study contributes to research showing that focused early mathematical interventions help young children develop a foundation of informal mathematics knowledge, especially for children at risk for later school failure.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

3

Scaling up the implementation of a prekindergarten mathematics curriculum: The Building Blocks curriculum. (2006, June)

Reviews of Individual Studies

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3

Codeoriented instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties: A randomized field trial with paraeducator implementers. (2006)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, nearly 4 in 10 fourth graders read below the basic level. These literacy problems get worse as students advance through school and are exposed to progressively more complex concepts and courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of four remedial reading programs in improving the reading skills of 3rd and 5th graders, whether the impacts of the programs vary across students with difference baseline characteristics, and to what extent can this instruction close the reading gap and bring struggling readers within the normal rangerelative to the instruction normally provided by their schools. The study took place in elementary schools in 27 districts of the Allegheny Intermediate Unit outside Pittsburgh, PA during the 200304 school year. Within each of 50 schools, 3rd and 5th grade students were identified as struggling readers by their teachers. These students were tested and were eligible for the study if they scored at or below the 30th percentile on a wordlevel reading test and at or above the 5th percentile on a vocabulary test. The final sample contains a total of 742 students. There are 335 3rd graders ? 208 treatment and 127 control students. There are 407 5th graders ? 228 treatment and 179 control students. Four existing programs were used: Spell Read P.A.T., Corrective Reading, Wilson Reading, and Failure Free Reading. Corrective Reading and Wilson Reading were modified to focus only on wordlevel skills. Spell Read P.A.T. and Failure Free Reading were intended to focus equally on wordlevel skills and reading comprehension/vocabulary. Teachers received 70 hours of professional development and support during the year. Instruction was delivered in small groups of 3 students, 5 days a week, for a total of 90 hours. Seven measures of reading skill were administered at the beginning and end of the school year to assess student progress: Word Attack, Word Identification Comprehension (Woodcock Reading Mastery Test); Phonemic Decoding Efficiency and Sight Word Efficiency (Test of Word Reading Efficiency); Oral Reading Fluency (Edformation); and Passage Comprehension (Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation). After one year of instruction, there were significant impacts on phonemic decoding, word reading accuracy and fluency, and comprehension for 3rd graders, but not for 5th graders. For third graders in the reading programs, the gap in word attach skills between struggling readers and average readers was reduced by about twothirds. It was found that reading skills of 3rd graders can be significantly improved through instruction in wordlevel skills, but not the reading skills of 5th graders. The following are appended: (1) Details of Study Design and Implementation; (2) Data Collection; (3) Weighting Adjustment and Missing Data; (4) Details of Statistical Methods; (5) Intervention Impacts on Spelling and Calculation; (6) Instructional Group Clustering; (7) Parent Survey; (8) Teacher Survey and Behavioral Rating Forms; (9) Instructional Group Clustering; (10) Videotape Coding Guidelines for Each Reading Program; (11) Supporting Tables; (12) Sample Test Items; (13) Impact Estimate Standard Errors and PValues; (14) Association between Instructional Group Heterogeneity and The Outcome; (15) Teacher Rating Form; (16) School Survey; and (17) Scientific Advisory Board. [This report was produced by the Corporation for the Advancement of Policy Evaluation. Additional support provided by the Barksdale Reading Institute, and the Haan Foundation for Children.]

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The Effects of ComputerAssisted Instruction on Number Combination Skill in AtRisk First Graders (2006)
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the potential for computerassisted instruction (CAI) to enhance number combination skill among children with concurrent risk for math disability and reading disability. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of CAI on spelling. Atrisk students were assigned randomly to math or spelling CAI, which they received in 50 sessions over 18 weeks. Acquisition and transfer effects were assessed. The results indicated that math CAI was effective in promoting addition but not subtraction number combination skill and that transfer to arithmetic story problems did not occur. Spelling CAI effects were reliable on acquisition and transfer spelling measures, with small to moderate effect sizes on transfer to reading measures. These results provide the basis for additional work with larger samples.

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3

An evaluation of the second edition of
UCSMP Algebra. (2006)

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Effects of Mathematical Word ProblemSolving Instruction on Middle School Students with Learning Problems (2005)
This study investigated the differential effects of two problemsolving instructional approachesschemabased instruction (SBI) and general strategy instruction (GSI)on the mathematical word problemsolving performance of 22 middle school students who had learning disabilities or were at risk for mathematics failure. Results indicated that the SBI group significantly outperformed the GSI group on immediate and delayed posttests as well as the transfer test. Implications of the study are discussed within the context of the new IDEA amendment and access to the general education curriculum.

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3

Help with English Language Proficiency “HELP” program evaluation of sheltered instruction multimedia lessons. (2005)

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1

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The Prevention, Identification, and Cognitive Determinants of Math Difficulty (2005)
This study examined the efficacy of preventive 1stgrade tutoring in mathematics, estimated the prevalence and severity of mathematics disability, and explored pretreatment cognitive characteristics associated with mathematics development. Participants were 564 first graders, 127 of whom were designated at risk (AR) for mathematics difficulty and randomly assigned to tutoring or control conditions. Before treatment, all participants were assessed on cognitive and academic measures. Tutoring occurred 3 times weekly for 16 weeks; treatment fidelity was documented; and math outcomes were assessed. Tutoring efficacy was supported on computation and concepts/applications, but not on fact fluency. Tutoring decreased the prevalence of math disability, with prevalence and severity varying as a function of identification method and math domain. Attention accounted for unique variance in predicting each aspect of endofyear math performance. Other predictors, depending on the aspect of math performance, were nonverbal problem solving, working memory, and phonological processing.

Reviews of Individual Studies

K8

3

The Teacher Advancement Program report two: Year three results from Arizona and year one results from South Carolina TAP schools. (2004)

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2

3

The Differential Effects of Teaching Addition through Strategy Instruction versus Drill and Practice to Students with and without Learning Disabilities. (2003)
This study compared instruction in addition using either a minimum addend strategy or drill and practice with 84 students either with or without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD improved significantly only in the strategy condition, whereas general education students improved in both the strategy and the drillandpractice conditions. In a transfer task, students from both groups improved only in the strategy conditions. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

Reviews of Individual Studies

2

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The Differential Effects of Teaching Addition through Strategy Instruction versus Drill and Practice to Students with and without Learning Disabilities. (2003)
This study compared instruction in addition using either a minimum addend strategy or drill and practice with 84 students either with or without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD improved significantly only in the strategy condition, whereas general education students improved in both the strategy and the drillandpractice conditions. In a transfer task, students from both groups improved only in the strategy conditions. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

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6

3

The effects of rime and phonemebased teaching delivered by learning support assistants. (2003)

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Description and evaluation of Reasoning Mind’s 2003 pilot project. (2003)

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Teaching phonological awareness and metacognitive strategies to children with reading difficulties: A comparison of two instructional methods. (2003)
Describes an applied training study investigating the differential effect of two instructional methods on the reading performance of British primary school children with reading difficulties. Explains that children ages 7 to 10 (n=65) were separated into two groups: (1) based on different types of phonological awareness instruction, and (2) a control group. (CMK)

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3

The CorePlus Mathematics project: Perspectives and student achievement. (2002)

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3

Intensive Remedial Instruction for Children with Severe Reading Disabilities: Immediate and LongTerm Outcomes from Two Instructional Approaches. (2001)
Sixty children (ages 810) with severe reading disabilities received daily intensive onetoone instruction that differed in depth and extent of instruction in phonemic awareness and phonemic decoding. Both approaches were highly effective in improving reading accuracy and comprehension although measures of reading rate showed continued severe impairment. Twentyfour children were judged to no longer need special education. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

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Effects of Mathematical Word Problem Solving by Students At Risk or With Mild Disabilities. (1998)
Examined the differential effects of two instructional strategies (explicit schemabased and traditionalbased) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of mathematical word problem solving among elementary students at risk or with mild disabilities. Pretesting and posttesting indicated that both groups' performance increased from pretest to posttest, though students in the schemabased increased more significantly. (Author/SM)

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710

3

A Longitudinal Study of Students Completing Four Years of UCSMP Mathematics. (1993)
Compared students who had four years of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) secondary curriculum to two distinct groups of comparable students at three different sites (one urban and two suburban). UCSMP students at all three sites achieved higher but registered little difference in attitude. (Contains 48 references.) (MDH)

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Using ComputerAssisted Instruction to Personalize Arithmetic Materials for Elementary School Children. (1987)
The purpose of this research was to design and evaluate a computer based adaptive strategy for teaching mathematics. Results indicated preference for materials with personalized examples for motivation and meaningful learning of problem solving procedures. Practical advantages of the computerbased model for adapting instruction are also considered. (Author/JAZ)

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4

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Explicit Instruction in Mathematics Problem Solving. (1984)
An explicit strategy method developed from a composite of basal arithmetic texts was used for mathematics problemsolving instruction for a group of fourth graders. Posttest results were positive. Implications for teaching mathematics problem solving to low performing students are discussed. (Author/DF)

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411

1

Unconditional Education Year 1 Evaluation Report. (n.d.)

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6

1

Blended learning as a tool for international transfer of instructional practices. (in press)

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The Impacts of Three Educational Technologies on Algebraic Understanding in the Context of COVID19 (2023)
The current study investigated the effectiveness of three distinct educational technologiestwo gamebased applications (From Here to There and DragonBox 12+) and two modes of online problem sets in ASSISTments (an Immediate Feedback condition and an Active Control condition with no immediate feedback) on Grade 7 students' algebraic knowledge. More than 3,600 Grade 7 students across nine inperson and one virtual schools within the same district were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. Students received nine 30minute intervention sessions from September 2020 to March 2021. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of the final analytic sample (N = 1,850) showed significantly higher posttest scores for students who used From Here to There and DragonBox 12+ compared to the Active Control condition. No significant difference was found for the Immediate Feedback condition. The findings have implications for understanding how gamebased applications can affect algebraic understanding, even within pandemic pressures on learning.

Reviews of Individual Studies

912

1

CompuPower Investing in Innovation Evaluation: Final Report (2022)
This is the final report of an independent evaluation of the CompuPower program that was developed by Arizona State University's Center for Gender Equity in Science and Technology (ASU CGEST). CompuPower is a multifaceted program for high school students that is centered on a culturally responsive computing course that includes four key components: the CompuPower course curriculum, mentor teacher professional development, a multiday CompuPower Residency Experience, and a series of parent workshops. The evaluation of the CompuPower program was funded with a development grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) program and carried out by the American Institutes for Research (AIR) over the 201920 and 202021 school years in nine mostly rural high schools. The evaluation employed a quasiexperimental matched comparison design to estimate the impact of CompuPower on one confirmatory student social emotional outcomeselfregulationand two exploratory outcomescritical thinking skills in everyday life and grade point average. The evaluation also assessed the implementation fidelity of the four key CompuPower program components. Across the four program components, only the mentor teacher professional development was implemented with fidelity. Most implementation challenges for the other three program components resulted from the COVID19 pandemic, but there were other challenges as well. CompuPower students showed slightly higher scores on selfregulation, critical thinking skills in everyday life, and GPA measures than comparison group students, but the differences were not statistically significant.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

1

Helping Preschoolers Learn Math: The Impact of Emphasizing the Patterns in Objects and Numbers (2021)
Preschoolers' repeating patterning knowledge is predictive of their concurrent and later math and numeracy knowledge, but strong experimental evidence is needed to determine if these relations are causal. The purpose of the current Study was to examine the causal effects of repeating patterning and numeracy tutoring on repeating patterning, numeracy, and general mathematics knowledge in the year before kindergarten (i.e., preK). Children in preK (N = 211) were randomly assigned to receive five sessions of researcherdelivered tutoring (a) on repeating patterns and numeracy or (b) on numeracy (and literacy as an active control), or received no tutoring and business as usual classroom instruction(control). Children who received tutoring in repeating patterning and numeracy improved in their repeating patterning knowledge the most. However, children's general math and numeracy knowledge improved similarly across conditions, and a specific aspect of numeracy emphasized during the tutoring did not improve. Children's repeating patterning knowledge is malleable, but this initial attempt to demonstrate causal links between repeating patterning and math knowledge was not successful. Results parallel mixed success in research training other skills, such as working memory or spatial skills, for improving mathematics knowledge. Findings are discussed in terms of the relations between patterning, numeracy, and general math knowledge in preschoolers. [This paper will be published in "Journal of Educational Psychology."]

Reviews of Individual Studies

PS

1

Shining the Spotlight on Those outside Florida's Reform Limelight: The Impact of Developmental Education Reform for Nonexempt Students (2021)
Since the 2000s, states have experimented with reforms to improve success among underprepared students traditionally assigned to developmental education (DE). Florida's reform under Senate Bill 1720 has been among the most comprehensive and widereaching. Recent public high school graduates and military personnel became exempt from DE, but nearly onethird of students, including those without a Florida standard high school diploma, were still required to take a placement test and enroll in DE if they scored below collegeready. The legislation also required colleges to offer accelerated instructional strategies for students remaining in DE, and provide enhanced advising and support services. Focusing specifically on nonexempt students, we use statewide data to conduct a differenceinregression discontinuity analysis to examine differences in firstyear math coursetaking outcomes for students on the margins of college readiness before and after the reform. While students narrowly assigned to DE tend to have a lower likelihood of taking and passing collegelevel courses relative to their collegeready peers, these students experienced larger gains after the reform when DE courses were offered in accelerated formats accompanied by support services. The reform also improved outcomes for students scoring above collegeready, which suggests that nonexempt students benefited from enhanced advising and support services too. [This article was published in "Journal of Higher Education" (EJ1281792).]

Reviews of Individual Studies

PS

1

Shining the Spotlight on Those outside Florida's Reform Limelight: The Impact of Developmental Education Reform for Nonexempt Students (2021)
Since the 2000s, states have experimented with reforms to improve success among underprepared students traditionally assigned to developmental education (DE). Florida's reform under Senate Bill 1720 has been among the most comprehensive and widereaching. Recent public high school graduates and military personnel became exempt from DE, but nearly onethird of students, including those without a Florida standard high school diploma, were still required to take a placement test and enroll in DE if they scored below collegeready. The legislation also required colleges to offer accelerated instructional strategies for students remaining in DE, and provide enhanced advising and support services. Focusing specifically on nonexempt students, we use statewide data to conduct a differenceinregression discontinuity analysis to examine differences in firstyear math coursetaking outcomes for students on the margins of college readiness before and after the reform. While students narrowly assigned to DE tend to have a lower likelihood of taking and passing collegelevel courses relative to their collegeready peers, these students experienced larger gains after the reform when DE courses were offered in accelerated formats accompanied by support services. The reform also improved outcomes for students scoring above collegeready, which suggests that nonexempt students benefited from enhanced advising and support services too. [This article was published in "Journal of Higher Education" (EJ1281792).]

Reviews of Individual Studies

712

1

Evaluation Report: Investing in Innovation Pathways to Success (2021)
In 2016, McREL and the University of Southern California (USC) were awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund (Award Number U411C150011) to develop a translation of the identitybased motivation (IBM) in vivo program "Pathways to Success" to a digital platform to deliver IBM to middle and high school students. The resulting digital "Pathways to Success" program consisted of 12 15minute digital platform activities, planned to take place over the first six to eight weeks in the Fall semester of 2017 in 10 schools from five districts in Colorado. While the former McREL research director and the original external evaluator led the field operation and the randomization process, in 2018, there was a change in the Principal Investigator at McREL, and an evaluator from USC was contacted to conduct the independent evaluation. Project data, including student and teacher responses and administrative data from schools in years 20162017, 20172018, and 20182019 were provided by McREL to the USC evaluator. The report documented the implementation fidelity and examined the impact of digital "Pathways to Success" on students' overall, English language, and Math achievement, and "noncognitive" variables in the IBM theory.

Reviews of Individual Studies

48

1

Final Report of the i3 Evaluation of the Collaboration and Reflection to Enhance Atlanta Teacher Effectiveness (CREATE) Teacher Residency Program: A QuasiExperiment in Georgia (2021)
Teacher residencies are surfacing as a promising model for teacher preparation. One such residency programCollaboration and Reflection to Enhance Atlanta Teacher Effectiveness (CREATE)seeks to raise student achievement in local highneeds schools by increasing the effectiveness and retention of both new and veteran educators. CREATE aims to achieve this by developing criticallyconscious, compassionate, and skilled educators who are committed to teaching practices that prioritize racial justice and interrupt inequities. This quasiexperiment, funded by an Investing in Innovations (i3) grant, follows two staggered cohorts of study participants (CREATE and comparison teachers) for three years per cohort, starting with the first cohort in 201516. Confirmatory analyses found no statistically significant effects of CREATE on two Teacher Assessment on Performance Standards (TAPS) ratings for Instructional Strategies (p = 0.221) and Positive Learning Environment (p = 0.192), or on student achievement on ELA (p = 0.454), math (p = 0.569), and general achievement (p = 0.234). However, exploratory analyses (preregistered) found very promising results showing undisrupted retention over a threeyear time period (spanning graduation from Georgia State University's College of Education and Human Development, entering teaching, and retention into the second year of teaching) for the CREATE group, relative to the comparison group (p = 0.038). We also observed that the favorable impact is driven largely by higher continuous retention among Black educators in CREATE relative to those in the comparison group (p = 0.021). The percentages of teachers in CREATE, as averaged across the two study cohorts, who maintain an uninterrupted trajectory of graduating from GSUCEHD, and taught in their first and second year are 94.8%, 87.4% and 84.6%, respectively. In the matched comparison group the corresponding values are 87.9%, 72.9%, and 68.0%. Among Black teachers in CREATE, the values are 98.6%, 96.3% and 95.5%, respectively. In the matched comparison group of Black teachers, the corresponding values are 85.7%, 68.5%, and 62.8%. These results are further corroborated by statistically significant or marginally statistically significant differential impacts favoring Black teachers on several potential mediators of impact: resilience, selfefficacy, and stress management and empathy related to teaching. The positive findings on retention, particularly for Black educators, are important given that 44% of teachers in Georgia leave the profession within the first five years, with evidence in the literature indicating that in the South, Black teachers experience higher turnover rates than nonBlack teachers (CarverThomas & DarlingHammond, 2017). The authors discuss a number of factors that could have led to null impacts on confirmatory outcomes. The lack of variation in teacher performance ratings, which is a known issue in Georgia and in the literature at large (Weisberg et al, 2009; Kraft & Gilmour, 2017) could have contributed to the results for the TAPS ratings. Studies of teacher residency programs also suggest that impact on student achievement might not be present or detected in earlier years of teaching. Additionally, analyses of student achievement in this study were limited by small sample sizes of teachers in tested grades and subjects. The authors hope to address these limitations and to investigate the promising outcomes on retention, especially for Black educators, in current and future studies of CREATE, for which we have secured funding for programming and research through the eighth cohort. [For the appendices, see ED611803.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

1

Alternative Paths to Improved WordProblem Performance: An Advantage for Embedding Prealgebraic Reasoning Instruction within WordProblem Intervention (2021)
The purpose of this study was to explore the paths by which wordproblem intervention, with versus without embedded prealgebraic reasoning instruction, improved wordproblem performance. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD; n = 304) were randomly assigned to a businessasusual condition or 1 of 2 variants of wordproblem intervention. The prealgebraic reasoning component targeted relational understanding of the equal sign as well as standard and nonstandard equation solving. Intervention occurred for 16 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session. Sequential mediation models revealed main effects, in which each intervention condition significantly and substantially outperformed the businessasusual condition, corroborating prior research on the efficacy of schema wordproblem intervention. Yet despite comparable effects on wordproblem outcomes between the two wordproblem conditions, the process by which effects accrued differed: An indirect path via equalsign understanding and then equation solving was significant only for the wordproblem intervention condition with embedded prealgebraic reasoning instruction. Additionally, the effect of this condition on equalsign reasoning was strong. Given the link between equalsign reasoning for success with algebra and the importance of algebra for success with advanced mathematics, results suggest an advantage for embedding prealgebraic reasoning instruction within wordproblem intervention.

Reviews of Individual Studies

112

1

The Effects of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on Student Achievement and College Entrance (2021)
The Louisiana Scholarship Program (LSP) offers publicly funded vouchers to moderate and lowincome students in lowperforming public schools to enroll in participating private schools. Established in 2008 as a pilot program in New Orleans, the LSP expanded statewide in 2012. Drawing upon the random lotteries that placed students in LSP schools, we estimate the causal impact of using an LSP voucher to enroll in a private school on student achievement on the state accountability assessments in math, English Language Arts, and science over a fouryear period, as well as on the likelihood of enrolling in college. The results from our primary analytic sample indicate substantial negative achievement impacts, especially in math, that diminish after the first year but persist after four years. In contrast, when considering the likelihood of students entering college, we observe no statistically significant difference between scholarship users and their control counterparts.

Reviews of Individual Studies

1

1

Improving Reading Comprehension, Science Domain Knowledge, and Reading Engagement through a FirstGrade Content Literacy Intervention (2021)
This study investigated the effectiveness of the Model of Reading Engagement (MORE), a content literacy intervention, on first graders' science domain knowledge, reading engagement, and reading comprehension. The MORE intervention emphasizes the role of domain knowledge and reading engagement in supporting reading comprehension. MORE lessons included a 10day thematic unit that provided a framework for students to connect new learning to a meaningful schema (i.e., Arctic animal survival) and to pursue mastery goals for acquiring domain knowledge. A total of 38 firstgrade classrooms (N = 674 students) within 10 elementary schools were randomly assigned to (a) MORE at school (MS), (b) MORE at home, (MSH), in which the MS condition included athome reading, or (c) typical instruction. Since there were minimal differences in procedures between the MS and MSH conditions, the main analyses combined the two treatment groups. Findings from hierarchical linear models revealed that the MORE intervention had a positive and significant effect on science domain knowledge, as measured by vocabulary knowledge depth (effect size [ES] = 0.30), listening comprehension (ES = 0.40), and argumentative writing (ES = 0.24). The MORE intervention effects on reading engagement as measured by situational interest, reading motivation, and task orientations were not statistically significant. However, the intervention had a significant, positive effect on a distal measure of reading comprehension (ES = 0.11), and there was no evidence of Treatment × Aptitude interaction effects. Content literacy can facilitate first graders' acquisition of science domain knowledge and reading comprehension without contributing to Matthew effects.

Reviews of Individual Studies

11PS

1

DualCredit Courses and the Road to College: Experimental Evidence from Tennessee (2020)
Dualcredit courses expose high school students to collegelevel content and provide the opportunity to earn college credits, in part to smooth the transition to college. With the Tennessee Department of Education, we conduct the first randomized controlled trial of the effects of dualcredit math coursework on a range of high school and college outcomes. We find that the dualcredit advanced algebra course alters students' subsequent high school math coursetaking, reducing enrollment in remedial math and boosting enrollment in precalculus and Advanced Placement math courses. We fail to detect an effect of the dualcredit math course on overall rates of college enrollment. However, the course induces some students to choose fouryear universities instead of twoyear colleges, particularly for those in the middle of the math achievement distribution and those first exposed to the opportunity to take the course in eleventh rather than twelfth grade. We see limited evidence of improvements in early math performance during college.

Reviews of Individual Studies

1112

1

DualCredit Courses and the Road to College: Experimental Evidence from Tennessee (2020)
Dualcredit courses expose high school students to collegelevel content and provide the opportunity to earn college credits, in part to smooth the transition to college. With the Tennessee Department of Education, we conduct the first randomized controlled trial of the effects of dualcredit math coursework on a range of high school and college outcomes. We find that the dualcredit advanced algebra course alters students' subsequent high school math coursetaking, reducing enrollment in remedial math and boosting enrollment in precalculus and Advanced Placement math courses. We fail to detect an effect of the dualcredit math course on overall rates of college enrollment. However, the course induces some students to choose fouryear universities instead of twoyear colleges, particularly for those in the middle of the math achievement distribution and those first exposed to the opportunity to take the course in eleventh rather than twelfth grade. We see limited evidence of improvements in early math performance during college.

Reviews of Individual Studies

12

1

Using Intensive Intervention to Improve Mathematics Skills of Students with Disabilities: Project Evaluation Report (2020)
The purpose of this project evaluation was to assess the impact of databased individualization (DBI) on the mathematics achievement of students with intensive mathematics learning needs, including students with disabilities. The evaluation study used a cluster randomized trial in which elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment using a delayedintervention design. Since this was a development project, the evaluation delineated between the primary, confirmatory impact question and exploratory research questions. The confirmatory question included students in Grades 12 and was concerned with the relationship of one year of DBI implementation support in comparison with a businessasusual, delayed intervention group. Because of the developmental, iterative nature of the project, exploratory questions were concerned with cumulative longitudinal relations between years of DBI implementation support between two cohorts of elementary schools. In addition, project staff supported DBI implementation pilot in two middle schools and tracked student progress in those sites. Analytic results provided preliminary evidence to suggest that there may be contextual factors that govern the likelihood a student will profit from DBI. In addition, schools may require significant ongoing support to sustain implementation.

Reviews of Individual Studies

45

1

Final Report of the i3 Impact Study of Making Sense of SCIENCE, 201617 through 201718 (2020)
Science education has experienced a significant transition over the last decade, catalyzed by a reenvisioning of what students should know and be able to do in science. That reenvisioning culminated in the release of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in 2013. The new standards set off a chain reaction of standards adoption and implementation across states, districts, and schools, including steps taken toward transforming science professional learning, instruction, curriculum, and assessment. It was in this dynamic context that Empirical Education conducted an impact evaluation, as part of an Investing in Innovation (i3) grant, of WestEd's Making Sense of SCIENCE project, a teacher professional learning model aimed at raising students' science achievement through improving science instruction. Under this grant, WestEd and Empirical Education also partnered with Heller Research Associates (HRA) to conduct an implementation study and a scaleup study of Making Sense of SCIENCE. The impact evaluation, which is the focus of this report, was a twoyear clusterrandomized control trial (RCT) that took place in California and Wisconsin across seven school districts and 66 elementary schools in the 201617 and 201718 school years. The study randomized schools to either receive the Making Sense of SCIENCE professional learning or to the businessasusual ("control") group, which received the professional learning (delayedtreatment) after the study ended. The study found that Making Sense of SCIENCE had a positive impact on teacher content knowledge (effect size = 0.56, p = 0.006) and a positive impact on a holistic scale of teacher pedagogical content knowledge (effect size = 0.41, p = 0.026). The study also yielded positive and significant impacts on the amount of time teachers spent on science instruction (effect size = 0.40, p = 0.015) and on the emphasis that teachers placed on NGSSaligned instructional practices, with statistically significant effect sizes ranging from 0.40 to 0.49. This suggestive evidence that Making Sense of SCIENCE changes classroom science learning experiences in ways that align with expectations in NGSS, which is a hypothesized precursor to measuring impacts on student achievement, deserves notice. In regard to student science achievement, the study did not find statistically significant results for the full sample of students (effect size = 0.06, p = 0.494), or for the sample of students in the bottom third of incoming math and English Language Arts achievement, with effect sizes of 0.22 (p = 0.099) and 0.073 (p = 0.567), respectively. Notably, with the exception of one negative effect size, additional analyses on student achievement using different measures and samples yielded positive, but not statistically significant, effect sizes ranging from 0.02 to 0.12. Evaluators offer three potential contributors to the findings of limited impact on student science achievement. First, given the timing of the study in relation to the release of the NGSS in 2013, finding a suitable NGSSaligned student science assessment was a challenge. Second, most study schools and districts had not yet adopted NGSSaligned curricula and did not have access to NGSSaligned curriculum resources. Third, the sample of teachers was unstable across the two years, with the percentage of teachers leaving the school congruous to the percentage observed at the national level. [For the appendices, see ED609254; for the research summary, see ED609256.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

68

1

Effects of the Executive Development Program and Aligned Coaching for School Principals in Three U.S. States. Investing in Innovation Study Final Report. Research Report. RRA2591 (2020)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the National Institute for School Leadership's (NISL's) Executive Development Program (EDP) and paired leadership coaching as implemented in three states, with funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) grant program. NISL's Executive Development Program (EDP) is a yearlong professional development program that has served thousands of principals in 23 states since 2014. The study was a randomized control trial study spanning 332 schools and 118 school districts. It evaluated the effects of the offer of and of participation in the EDP and coaching. Take up rates of the program were relatively low, and the study found no significant effects of the EDP and coaching on student achievement in English language arts or mathematics, on student attendance rates, or on student grade progression rates within three years of the start of the program. There were, however, effects of participation in the EDP and coaching in two areas of leadership practice as reported by principals on surveys conducted more than two years after the start of the intervention. We hypothesize that local buyin and capacity to fully participate in the intensive professional development program most likely influenced the degree to which the intervention was successful. [Criterion Education sponsored this report, with funding from NISL through the i3 grant from the U.S. Department of Education. For the first report of this series, "Putting Professional Learning to Work: What Principals Do with Their Executive Development Program Learning," see ED606171.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

1

Impacts of an Early Childhood Mathematics and Science Intervention on Teaching Practices and Child Outcomes (2020)
This randomized controlled trial examined effects of the MyTeachingPartnerMath/Science intervention on the quality and quantity of teachers' mathematics and science instruction, and children's mathematics and science outcomes in 140 prekindergarten classrooms. Teachers participated in the intervention for two years with consecutive cohorts of children. Results from Year 1 are considered experimental, however due to high levels of attrition, results from Year 2 are considered quasiexperimental. Across both years, intervention teachers exhibited higher quality and quantity of instruction. In Year 1, there were no significant effects of the intervention on children's outcomes. In Year 2, children in intervention classrooms made greater gains in teachers' ratings of mathematics and science skills and performed better on a spring assessment of science skills. These results have implications for designing and evaluating professional development aimed at supporting children's mathematics and science knowledge and skills.

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK

1

The impact of a supplementary preschool mathematics curriculum on children's early mathematics learning (2020)

Reviews of Individual Studies

89

1

Impact Study Evaluation of the Rural Math Innovation Network (RMIN) i3 Development Project (2020)
The Rural Math Innovation Network (RMIN) is a 4year project that launched in January 2017 after receiving a $2.9 million Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and matching funds from the private sector. Virginia Ed Strategies and rural local education agencies (LEAs) in Virginia are implementing a project using a networked improvement community (NIC) of PreAlgebra and Algebra 1 teachers to incorporate socialemotional learning (SEL) factors of academic selfefficacy and growth mindset into lesson plans for teaching career readiness math competencies. During Year 1, the project established Memos of Understanding with 18 school divisions in southwest and southside Virginia, which enabled math teachers within these divisions to submit applications to participate in the project. At the end of Year 1, December 2017, the project had a 38member teacher cohort across 25 schools. By the end of Year 2 (January 1  December 31, 2018), the cohort included 30 teachers (19 middle school teachers and 11 high school teachers) across 20 schools (12 middle schools and 8 high schools) within 16 participating divisions (several teachers dropped out of the project in Year 2 and a few teachers were added). During Year 3 (January 1  December 31, 2019), several more teachers dropped out of the project, resulting in 26 teachers (17 middle school and 9 high school) across 18 schools within 15 participating divisions. Sixteen of the 26 teachers are located in the southside region, with the remaining 10 teachers located in the southwest region of Virginia One of the i3 requirements is to have an external evaluation conducted of the project; development grants must include both an implementation study and an impact study. To fulfill this requirement, Virginia Ed Strategies hired ICF to conduct an independent evaluation of the RMIN project throughout the 4year period. The evaluation includes three components: a formative study to provide ongoing feedback about participants' reactions, learning, behaviors, and results; an implementation study focusing on how well the structural and programmatic aspects of the RMIN project are implemented, as well as facilitating or impeding factors; and an impact study to determine the extent to which the project impacts highneed students' math achievement. Previously in Year 2, the evaluation team recruited 10 comparison teachers across rural Virginia school divisions who were also teaching either PreAlgebra or Algebra 1 (no school has both a participating and comparison teacher). The purpose of this report is to summarize key findings from the impact study. The primary audience is the RMIN project staff at Virginia Ed Strategies; secondary audiences include ED and other interested stakeholders. Although the impact study was designed originally to include students from the 201819 and 201920 school years, the COVID19 pandemic in spring 2020 led to school closings and no administration of the statewide Standards of Learning (SOL) math assessment. Therefore, the impact study is based solely on the one year of SOL data. Findings are presented for the impact data and framed by the evaluation questions. Conclusions are presented below. Impact on student achievement. The oneyear program impact on students' SOL scores was estimated and the results did not find evidence that the RMIN program significantly improved students' SOL performance. The program impact from the PreAlgebra sample was negative, but it was not statistically significant, and the effect size was small. The program impact from the Algebra I analysis was positive but not statistically significant, and the effect size was small.

Reviews of Individual Studies

K12

1

NW BOCES's System for Educator Effectiveness Development (SEED) Project: Final Evaluation Report (2020)
Purpose: In January 2015, the Northwest Board of Cooperative Educational Services (NW BOCES) received a fiveyear Investing in Innovation (i3) grant to develop and implement the System for Educator Effectiveness Development (SEED) programan innovative professional development (PD) system designed to provide geographically isolated educators an impactful tool to improve teacher effectiveness. The purpose of this report is to document the implementation and impact evaluation of the grant on educator and student outcomes. Methods: Twentyone schools in rural areas, where obtaining PD can be a challenge, participated in SEED between 2015 and 2020. One school closed during the study period but the majority of its students transferred to other participating schools. Because SEED was a schoollevel intervention, the target population consisted of all principals, assistant principals, teachers, and students in the participating sites. Correlational designs were implemented to examine the relationships between teacherlevel and schoollevel SEED participation and the outcomes of interest, such as (1) principal engagement in teacher professional growth, (2) teacher access to and use of evidencebased and uptodate practices, (3) teacher implementation of practice learned from PD in the classroom. A quasiexperimental design (QED) using propensity score matching (PSM) method was employed to examine difference in student achievement outcomes between the SEED schools and the matched nonSEED schools. Results: Correlational findings suggest that teachers who participated in SEED reported better outcomes compared to teachers who did not participate in SEED. Schools with high level of SEED participation had better outcomes compared to schools with low level of SEED participation. Findings of QED PSM design revealed that SEED had a statistically significant positive effect on one outcome measure (minority students' English language acquisition, or ELA) and marginally significant positive effects on four outcome measures (all related to English language acquisition and math outcomes among racial/ethnic minority and free and reducedlunch, or FRL, students). Implications: Evaluation findings provided some positive and promising pieces of evidence to support SEED efficacy. Implementation findings suggest that the program was largely implemented with fidelity; yet, there are opportunities for improvement. Future research may consider replicating the program design and identify strategies to increase teacher participation at school level. Additional Materials: The following are appended: (1) SEED Evaluation: Technical Report; (2) Assessment of Fidelity of Implementation; and (3) Baseline Equivalence and Impact Analysis Outputs and Results.

Reviews of Individual Studies

K12

1

A statewide quasiexperimental effectiveness study of the scaleup of schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2019)
The threetiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework promotes the
development of systems and data analysis to guide the selection and implementation of evidence based
practices across multiple tiers. The current study examined the effects of universal (tier 1)
or schoolwide PBIS (SWPBIS) in one state's scaleup of this tier of the framework. Annual
propensity score weights were generated to examine the longitudinal effects of SWPBIS from
2006–07 through 2011–12. Schoollevel archival and administrative data outcomes were examined
using panel models with an autoregressive structure. The sample included 1316 elementary,
middle, and high schools. Elementary schools trained in SWPBIS demonstrated statistically
significantly lower suspensions during the fourth and fifth study years (i.e., small effect
size) and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the first two study years as well as in
one and two later years (i.e., small to large effect sizes), respectively. Secondary schools implementing
SWPBIS had statistically significantly lower suspensions and truancy rates during the
second study year and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the second and third
study years. These findings demonstrate medium effect sizes for all outcomes except suspensions.
Given the widespread use of SWPBIS across nearly 26,000 schools in the U.S., this study has
important implications for educational practices and policies.

Reviews of Individual Studies

K12

1

Effects of National Board Certified Instructional Leaders on Classroom Practice and Student Achievement of Novice Teachers. A Study Report Developed for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2019)
The study examined the effect of National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in instructional leadership roles, operationalized as mentors to novice teachers, on (a) classroom practices of mentored novice teachers in Grades K12 and (b) student achievement of mentored teachers' students in Grades 48. The study compared outcomes between NBCT mentors and nonNBCT mentors. The study examined the effect of NBCT mentors after one academic year and was conducted in San Francisco Unified School District. Using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, we examined novice teachers' classroom practices on the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, Instructional Support, and across all three domains. The results did not reach statistical significance, but the effect sizes for Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and a global measure across all domains suggest meaningful differences between classroom practices of novice teachers mentored by NBCTs and nonNBCTs. These effect sizes were 0.28, 0.28, and 0.21 standard deviations, respectively. The effect size for the domain of Instructional Support was near zero at 0.06 standard deviations. Our sample size for the analysis of classroom practices did not have sufficient power to estimate differences at a statistically significant level. We examined student achievement using the state's standardized test scores in mathematics and English language arts. Our achievement measure includes either subject: That is, we did not estimate effects separately for mathematics and English language arts. The results suggest that students taught by teachers mentored by NBCTs had a higher level of achievement than students mentored by nonNBCTs. The difference was statistically significant at a p value of 0.05, and the effect size was meaningful at 0.18 standard deviations. Small sample sizes and low statistical power prevent us from making confident conclusions about the effect of NBCTs in instructional leadership roles on classroom practices of supported teachers and student achievement. However, the evidence is encouraging and warrants additional rigorous research on the impact of NBCTs as instructional leaders.

Reviews of Individual Studies

912

1

Effectiveness of "Enhanced Units": A Report of a Randomized Experiment in California and Virginia. Research Report (2019)
Empirical Education Inc. is the independent evaluator of SRI International's 2014 Investing in Innovation (i3) Development grant called Redesigning Secondary Courses to Improve Academic Outcomes for Adolescents with Disabilities and Other Underperforming Adolescents. The goal of the grant is to develop "Enhanced Units" that combine researchbased content enhancement routines, collaboration strategy, and technology components for secondary U.S. History and biology classes. This report presents findings of a randomized control trial (RCT) during the 201718 school year. The RCT measured the impact of "Enhanced Units" on higher order content skills (as measured through unit tests) in high school biology and U.S. History classes in three districts in Virginia and California. SRI, the Center for Applied Special Education Technology (CAST), and their research and practitioner partners developed "Enhanced Units" (EU) with the goal of integrating researchbased content enhancement routines with technological enhancements to improve student content learning and higher order reasoning, especially for students with disabilities or other learning challenges. This study also documents the extent to which the core components of EU were implemented with fidelity. The authors provide descriptive results on classroom practices (as measured by teacher surveys) and contextual factors that support or hinder implementation (as described during teacher interviews). Future improvements to EU should focus on answering the question: "What is/are the best way(s) for teachers to present SIM routines to their students, particularly for students with learning challenges through SIM intervention?"

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK3

1

The Effects of Enrolling in Oversubscribed Prekindergarten Programs through Third Grade (2019)
This study leverages naturally occurring lotteries for oversubscribed Boston Public Schools prekindergarten program sites between 2007 and 2011, for 3,182 children (M = 4.5 years old) to estimate the impacts of winning a first choice lottery and enrolling in Boston prekindergarten versus losing a first choice lottery and not enrolling on children's enrollment and persistence in district schools, grade retention, special education placement, and thirdgrade test scores. There are large effects on enrollment and persistence, but no effects on other examined outcomes for this subsample. Importantly, children who competed for oversubscribed seats were not representative of all appliers and almost all controlgroup children attended centerbased preschool. Findings contribute to the larger evidence base and raise important considerations for future prekindergarten lotterybased studies. [This is the online version of an article published in "Child Development" (ISSN 00093920).]

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK1

1

Literacy and Academic Success for English Learners Through Science LASErS Evaluation Report (2019)

Reviews of Individual Studies

PK12

1

Parents at the Center: Final Parent Leadership Institute Evaluation Report (2019)
The Parent Leadership Institute (PLI) of Children's Aid (CA), funded via a 2013 Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant operated between the 201415 through 201819 school years. Key goals of the PLI included: (1) improving the capacity of parents to effectively engage in the school community in support of their child; and (2) increasing the capacity of school staff to create and support environments which are welcoming to and supportive of the active engagement of parents as key members of the school community. Through implementation of the PLI, CA expanded its partnership with six schools located in the South Bronx community of Morrisania, an area characterized by high levels of poverty, health disparities, and crime, and low levels of academic achievement and attainment among both children and adults. This report serves as the final report on this phase of the PLI and includes an exploration of implementation during year 4 (201617 school year) and analyses of quantitative data on student academic performance. [This report was prepared for Children's Aid New York.]

Reviews of Individual Studies

PS

1

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Modularized, ComputerAssisted, SelfPaced Approach to Developmental Math (2019)
Community colleges are a large sector of postsecondary education. In 20162017, the United States had nearly 1,000 public 2year postsecondary institutions (community colleges), serving almost nine million students, representing 39% of all undergraduates. The majority of entering community college students require developmental (or remedial) math. Success rates in the developmental math course sequence and college more broadly are discouragingly low. Policymakers, practitioners, and researchers alike are eagerly searching for reforms to improve success rates, but there is a dearth of causal evidence on the effectiveness of most proposed reforms. We sought to answer the following question: what effect does a modularized, computerassisted, selfpaced approach to developmental math (compared with a more "traditional" directinstruction course alternative) have on students' likelihood of completing the developmental math course sequence? Findings from a randomized controlled trial (n=1,403) are presented. The program was well implemented; however, we did not find evidence that this approach was superior to the "traditional" math class. Although these results are disappointing, they are important because modularization and selfpaced computerassisted instruction are popular reforms. [This article was published in "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness" (EJ1229042).]

Reviews of Individual Studies

58

1

Is the pen mightier than the keyboard? The effect of online testing on measured student achievement (2019)
Nearly two dozen states now administer online exams to deliver testing to K12 students. These tests have real consequences: their results feed into accountability
systems, which have been used for more than a decade to hold schools and districts accountable for their students’ learning. We examine the rollout of computerbased
testing in Massachusetts over 2 years to investigate test mode effects. Crucial to the study design is the state administering the same exam (PARCC) in online
and offline formats each year during the transitional period. We find an online test penalty of about 0.10 standard deviations in math and 0.25 standard deviations in
English language arts (ELA), which partially but not fully fades out in the second year of online testing.

Reviews of Individual Studies

78

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Evaluation of Reading Apprenticeship across the Disciplines (RAAD): Effective Secondary Teaching and Learning through Literacy Leadership (2019)
Reading Apprenticeship is a model of academic literacy instruction designed by the Strategic Literacy Initiative (SLI) at WestEd to improve student literacy skills and academic achievement. Based on understandings of the close relationship between curricular reform and professional development, Reading Apprenticeship includes an instructional framework and associated professional development model for secondary and postsecondary teachers across the academic subject areas. Teachers across the subject areas learn how to build student capacities to carry out intellectually engaged reading, make meaning, acquire academic and disciplinary language, read independently, and set personal goals for literacy development. In 2015, the U.S. Department of Education awarded SLI a threeyear Supporting Effective Educator Development (SEED) grant to disseminate Reading Apprenticeship professional learning through the Reading Apprenticeship Across the Disciplines (RAAD) project, a crossdisciplinary blended model of Reading Apprenticeship. Through RAAD, WestEd served 2,240 teachers from 570 schools in 6 states (California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, Texas, and Wisconsin). As part of the grant, IMPAQ International conducted an independent evaluation of RAAD effectiveness. This report presents findings from the randomized controlled trial conducted in California, New York, Texas, and Wisconsin. The impact evaluation employed a grouprandomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 40 middle schools from 6 blocks, labeled A through F, were randomly assigned to a treatment group (19 schools), which received the RAAD intervention; or a control group (21 schools), which was set to receive delayed professional development. Grade 7 or 8 English Language Arts (ELA), science, and social studies teachers recruited from treatment schools received the RAAD professional development and ongoing support during the 201618 study period, while control schools conducted business as usual. Two years of data were collected from the study schools. Findings from this study demonstrate the success of the RAAD project in offering teachers professional learning and support to scale to help them change their instructional practices to foster metacognitive inquiry, increase class time spent reading, and encourage use of collaboration and reading strategies by students. These findings were accompanied by significant reduction in traditional teacher practices and are consistent with positive findings from other studies of Reading Apprenticeship. However, this study also shows that this iteration of the Reading Apprenticeship fell short of improving student literacy and achievement as measured by standardized assessments.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Study of Physical Science and Engineering Invention Kit Curriculum for Middle School: External Evaluation of the Investing in Innovation Central Virginia Advanced Manufacturing Development Grant 78. Making Research Relevant (2019)
Three central Virginia school districts and engineering education researchers at the University of Virginia were awarded an Investing in Innovation development grant to design, implement, test, and nationally disseminate a projectbased engineering curriculum for middle school students. Referred to as invention kits, the curriculum is developed to teach key science and engineering principles and related skills to Grades 7 or 8 students by constructing modern interpretations of 19thcentury inventions that sparked industrial activity within society: the solenoid, the linear motor, and the linear generator. As part of the external evaluation, American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted an impact study to assess the invention kits' effect on students' engineering and physical science knowledge, as well as students' interest and confidence in STEM learning. The study used a quasiexperimental comparison group design investigating differences in student pre andposttests during the 201718 school year. Students in four schools across the three districts used a set of three invention kits in their engineering electives, as compared with students taking engineering electives in three schools within one district that had businessasusual engineering curriculum. AIR studied implementation of the kits by collecting data reported by teachers on student use of kit components, interviews with teachers on how kits were incorporated into their engineering elective curriculum and adapted for use with their students, and observations of kits in use during site visits. The research team did not find a statistically significant difference between the physical science and engineering assessment scores of students who used the kits and comparison students. The research team did not find a statistically significant difference between the measures of STEM interest and confidence of students who used the kits and comparison students. Teachers and students in two of the four schools in the treatment group implemented the three invention kits with fidelity (defined as with at least 75% of their students, using at least 60% of kit components). One of the three kits (Solenoid) was implemented with fidelity by all four participating schools.

Reviews of Individual Studies

68

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Final impact results from the i3 implementation of Teach to One: Math (2019)

Reviews of Individual Studies

411

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The Next Generation of State Reforms to Improve their Lowest Performing Schools: An Evaluation of North Carolina's School Transformation Initiative (2019)
In contrast to prior federally mandated school reforms, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
allows states more discretion in reforming their lowest performing schools, removes requirements
to disrupt the status quo, and does not allocate substantial additional funds. Using a regression
discontinuity design, we evaluate a state turnaround initiative aligned with ESSA requirements. We
find the effect on student test score growth was not significant in year one and 0.13 in year two.
Also in year two, we find that teachers in turnaround schools were 22.5 percentage points more
likely to turn over. Teacher turnover appears to have been voluntary rather than the result of
strategic staffing decisions.

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Effects of Fourth and FifthGrade Super Solvers Intervention on Fraction Magnitude Understanding and Calculation Skill (2019)

Reviews of Individual Studies

4

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Efficacy Study of the Science Notebook in a Universal Design for Learning Environment: Preliminary Findings (2019)
The Science Notebook in a Universal Design for Learning Environment (SNUDLE) is a digital notebook that uses the Universal Design for Learning framework to support active science learning among elementary school students, particularly those who struggle with reading and writing or are unmotivated to learn science. Preliminary findings from the first of a twoyear randomized control trial suggest no significant impact on motivation or academic achievement in science among the full sample of fourth graders receiving the SNUDLE intervention. Moderator analysis indicates significant positive interaction effects of the intervention on motivation in science and science content assessments among students with learning disabilities.

Reviews of Individual Studies

4

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Does an Integrated Focus on Fractions and Decimals Improve AtRisk Students' Rational Number Magnitude Performance? (2019)
The purpose of this study was to assess whether intervention with an integrated focus on fraction and decimal magnitude provides added value in improving rational number performance over intervention focused exclusively on fractions. We randomly assigned 4th graders with poor wholenumber performance to 3 conditions: a businessasusual control group and 2 variants of a validated fraction magnitude (FM) intervention. One variant of FM intervention included an integrated component on fractiondecimal magnitude (FM+DM); the other included a fraction applications component (FM+FAPP) to more closely mirror the validated FM intervention and to control for intervention time. Crossclassified partiallynested analyses (N=225) provided the basis for 3 conclusions. First, FM intervention improves 4thgraders' fraction understanding and applications. Second, effects of FM intervention, even without a focus on decimals, transfer to decimal number line performance. Third, an intervention component integrating fractiondecimal magnitude does not provide added value over FM intervention on fraction or decimal performance, except on decimal tasks paralleling intervention tasks. [This is the in press version of an article published in "Contemporary Educational Psychology."]

Reviews of Individual Studies

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Schemabased wordproblem intervention with and without embedded language comprehension instruction (2019)

Reviews of Individual Studies

3

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Effects of Super Solvers fractions intervention for atrisk third graders: A research report (2019)

Reviews of Individual Studies

1012

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Impact Evaluation of "12 for Life": Better Lives through Education and Employment (2018)
"12 for Life" is an Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant funded by the Office of Innovation and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. "12 for Life" provides a rigorous STEM curriculum, combined with onthejobtraining, work/life skills development, mentoring, and employment opportunities to high school students who are at high risk of dropping out of school. The impact evaluation used a quasiexperimental design (QED) to examine the effect of "12 for Life" on grade point average (GPA), number of suspensions, and incidence of dropping out of school. "12 for Life" students who enrolled in the program during the 201415 school year were followed for three years. Outcomes for "12 for Life" students were compared to a matched sample of students with similar risk factors for dropping out of school who started 10th grade in fall 2014 and who participate in businessasusual, traditional academic instruction in the high school environment. Comparison students were followed for three years. Results showed no statistically significant impact on grade point average (GPA) at the end of 12th grade, number of suspensions, or incidence of dropping out of school.

Reviews of Individual Studies

1112

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20162017 Implementation Evaluation of the National Math and Science Initiative's College Readiness Program (2018)
