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Practice Guide K-6 3
Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom (September 2008)
Designed for elementary school educators and school- and district-level administrators, this guide offers prevention, implementation, and schoolwide strategies that can be used to reduce problematic behavior that interferes with the ability of students to attend to and engage fully in instructional activities.
Intervention Report K-11 1
Good Behavior Game (Study Review Protocol) (May 2023)
Good Behavior Game is a classroom management strategy that aims to improve social skills, minimize disruptive behaviors, and create a positive learning environment. Teachers place students into teams and reward them for demonstrating appropriate behaviors and following classroom rules.
Intervention Report K-2 2
Early Risers (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (June 2012)
Early Risers is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children’s emotional and behavioral self-regulation, positive peer relationships, and academic success. The Child School Support component aims to identify areas of difficulty in the classroom and creates individualized plans to address those difficulties during the course of normal school activities. The Parent Skills component is delivered in “family night” group sessions and is intended to promote parents’ abilities to support their children’s healthy development by teaching skills that address positive parent–child relations, effective discipline practices, and parent involvement in school. The Family Support component is delivered via home visits to identify basic needs and health concerns and then implement plans designed to assist families in achieving and maintaining healthy lifestyles.
Intervention Report K-12 3
Functional Behavioral Assessment-based Interventions (December 2016)
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an individualized problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior. An assessment is conducted to identify the purpose or function of a student's problem behavior. This assessment process involves collecting information about the environmental conditions that precede the problem behavior and the subsequent rewards that reinforce the behavior. The information that is gathered is then used to identify and implement individualized interventions aimed at reducing problem behaviors and increasing positive behaviors. Accordingly, the studies evaluating FBA examine different FBA-based interventions identified for each student. FBA-based interventions can be used to address diverse problem behaviors, such as disruptive and off-task behaviors, noncompliance, and inappropriate social interactions.
Intervention Report 9-12 3
Check & Connect (Dropout Prevention) (May 2015)
Check & Connect is a dropout prevention strategy that relies on close monitoring of school performance, mentoring, case management, and other supports. The program has two main components: “Check” and “Connect.” The Check component is designed to continually assess student engagement through close monitoring of student performance and progress indicators. The Connect component involves program staff giving individualized attention to students, in partnership with school personnel, family members, and community service providers. Students enrolled in Check & Connect are assigned a “monitor” who regularly reviews their performance (in particular, whether students are having attendance, behavior, or academic problems) and intervenes when problems are identified. The monitor also advocates for students, coordinates services, provides ongoing feedback and encouragement, and emphasizes the importance of staying in school.
Intervention Report K 3
Fast Track: Elementary School (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (October 2014)
Fast Track is a comprehensive intervention program designed to reduce conduct problems and promote academic, behavioral, and social improvement. Prior to grade 1, students are identified as being at risk for long-term antisocial behavior through teacher and parent reports of conduct problems. Delivery of the program begins in grade 1 and continues through grade 10. After the first year, the frequency of the supports is reduced based on the assessed functioning of the students and their families. Fast Track consists of seven integrated intervention components: the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum, parent groups, parent–child sharing time, child social skills training groups, home visiting, child peer-pairing, and academic tutoring.
Intervention Report PK 3
Social Skills Training (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (February 2013)

Social skills training is not a specific curriculum, but rather a collection of practices that utilize a behavioral approach to teaching preschool children age-appropriate social skills and competencies, including communication, problem solving, decision making, self-management, and peer relations. Social skills training can occur in both regular and special education classrooms.

 

Intervention Report K-3 3
First Step to Success (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (March 2012)

First Step to Success is an early intervention program designed to help children who are at risk for developing aggressive or antisocial behavioral patterns. The program uses a trained behavior coach who works with each student and his or her class peers, teacher, and parents for approximately 50–60 hours over a 3-month period. First Step to Success includes three interconnected modules: screening, classroom intervention, and parent training.

Intervention Report PK 3
Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (August 2010)
The Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis is a type of behavioral therapy that initially focuses on discrete trials: brief periods of one-on-one instruction, during which a teacher cues a behavior, prompts the appropriate response, and provides reinforcement to the child. Children in the program receive an average of 35–40 hours of intervention per week that consists of in-home one-to-one instruction, facilitated peer play, inclusion and support in regular education classrooms, and generalization activities for transfer of skills to natural environments. In addition, parents are trained in instructional techniques. The intervention generally lasts about 3 years.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Caring School Community (CSC) (Character Education) (April 2007)
Caring School Community™ (CSC) is a modified version of a program formerly known as the Child Development Project. CSC is a multiyear school improvement program that involves all students in grades K–6. The program aims to promote core values, prosocial behavior, and a schoolwide feeling of community. The program consists of four elements originally developed for the Child Development Project: class meeting lessons, cross-age “buddies” programs, “homeside” activities, and schoolwide community. Class lessons provide teachers and students with a forum to get to know one another, discuss issues, identify and solve problems collaboratively, and make a range of decisions that affect classroom life. Cross-age buddies activities pair whole classes of older and younger students for academic and recreational activities that build caring cross-age relationships and create a schoolwide climate of trust. Homeside activities include short conversational activities that are sent home with students for them to do with parents or caregivers and then to discuss back in their classroom. The activities incorporate the families’ perspectives, cultures, and traditions, thereby promoting interpersonal understanding. Schoolwide community-building activities bring students, parents, and school staff together to create new school traditions.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Positive Action (Character Education) (April 2007)
Positive Action, at its core, teaches the philosophy that you feel good about yourself when you do positive actions and there is always a positive way to do everything. It is illustrated by the the Thoughts-Actions-Feelings about self Circle where positive thoughts lead to positive actions, which in turn lead to positive feelings about oneself. It also teaches the positive actions for physical, intellectual, social and emotional areas—the whole self. It is a Pre-K-12 school-based program that aims to promote good behavior while disrupting problem behaviors, improves academics, and develops social-emotional and character skills while improving mental and physical health and self-concept. Lessons are scripted and use a wide variety of strategies: classroom discussion, role-play, games, songs, journals, manipulatives and activity sheets and text booklets.
Intervention Report 12 3
Building Decision Skills (Character Education) (April 2007)
Building Decision Skills aims to raise middle and high school students’ awareness of ethics, help them gain experience developing core values, and give them strategies for dealing with ethical dilemmas. Building Decision Skills consists of 10 lessons that can fill 2 consecutive weeks of daily lessons or be drawn out over a longer period. Using readings, handouts, and overheads, the teacher covers key concepts. Students are encouraged to think about the key concepts through small-group activities, class discussions, and homework assignments. The program also includes schoolwide components such as group discussions, seminars, and assemblies, and can be combined with service learning.
Intervention Report 4-5 3
Lessons in Character (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lessons in Character is designed to promote elementary and middle school students’ knowledge about core character education values and, through that knowledge, shape children’s positive behaviors and support academic success. It consists of 24 lessons organized around weekly themes, writing activities, and class projects. Teachers introduce the theme with a story that shows a value in action; students then engage that topic with a variety of activities. The program also includes daily oral language development and weekly writing assignments, optional parts of the program’s implementation.
Intervention Report 3 3
Too Good For Violence (TGFV) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Violence promotes character values, social-emotional skills, and healthy beliefs in elementary and middle school students. The program includes seven lessons per grade level for elementary school (K–5) and nine lessons per grade level for middle school (6–8). All lessons are scripted and engage students through role-playing and cooperative learning games, small group activities, and classroom discussions. Students are encouraged to apply these skills to different contexts. Too Good for Violence also includes optional parental and community involvement elements.
Intervention Report 3-12 3
Connect with Kids (Character Education) (September 2006)
Connect with Kids aims to promote prosocial attitudes and positive behavior of elementary (grades 3–5) and secondary (grades 6–12) school students by teaching core character values. Lesson plans include videos, story summaries, discussion questions, student games, and activities for both core and supplemental character traits. The classroom curriculum is reinforced by a website component and schoolwide and community outreach components. The program can be incorporated into an existing curriculum or used as a standalone program. The school or teacher decides on the number of character traits covered in each session, so the program duration may vary from one semester to an entire academic year.
Intervention Report 3-6 3
Too Good for Drugs (TGFD) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Drugs™ is designed to promote elementary and middle school students’ life skills, character values, resistance skills to negative peer influence, and resistance to the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. The program is based on classroom discussions and structured activities that center on interactive learning and skill-building exercises. Students engage in role-play and cooperative learning games and are encouraged to apply the skills to different contexts. Too Good for Drugs™ also includes the optional elements of parental and community involvement.
Intervention Report 9-12 3
Too Good for Drugs and Violence (TGFD & V) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Drugs and Violence is designed to promote high school students’ pro-social skills, positive character traits, and violence- and drug-free norms. The curriculum consists of 14 core lessons, as well as an additional 12 lessons that can be infused into other subject areas (such as English, science, and social studies). Teachers participate in 10 staff development lessons. The program includes optional elements of family and community involvement.
Intervention Report 8 3
Facing History and Ourselves (Character Education) (September 2006)
Facing History and Ourselves aims to promote core character education values and to help middle and high school students develop moral reasoning skills. Students examine historical events; in particular, the events that led to World War II and the Holocaust. Teachers participate in professional development seminars and apply the content and approaches to their own teaching or school program. Facing History and Ourselves also includes optional schoolwide components (such as guest speakers and videos).
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) (Supportive Learning Environment Interventions Review Protocol ) (March 2021)
The Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) program is a curriculum that aims to promote emotional and social competencies and to reduce aggression and behavior problems in elementary school children. PATHS® is delivered through short lessons given two to three times a week over the school year. The program is based on the principle that understanding and regulating emotions are central to effective problem solving. The lessons focus on (1) self-control, (2) emotional literacy, (3) social competence, (4) positive peer relations, and (5) interpersonal problem-solving skills. There is a separate curriculum for each grade.
Intervention Report PK -1
Pivotal Response Training (December 2016)
Pivotal response training (PRT) is an intervention designed for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This practice focuses on pivotal (core) areas affected by autism, such as communication and responding to environmental stimuli. PRT sessions typically begin with a parent or teacher providing clear instructions to a child, having the child help choose a stimulus (such as a toy), and focusing the child’s attention. The parent or teacher then encourages the desired behavior (for example, asking for the toy or choosing “toy” from a list of words) by providing rewards if the child implements or attempts to implement the desired behavior. Parents and teachers often model the appropriate behavior or use the stimulus with the child. Activities that maintain existing behaviors are interspersed with activities eliciting new behaviors. The complexity of the required responses increases as training progresses. Parents, teachers, and peers collaboratively implement the practice at school, at home, and in the community. PRT can be used with autistic children aged 2–18. PRT is also known as Pivotal Response Therapy, Pivotal Response Treatment®, or Natural Language Paradigm.
Intervention Report PK-2 -1
The Incredible Years (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (February 2012)
The Incredible Years is composed of training programs for children, parents, and teachers. The child program is designed for children (ages 0–12) with challenging behaviors and focuses on building social and emotional skills. Lessons can be delivered to children referred for difficult behavior or to an entire classroom as a preventative measure. The program consists of 20- to 30-minute lessons 2–3 times a week; these lessons are reinforced by small-group activities, practicing skills throughout the day, and communicating with parents. Lessons cover recognizing and understanding feelings, getting along with friends, anger management, problem solving, and behavior at school. Parent training programs focus on positive discipline, promoting learning and development, and involvement in children’s life at school.
Intervention Report PK-2 -1
The Incredible Years (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (November 2011)
The Incredible Years is composed of training programs for children, parents, and teachers. The child program is designed for children (ages 0–12) with challenging behaviors and focuses on building social and emotional skills. Lessons can be delivered to children referred for difficult behavior or to an entire classroom as a preventative measure. The program consists of 20- to 30-minute lessons 2–3 times a week; these lessons are reinforced by small-group activities, practicing skills throughout the day, and communicating with parents. Lessons cover recognizing and understanding feelings, getting along with friends, anger management, problem solving, and behavior at school. Parent training programs focus on positive discipline, promoting learning and development, and involvement in children’s life at school.
Intervention Report 4-5 -1
Coping Power (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (October 2011)
Coping Power is based on the earlier Anger Coping Power program. It emphasizes social and emotional skills that are needed during the transition to middle school. The program incorporates child and parent components. The child component consists of thirty-four 50-minute group sessions and periodic individual sessions over the course of 15–18 months, although the program can be shortened to fit into a single school year. Lessons focus on goal setting, problem solving, anger management, and peer relationships. The parent component is composed of 16 group sessions and periodic individual meetings. Lessons support the child component of the program and address setting expectations, praise, discipline, managing stress, communication, and child study skills.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Check & Connect (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (October 2011)
Check & Connect is a dropout prevention strategy that relies on close monitoring of school performance, mentoring, case management, and other supports. The program has two main components: “Check” and “Connect.” The Check component is designed to continually assess student engagement through close monitoring of student performance and progress indicators. The Connect component involves program staff giving individualized attention to students, in partnership with school personnel, family members, and community service providers. Students enrolled in Check & Connect are assigned a “monitor” who regularly reviews their performance (in particular, whether students are having attendance, behavior, or academic problems) and intervenes when problems are identified. The monitor also advocates for students, coordinates services, provides ongoing feedback and encouragement, and emphasizes the importance of staying in school.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Lions Quest -- Skills for Action (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lions Quest Skills for Action, a program to build positive character values and life and citizenship skills for students in grades 9–12, includes classroom lessons and service learning. The program includes more than 100 lessons focused around 26 personal, social, and thinking skills. Program length ranges from one semester to 4 years. Students explore personal stories highlighting values and behavior through teachers’ questions, group discussion, and resource pages in the curricular materials. For service learning, students perform school-based or community-based projects and reflect on their experiences. Optional components include a student magazine, an Advisory Team, and supplemental units on drug use prevention.
Intervention Report 1-6 -1
Heartwood Ethics Curriculum/An Ethics Curriculum for Children (Character Education) (September 2006)
An Ethics Curriculum for Children, a read-aloud literature-based curriculum, aims to teach elementary school students seven universal attributes of good character. Lessons and home assignments are organized around multicultural stories. The program activities are designed to connect the experiences of characters in the stories to students’ own lives. Optional parts of the Heartwood Ethics Curriculum for Children also include integration of character education themes across curricular topics and parental notification and involvement.
Intervention Report 6-7 -1
Voices Literature and Character Education (Voices LACE) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Voices Literature and Character Education Program (Voices LACE; formerly known as Voices of Love and Freedom and Literacy and Values) is a K–12 program that aims to promote positive character and citizenship values, literacy skills, and social skills. The program curriculum can be used over any length of time. During classroom lessons, students read books about issues such as ethnic discrimination, fighting, or bullying, and elaborate on central themes through role-playing and discussions practiced in school and at home. Emphasis is given to promoting caring relationships between teachers and students and among students, and to connecting the values taught to students’ personal stories. Voices LACE may also be implemented as a schoolwide improvement program. Optional components of the program include schoolwide events and restructuring of school organization and practices (establishing student assemblies and creating small learning communities), parental involvement (home visits and family nights), and community support (joint campaigns with supporting organizations and business).
Intervention Report 6-8 -1
Lions Quest -- Skills for Adolescence (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence is a schoolwide program for middle school students (grades 6–8). The program is designed to promote good citizenship skills, core character values, social-emotional skills, and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol, and violence. The program includes a classroom curriculum, schoolwide practices to create a positive school climate, parent and family involvement, and community involvement. The curriculum may vary in scope and intensity, lasting from 9 weeks to 3 years. The lessons use cooperative group learning exercises and classroom management techniques to improve classroom climate.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 1
Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Teacher Training Program on Elementary Children with Aggressive Behaviors (2020)
The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM), a universal classroom management intervention, on the outcomes of children with aggressive behavior in elementary school. Classroom management has been demonstrated as a factor in either escalating children's aggressive behavior or decreasing those problematic behaviors. Participants included 1,817 students (Grade K to 3) and 105 teachers from nine elementary schools in a large urban Midwestern school district. Teachers were randomly assigned to receive IY TCM or to a wait-list comparison group. The hypotheses were that baseline levels of aggression would moderate the relationship between intervention status and outcomes. Findings indicated the hypothesized moderation effect on several outcome variables; specifically, children with baseline aggression problems who were in IY TCM classrooms had significantly improved math achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviors, and observed aggression in comparison to similar peers in the control classrooms. Implications for practice and future research based on the findings are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 1
Investigating Causal Effects of Arts Education Experiences: Experimental Evidence from Houston's Arts Access Initiative. Research Report for the Houston Independent School District. Volume 7, Issue 4 (2019)
The recent wave of test-based accountability reforms has negatively impacted the provision of K-12 arts educational experiences. Advocates contend that, in addition to providing intrinsic benefits, the arts can positively influence academic and social development. However, the empirical evidence to support such claims is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 10,548 3rd-8th grade students who were enrolled in 42 schools that were assigned by lottery to receive substantial influxes of arts education experiences provided through school-community partnerships with local arts organizations, cultural institutions, and teaching-artists. We find that these increases in arts educational experiences significantly reduce the proportion of students receiving disciplinary infractions by 3.6 percentage points, improve STAAR writing achievement by 0.13 of a standard deviation, and increase students' compassion for others by 0.08 of a standard deviation. For students in elementary schools, which comprise 86 percent of the sample, we find that these arts educational experiences also significantly improve school engagement, college aspirations, and arts-facilitated empathy. These findings provide strong evidence that arts educational experiences can produce significant positive impacts on student academic and social development. Policymakers should consider these multifaceted educational benefits when assessing the role and value of the arts in K-12 schools.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
Reappraising Academic and Social Adversity Improves Middle-School Students' Academic Achievement, Behavior, and Well-Being (2019)
The period of early adolescence is characterized by dramatic changes, simultaneously affecting physiological, psychological, social, and cognitive development. The physical transition from elementary to middle school can exacerbate the stress and adversity experienced during this critical life stage. Middle school students often struggle to find social and emotional support, and many students experience a decreased sense of belonging in school, diverting students from promising academic and career trajectories. Drawing on psychological insights for promoting belonging, we fielded a brief intervention designed to help students reappraise concerns about fitting in at the start of middle school as both temporary and normal. We conducted the first district-wide double-blind experimental study of this approach with middle-school students (N=1,304). Compared to the control condition activities, the intervention reduced sixth-grade disciplinary incidents across the district by 34%, increased attendance by 12%, and reduced the number of failing grades by 18%. Differences in benefits across demographic groups were not statistically significant but some impacts were descriptively larger for historically underserved minority students and boys. A mediational analysis suggested 80% of long-term intervention effects on students' GPA were accounted for by changes in students' attitudes and behaviors. These results demonstrate the long-term benefits of psychologically reappraising stressful experiences during critical transitions and the psychological and behavioral mechanisms that support them. Furthermore, this brief intervention is a highly cost-effective and scalable approach that schools may use to help address the troubling decline in positive attitudes and academic outcomes typically accompanying adolescence and the middle school transition. [This paper was published in "Proceeedings of the National Academy of Sciences" v116 p16286-16291 2019.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
A national experiment reveals where a growth mindset improves achievement. (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
Building Assets and Reducing Risks (BARR) Validation Study. Final Report (2019)
This is the final report of a large-scale independent evaluation of the Building Assets and Reducing Risks (BARR) model in ninth grade in eleven high schools in Maine, California, Minnesota, Kentucky, and Texas. This sample of schools included large and small schools in urban, suburban, and rural areas, serving students from a wide range of demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Funded with a validation grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) program and carried out by researchers at the American Institutes for Research (AIR), this evaluation used random assignment of ninth-grade students to BARR and control conditions to estimate the impacts of the BARR model after one year. The evaluation also assessed the fidelity of implementation of BARR in the eleven study schools and identified barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation. The evaluation focused on several teacher- and student-level outcomes. The teacher outcomes included measures of teacher collaboration, and use of data, among others. The academic outcomes included course failure, students' grade point average (GPA), and performance on the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) standardized reading and mathematics assessments. Student-reported experiences included measures of supportive relationships, perceptions of teachers' expectations of them, student engagement, and others. In addition to these outcomes, the report includes impact estimates for attendance, suspensions, and persistence into 10th grade. [This report was written with Brenna O'Brien, Cheryl Graczewski, So Jung Park, Feng Liu, Ethan Adelman-Sil, Lynn Hu.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Analysis of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Professional Development and Use (2018)
Data-based problem solving is a hallmark of research-supported practices such as positive behavioral interventions and supports. In this study, we provided members of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) teams from 38 elementary schools with professional development focused on a research-supported problem-solving model (Team-Initiated Problem Solving). We used direct observations to document procedures, practices, and outcomes before and after participating in the professional development workshop. Within the context of a randomized waitlist controlled trial, team members in the Immediate Group demonstrated greater improvement in (a) problem-solving procedures, (b) decision-making practices, and (c) meeting outcomes than did members of PBIS teams in the Waitlist Group. Our findings extend what is known about team-based problem solving and provide a framework for future research and improved practice related to decision making by school teams.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Reducing Child Problem Behaviors and Improving Teacher-Child Interactions and Relationships: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Best in Class (2018)
Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic problem behaviors; however, Tier-2 interventions that can be delivered by teachers with fidelity in authentic settings are lacking. This study examined the effect of BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 intervention delivered by teachers, on child problem behavior, teacher-child interactions and teacher-child relationships using a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Participants were 465 children (3-5 year olds) identified at risk for the development of EBDs and their 185 teachers from early childhood programs located in two southeastern states. Significant effects were found across both teacher reported (ES ranging from 0.23 to 0.42) and observed child outcomes (ES ranging form 0.44-0.46), as well as teacher-child relationships (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.29) and observed teacher-children interactions (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.45), favoring the BEST in CLASS condition. Results suggest the promise of BEST in CLASS as a Tier-2 intervention for use in authentic early childhood classroom contexts and provide implications for future research on transactional models of teacher and child behavior.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
I3 BARR Validation Study (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Effects of Tutorial Interventions in Mathematics and Attention for Low-Performing Preschool Children (2016)
Two intervention approaches designed to address the multifaceted academic and cognitive difficulties of low-income children who enter pre-K with very low math knowledge were tested in a randomized experiment. Blocking on classroom, children who met screening criteria were assigned to a Math + Attention condition in which the Pre-Kindergarten Mathematics Tutorial (PKMT) intervention was implemented (4 days/week for 24 weeks) in addition to 16 adaptive attention training sessions, a Math-Only condition using the PKMT intervention, or a business-as-usual condition. Five hundred eighteen children were assessed at pretest and posttest. There was a significant effect of the PKMT intervention on a broad measure of informal mathematical knowledge and a small but significant effect on a measure of numerical knowledge. Attention training was associated with small effects on attention, but did not provide additional benefit for mathematics. A main effect of state on math outcomes was associated with a stronger, numeracy-focused Tier 1 mathematics curriculum in one state. Findings are discussed with respect to increasing intensity of math-specific and domain-general interventions for young children at risk for mathematical learning difficulties.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Evaluating the Implementation of the "Pyramid Model for Promoting Social-Emotional Competence" in Early Childhood Classrooms (2016)
We conducted a potential efficacy trial examining the effects of classroom-wide implementation of the "Pyramid Model for Promoting Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence" on teachers' implementation of "Pyramid Model" practices and children's social-emotional skills and challenging behavior. Participants were 40 preschool teachers and 494 children. Using a randomized controlled design, 20 teachers received a professional development (PD) intervention to support their implementation of the practices. The 20 teachers in the control condition received workshops after all study-related data were collected. Teachers who received PD significantly improved their implementation of "Pyramid Model" practices relative to control teachers. Children in intervention teachers' classrooms were rated as having better social skills and fewer challenging behaviors relative to children in control teachers' classrooms. Exploratory analyses showed that children at elevated risk for behavior disorders in intervention teachers' classrooms had improvements in their observed social interaction skills relative to similar children in control teachers' classrooms.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 1
Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) Primary Version (2015)
A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured via the SSIS rating scale for all participants, and direct observations were completed for a subsample of participants within each classroom. Results indicated that the SSIS-CIP demonstrated positive effects on teacher ratings of participants' social skills and internalizing behaviors, with the greatest changes occurring in classrooms with students who exhibited lower skill proficiency prior to implementation. Statistically significant differences were not observed between treatment and control participants on teacher ratings of externalizing problem behaviors or direct observation.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 1
The Iterative Development and Initial Evaluation of "We Have Skills!", An Innovative Approach to Teaching Social Skills to Elementary Students (2014)
We describe the development and initial evaluation of the efficacy of "We Have Skills!" (WHS), a video-based social skills instructional program for early elementary school students. The components of WHS were designed to be scientifically sound, maximally useful to elementary school teachers, and effective in increasing students' social skills. Results from feasibility and social validity testing showed that teachers felt the program was easy to implement and highly recommended its use. The initial efficacy evaluation of WHS conducted with 70 classrooms randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions showed that teachers in the intervention group scored significantly higher on self-efficacy than teachers in the control group. Students in the intervention classrooms were rated significantly higher on key social skills by their teachers at posttest compared to students in the control group. Implications for further testing of WHS are discussed, along with study limitations and recommendations for future research and practice.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Preschool Teachers Can Use a PBS KIDS Transmedia Curriculum Supplement to Support Young Children's Mathematics Learning: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Summative Evaluation of the CPB-PBS "Ready To Learn Initiative" (2013)
This report presents results from the "Ready To Learn" Prekindergarten Transmedia Mathematics Study, a principal part of the summative evaluation of "Ready To Learn," which is a partnership between the US Department of Education, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and PBS. Researchers found that preschool children who experienced a PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement developed essential early mathematics skills. The PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement was centered around public media videos and digital games, played on a selected set of learning technologies (interactive whiteboards and laptop computers). The important skills measure--counting; subitizing; recognizing numerals; recognizing, composing, and representing shapes; and patterning--increased significantly for the study's four- and five-year-old children, who were from traditionally economically disadvantaged communities where children are often less prepared for kindergarten than are their more socially and economically advantaged peers. Also important, preschool teachers who enacted the PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement reported significant changes in their confidence and comfort with early mathematics concepts and teaching with technology. [This report was co-produced by SRI's Center for Technology in Learning (CTL).]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K 1
Cluster (School) RCT of ParentCorps: Impact on kindergarten academic achievement. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools (2010)
Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school environments by creating improved systems and procedures that promote positive change in student behavior by targeting staff behaviors. This study uses data from a 5-year longitudinal randomized controlled effectiveness trial of SWPBIS conducted in 37 elementary schools to examine the impact of training in SWPBIS on implementation fidelity as well as student suspensions, office discipline referrals, and academic achievement. School-level longitudinal analyses indicated that the schools trained in SWPBIS implemented the model with high fidelity and experienced significant reductions in student suspensions and office discipline referrals. (Contains 1 table and 5 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study Final Report: The Impact of Supplemental Literacy Courses for Struggling Ninth-Grade Readers. NCEE 2010-4021 (2010)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), just over 70 percent of students nationally arrive in high school with reading skills that are below "proficient"--defined as demonstrating competency over challenging subject matter. Of these students, nearly half do not exhibit even partial mastery of the knowledge and skills that are fundamental to proficient work at grade level. These limitations in literacy skills are a major source of course failure, high school dropout, and poor performance in postsecondary education. While research is beginning to emerge about the special needs of striving adolescent readers, very little is known about effective interventions aimed at addressing these needs. To help fill this gap and to provide evidence-based guidance to practitioners, the U.S. Department of Education initiated the Enhanced Reading Opportunities (ERO) study--a demonstration and rigorous evaluation of supplemental literacy programs targeted to ninth-grade students whose reading skills are at least two years below grade level. As part of this demonstration, 34 high schools from 10 school districts implemented one of two reading interventions: Reading Apprenticeship Academic Literacy (RAAL), designed by WestEd, and Xtreme Reading, designed by the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. These programs were implemented in the study schools for two school years. The U.S. Department of Education's (ED) Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) funded the implementation of these programs, and its Institute of Education Sciences (IES) was responsible for oversight of the evaluation. MDRC--a nonprofit, nonpartisan education and social policy research organization--conducted the evaluation in partnership with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Survey Research Management (SRM). The goal of the reading interventions--which consist of a year-long course that replaces a ninth-grade elective class--is to help striving adolescent readers develop the strategies and routines used by proficient readers, thereby improving their reading skills and ultimately, their academic performance in high school. The first two reports for the study evaluated the programs' impact on the two most proximal outcomes targeted by the interventions--students' reading skills and their reading behaviors at the end of ninth grade. This report--which is the final of three reports for this evaluation--examines the impact of the ERO programs on the more general outcomes that the programs hope to affect--students' academic performance in high school (grade point average [GPA], credit accumulation, and state test scores) as well as students' behavioral outcomes (attendance and disciplinary infractions). These academic and behavioral outcomes are examined during the year in which they were enrolled in the ERO programs (ninth grade), as well as the following school year (tenth grade for most students). Appendices include: (1) The ERO Programs and the ERO Teachers; (2) ERO Student Survey Measures; (3) ERO Implementation Fidelity; (4) State Tests Included in the ERO Study; (5) Response Analysis and Baseline Comparison Tables; (6) Technical Notes for Impact Findings; (7) Statistical Power and Minimum Detectable Effect Size; (8) Supplementary Impact Findings; (9) Baseline and Impact Findings, by Cohort; (10) The Association Between Reading Outcomes and Academic Performance in High School; (11) Variation in Impacts Across Sites and Cohorts; (12) Program Costs; and (13) Poststudy Adolescent Literacy Programming in the ERO Schools: Methodology and Additional Findings. (Contains 97 tables, 23 figures, 2 boxes, and 185 footnotes.) [This paper was written with Edmond Wong. For the first-year report, see ED499778. For the second report, see ED503380.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Get the Picture?! Final Evaluation Report (2020)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Get the Picture?! in improving the overall college/career readiness of 900 students with disabilities in each of the nine participating treatment high schools in nine rural, high poverty Kentucky school districts after four years of implementation. This quasi-experimental study followed the 9th grade cohort of students with disabilities in the nine treatment and 18 matched control schools over four school years, 2015-16 through 2018-19. Through the development of self-determination skills, the goal of the intervention was to increase the number of students with disabilities who achieved the state standard for College and/or Career Readiness by meeting established benchmarks on State/National assessments and/or completion of a recognized industry certification in each of the nine participating schools. For the confirmatory analyses, there were two outcome variables in two different outcome domains: (a) Transition Ready, a binary "Yes"/"No" variable [Transition Readiness domain], and (b) the cumulative number of in-school suspensions (a continuous variable) [Self-management behaviors domain]. For the confirmatory analyses, outcome data were examined using two-level Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) (for Cumulative In-School Suspensions) and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models (HGLM) (for Transition Ready) to account for the nested structure of the data (i.e., students nested within schools). Overall, after four years of implementation, Get the Picture?! was able to demonstrate a statistically significant positive impact on the Transition Readiness of participating 9th grade cohort students compared to controls. Treatment students had statistically significantly higher odds of being Transition Ready, and were more than twice as likely to achieve Transition Readiness status compared to control students. However, while the confirmatory study showed the intervention was also able to reduce the total number of in-school suspensions for treatment students relative to controls, the outcome was indeterminate (i.e., not statistically significant). The following are appended: (a) Kentucky Department of Education Revised Transition Readiness Standards, and (b) Fidelity of Implementation Final Report.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 2
Illustrating the Promise of Community Schools: An Assessment of the Impact of the New York City Community Schools Initiative. Research Report. RR-3245-NYCCEO (2020)
With the launch of the New York City Community Schools Initiative (NYC-CS) in 2014, the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) has increased its focus on the implementation of a holistic strategy of education reform to address the social consequences of poverty as a means to improving student outcomes. NYC-CS is a strategy to organize resources in schools and share leadership among stakeholders so that academics, health and wellness, youth development, and family engagement are integrated into the fabric of each school. New York City is implementing this strategy at a scale unmatched nationally. In this study, the authors assessed the impact of the NYC-CS through the 2017-2018 school year. The authors assessed the effects along seven outcome domains and explored the extent to which there is heterogeneity in programmatic impact based on student- and school-level characteristics. The authors leveraged innovative quasi-experimental methodology to determine whether students in the community schools are performing better than they would be had their schools not been designated as Community Schools. The findings of this report will contribute to the emerging evidence base on the efficacy of the community school strategy and will be useful for other school district- and state-level policymakers interested in developing or refining similar interventions that support students' and communities' academic, social, and emotional well-being. [The research described in this report was prepared for the New York City Mayor's Office for Economic Opportunity (NYC Opportunity).]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 2
A State-Wide Quasi-Experimental Effectiveness Study of the Scale-up of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2019)
The three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework promotes the development of systems and data analysis to guide the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices across multiple tiers. The current study examined the effects of universal (tier 1) or school-wide PBIS (SW-PBIS) in one state's scale-up of this tier of the framework. Annual propensity score weights were generated to examine the longitudinal effects of SW-PBIS from 2006-07 through 2011-12. School-level archival and administrative data outcomes were examined using panel models with an autoregressive structure. The sample included 1,316 elementary, middle, and high schools. Elementary schools trained in SW-PBIS demonstrated statistically significantly lower suspensions during the fourth and fifth study years (i.e., small effect size) and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the first two study years as well as in one and two later years (i.e., small to large effect sizes), respectively. Secondary schools implementing SW-PBIS had statistically significantly lower suspensions and truancy rates during the second study year and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the second and third study years. These findings demonstrate medium effect sizes for all outcomes except suspensions. Given the widespread use of SW-PBIS across nearly 26,000 schools in the U.S., this study has important implications for educational practices and policies. [This paper was published in the "Journal of School Psychology" v73 p41-55 Apr 2019 (ISSN 0022-4405).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-12 2
Can Restorative Practices Improve School Climate and Curb Suspensions? An Evaluation of the Impact of Restorative Practices in a Mid-Sized Urban School District. Research Report. RR-2840-DOJ (2018)
Across the country, school districts, their stakeholders, and policymakers have become increasingly concerned about suspensions, particularly about suspending students from elementary school and disproportionately suspending ethnic/racial minority students. Suspended students are less likely to graduate, possibly because they miss the instructional time they need to advance academically. Restorative practices have gained buy-in in the education community as a strategy to reduce suspension rates. Proactively improving relationships among students and staff and building a sense of community in classrooms and schools may make students less inclined to misbehave. And addressing severe misbehavior through a restorative approach may help students realize the impacts of their actions and make them less likely to offend again. This study of the implementation of restorative practices in the Pittsburgh Public Schools district (PPS) in school years 2015-16 and 2016-17 represents one of the first randomized controlled trials of the effects of restorative practices on classroom and school climates and suspension rates. The authors examined a specific restorative practices program -- the International Institute for Restorative Practices' SaferSanerSchools™ Whole-School Change program -- implemented in a selected group of PPS schools under a program called Pursuing Equitable and Restorative Communities, or PERC. The researchers found that PERC achieved several positive effects, including an improvement in overall school climates (as rated by teachers), a reduction in overall suspension rates, and a reduction in the disparities in suspension rates between African American and white students and between low- and higher-income students. Key Findings: Effects of the Pursuing Equitable and Restorative Communities (PERC) program in Pittsburgh Public Schools: (1) Implementation of restorative practices through PERC improved overall school climates, as rated by teachers; (2) Implementation of restorative practices reduced the average suspension rate: During the study period, average suspension rates decreased in both PERC and non-PERC schools, but rates decreased more in PERC schools; (3) Suspension rates of African American students and of those from low-income families also went down in PERC schools, shrinking the disparities in suspension rates between African American and white students and between low- and higher-income students; (4) Academic outcomes did not improve in PERC schools, and actually worsened for grades 6-8; and (5) Arrest rates among PERC schools did not decrease. Recommendations: (1) Given the constraints on teachers' time, emphasize restorative practices that can be woven into the school day; (2) Ensure that school leaders understand and can model restorative practices, including by providing mandatory professional development, books and other materials, and coaching on restorative practices; (3) Establish a mechanism for school staff to meet at least once per month as a professional learning community on restorative practices; (4) Ensure that leaders at the district level can coordinate this work; (5) Set, and update, clear expectations regarding the use of restorative practices; and (6) Implement data collection systems to collect accurate information on all types of behavioral incidents and remedies.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors (2016)
Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the "Positive Action" program (PA) on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "High/declining" and "Low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "Low/rising" and "High/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes. [This paper was published in "Prevention Science" v18 p214-224 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
A Randomized Control Trial of a Statewide Voluntary Prekindergarten Program on Children's Skills and Behaviors through Third Grade. Research Report (2015)
In 2009, Vanderbilt University's Peabody Research Institute, in coordination with the Tennessee Department of Education's Division of Curriculum and Instruction, initiated a rigorous, independent evaluation of the state's Voluntary Prekindergarten program (TN- VPK). TN-VPK is a full-day prekindergarten program for four-year-old children expected to enter kindergarten the following school year. The program in each participating school district must meet standards set by the State Board of Education that require each classroom to have a teacher with a license in early childhood development and education, an adult-student ratio of no less than 1:10, a maximum class size of 20, and an approved age-appropriate curriculum. TN-VPK is an optional program focused on the neediest children in the state. It uses a tiered admission process, with children from low-income families who apply to the program admitted first. Any remaining seats in a given location are then allocated to otherwise at-risk children, including those with disabilities and limited English proficiency. The current report presents findings from this evaluation summarizing the longitudinal effects of TN-VPK on pre-kindergarten through third grade achievement and behavioral outcomes for an Intensive Substudy Sample of 1076 children, of which 773 were randomly assigned to attend TN-VPK classrooms and 303 were not admitted. Both groups have been followed since the beginning of the pre-k year.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
National Evaluation of Early Reading First. Final Report to Congress. NCEE 2007-4007 (2007)
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 created the Early Reading First (ERF) program to enhance teacher practices, instructional content, and classroom environments in preschools and to help ensure that young children start school with the skills needed for academic success. This report to Congress describes the impacts of the Early Reading First program on the language and literacy skills of children and on the instructional content and practices in preschool classrooms. The main findings of the national evaluation of ERF show that the program had positive, statistically significant impacts on several classroom and teacher outcomes and on one of four child outcomes measured. The program had no effect on children's phonological awareness or oral language. This report contains an executive summary and eight chapters: (1) Introduction and Study Background; (2) Study Design; (3) Characteristics of Participating Children and Families; (4) Characteristics of Programs Receiving ERF Funding; (5) Professional Development, Instructional Practices, and Classroom Environments in ERF Preschools; (6) Impacts on Teachers and Classroom Practices; (7) Impact Findings: ERF Impacts on Children's Language and Literacy Skills and Social-Emotional Outcomes; and (8) Analysis of Mediators of ERF's Impacts on Classroom Instructional Practice and Children's Language and Literacy Skills. Appendices include: (A) Impact Analysis Methods and Sensitivity of Results; (B) Data-Collection Methods; (C) Assessment and Observation Measures Used for ERF Data Collection; (D) Supplementary Tables on the Impacts of ERF on Teachers and Classroom Environments; (E) ERF Impacts on Teacher and Classroom Outcomes; Subgroups Analyses; (F) ERF Impacts on Child Outcomes; Subgroups Analyses; and (G) Supplemental Descriptive Tables for Teacher Outcomes and Classroom Practice. (Contains 63 tables, 12 figures, and 5 exhibits.) [This report was produced by the National Center for Education Evaluation and RegionalAssistance, Institute of Education Sciences.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 3
Effects of a behavior management strategy, CW-FIT, on high school student and teacher behavior. (2022)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 3
Equity-Focused PBIS Approach Reduces Racial Inequities in School Discipline: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2021)
We assessed the effects of a whole-school equity intervention implemented within a school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) framework on racial inequities in school discipline in eight elementary schools with inequitable referrals for Black students. The intervention involved assessing patterns of racial disparities in school discipline decisions and providing professional development on adapting school-wide behavior systems to improve cultural responsiveness through concrete strategies targeting the patterns. After consent and matching on existing levels of racial inequities, half of the schools were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Analyses showed that schools receiving the intervention had significant decreases in racial disparities in school discipline and rates of office discipline referrals (ODRs) for Black students, while control schools had minimal change. Results are discussed in terms of improving equity in school discipline within multitiered systems of support.
Reviews of Individual Studies PS 3
An RCT of a CBT Intervention for Emerging Adults with ADHD Attending College: Functional Outcomes (2021)
Objective: The current study reports functional outcomes from a multi-site randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for college students diagnosed with ADHD. Methods: A sample of emerging adults (N = 250; ages 18 to 30) currently attending college were comprehensively evaluated and diagnosed with ADHD (M age = 19.7; 66% female, 6.8% Latino, 66.3% Caucasian). Participants were randomized to either a two-semester intervention (Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS)) or a delayed treatment condition. Participants were assessed with measures of academic, daily life, and relationship functioning prior to treatment, at the end of the first semester, and after the second semester of treatment. Results: Multi-group latent growth curve models revealed moderate effect size improvements on self-report measures of study skills and strategies, as well as on self-report measures of time management, daily functioning, and overall well-being for participants in ACCESS. Importantly, treatment effects were maintained or increased in some cases from the end of the first semester to the end of the second semester. Improvements in self-reported interpersonal functioning were not significantly different across condition and neither condition demonstrated significant change over time in educational record outcomes (GPA and number of credits earned). Conclusions: ACCESS appears to promote improvements in self-reported general well-being and functioning, time management, and study skills and strategies. However, improvements in interpersonal relationships and objective academic outcomes such as GPA were not observed. Clinical implications and future directions for treating ADHD on university and college campuses are discussed. [This is the online version of an article published in "Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology."]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-6 3
Combining Social Skills Instruction and the Good Behavior Game to Support Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (2020)
Research indicates that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) may engage in severe disruptions and off-task behaviors in the classroom setting that adversely impact the learning environment. This leads to many students identified as having EBD being placed in alternative education settings, such as restrictive schools or residential facilities. Due to placement in more restrictive environments and high rates of disciplinary actions, it is especially critical to decrease disruptive behaviors for students diagnosed with EBD. In addition, classroom teachers report disruptive behaviors and conduct problems as a major barrier to teaching their students. An ABC multiple baseline across classes design was used in an alternative school setting to evaluate the effects of explicit social skills training combined with a group contingency on class-wide levels of engagement and disruptive behavior. Participants were students in the first through sixth grade diagnosed with EBD. Through the class-wide intervention, social skills acquisition deficits were targeted through social skills instruction and social skills performance deficits were targeted through reinforcement programs. Results showed an increase in engagement and a decrease in disruptive behavior across all classrooms as a result of the intervention package.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 3
The effects, generalization, and incidental benefits of class-wide function-related intervention [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kansas]. (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Efficacy Validation of the Revised First Step Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2020)
Disruptive behavior problems frequently emerge in the preschool years and are associated with numerous, long-term negative outcomes, including comorbid disorders. First Step is a psychosocial early intervention with substantial empirical evidence supporting its efficacy among young children (Walker et al., 2014). The present study reports on a validation study of the revised and updated First Step early intervention, called First Step Next (Walker, Stiller et al. 2015), conducted within four preschool settings. One hundred sixty students at risk for school failure, and their teachers, were randomized to intervention and control conditions. Results indicated coach and teacher adherence to implementing the core components of the program was excellent. Teachers and parents had high satisfaction ratings. For the three First Step Next pro-social domains, Hedges' g effect sizes ranged from 0.34 to 0.91. For the problem behavior domain, children who received the First Step Next intervention had significant reductions in teacher and parent-reported problem behavior as compared to children randomized to the control condition. For the problem behavior domain, Hedges' g effect sizes ranged from 0.33 to 0.63, again favoring the intervention condition. All of the domains were statistically significant. This study builds on the evidence base supporting the First Step intervention in preschool settings (Feil et al., 2014; 2016; Frey et al., 2015). [This paper will be published in "Exceptional Children."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-11 3
Efficacy of a no-team version of the Good Behavior Game in high school classrooms. (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 3
Impact of CW-FIT on Student and Teacher Behavior in a Middle School (2020)
Positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) improve student behavior. Yet, teachers may not receive adequate training to implement PBIS at the classroom level. This study evaluated class-wide function-related intervention teams (CW-FIT) as a classroom-level behavior management system to determine whether the behavior of middle school students would improve with teacher implementation of CW-FIT. A multiple-baseline across conditions design was used to evaluate changes in on-task behavior of adolescent students in sixth and seventh grade from a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse middle school. In addition, the effects on teacher behavior-specific praise statements and teacher reprimands were assessed. Consistent with previous evaluations of CW-FIT, findings indicated a functional relation between the intervention and increases in on-task student behavior. In addition, the findings also showed improvements to teacher behavior with increases in behavior-specific praise statements; however, no effect was observed with teacher reprimands. Social validity measures indicated students and teachers found the intervention favorable. Implications, limitations, and areas for future inquiry are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 3
Measuring Academic Output during the Good Behavior Game: A Single Case Design Study (2020)
The impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on students' classroom behavior has been studied for 50 years. What is less established is the impact of the GBG on students' academic progress. With emerging research in curriculum-based measurement for written expression (WE-CBM), it may be possible to observe changes in students' writing output while playing the GBG versus when the game is not played. The purpose of the current study was to systematically introduce the GBG during writing practice time in a Grade 1 and Grade 2 classroom, and observe any changes to all students' academic engagement, disruptive behavior, as well as target students' writing output using WE-CBM. Results indicated large increases in all students' academic engagement and decreases in disruptive behavior when the GBG was played. For writing output, target students demonstrated modest improvement in the amount of words written and accuracy of writing when the game was played, especially students identified as having emerging writing skills. Future studies might continue to empirically explore the connection between behavioral intervention and academic output by replicating study procedures in different contexts and/or with alternative WE-CBM indices.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-5 3
Cluster Randomized Trial of a School Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (2019)
Objective: There are currently no empirically-supported, comprehensive school-based interventions (CSBIs) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without concomitant intellectual and language disability. This study compared outcomes for a CSBI (schoolMAX) to typical educational programming (services-as-usual [SAU]) for these children. Method: A total of 103 children (ages 6-12 years) with ASD (without intellectual and language disability) were randomly assigned by school buildings (clusters) to receive the CSBI (n=52 completed) or SAU (n=50 completed). The CSBI was implemented by trained school personnel and targeted social competence and ASD symptoms using social skills groups, emotion recognition instruction, therapeutic activities, behavioral reinforcement, and parent training. Outcome measures tested the effects of the CSBI on social competence and ASD symptoms, as well as potential collateral effects on academic achievement. Outcomes (baseline-to-follow-up) were assessed using tests of social-cognition and academic skills and behavioral observations (by masked evaluators) and parent-teacher ratings of ASD symptoms and social/social-communication skills (non-masked) [ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03338530, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/]. Results: The CSBI group improved significantly more than the SAU group on the test of emotion recognition skills and parent-teacher ratings of ASD symptoms (primary outcomes) and social/social-communication skills (secondary outcome). No differences between groups were detected for recess social interactions or academic skills. Conclusions: The CSBI improved several core areas of functioning for children with ASD compared to usual educational programming. Additional intervention elements may be needed to expand the efficacy of the CSBI so that the observed skills/symptom improvements generalize to recess social interactions and/or academic skills are enhanced. [This paper was published in the "Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology" v48 n6 p922-933 Dec 2019.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-10 3
Brief Prompting to Improve Classroom Behavior: A First-Pass Intervention Option (2019)
Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of a brief prompting intervention (verbal and visual reminder of classroom rules) to improve classroom behavior for an elementary student during small-group reading instruction in a special education classroom (Study 1) and for three high school students with mild disabilities in an inclusive general education classroom (Study 2). Using within-participant reversal designs, the teachers provided brief reminders of behavioral expectations just before class. Teachers were instructed to respond to the students' appropriate and inappropriate behaviors in a typical manner to ensure no programmed changes in the contingencies for student behavior. Results indicated improvements in classroom behavior for all four students, and teachers and students indicated positive perceptions about the intervention and its effects. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 3
Effects of daily and reduced frequency implementation of the Good Behavior Game in kindergarten classrooms (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Managing Student Behavior in the Middle Grades Using Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (2019)
During the transition from the elementary to middle grades, young adolescents may become increasingly vulnerable for emotional and behavioral problems. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams for middle level school (CW-FIT MS), the independent variable examined in this study, was developed to improve teaching and learning by fostering student engagement. The study's purpose was to examine the feasibility and effects of CW-FIT MS Tier 1 implementation in nine middle level school classes using a single-subject ABAB withdrawal design. Participants were 234 students in grades 6-8, including 23 identified as at risk for emotional behavioral disorders. Results of CW-FIT MS Tier 1 implementation showed significant improvement in on-task behavior for groups as well as individual target students, increased teacher praise-to-reprimand ratios, and decreased target student disruptions. Outcomes of social validity surveys were consistent with earlier studies. Study findings extend previous results by demonstrating positive intervention effects in novel settings with a greater number of participants. Study limitations and areas for future research are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
A study of the developing relations between self-regulation and mathematical knowledge in the context of an early math intervention (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Red Light, Purple Light! Results of an Intervention to Promote School Readiness for Children from Low-Income Backgrounds (2019)
Considerable research has examined interventions that facilitate school readiness skills in young children. One intervention, "Red Light, Purple Light Circle Time Games" (RLPL; Tominey and McClelland, 2011; Schmitt et al., 2015), includes music and movement games that aim to foster self-regulation skills. The present study (N = 157) focused on children from families with low-income and compared the RLPL intervention (SR) to a revised version of RLPL that included literacy and math content (SR+) and a Business-As-Usual (BAU) control group. In both versions of the intervention, teachers were trained to administer the self-regulation intervention in preschool classrooms with coaching support. Although not statistically significant, children receiving either version of the intervention gained more in self-regulation on the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) over the preschool year compared to the BAU group (ß = 0.09, p = 0.082, Cohen's d = 0.31). Effect sizes were similar to previous studies (Schmitt et al., 2015; Duncan et al., 2018) and translated to a 21% difference in self-regulation over and above the BAU group at post-test. Furthermore, children participating in either version of the intervention gained significantly more in math across the school year compared to children in the BAU group (ß = 0.14; p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.38), which translated to a 24% difference in math over and above the BAU group at post-test. Results were somewhat stronger for the SR+ version, although effect sizes across intervention conditions were comparable. There were no statistically significant differences across groups for literacy skills. Results extend previous research and suggest that the RLPL intervention, which includes an explicit focus on self-regulation through music and movement games, may improve children's self-regulation and math scores over the preschool year. [This article was published in "Frontiers in Psychology" 2019.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Supporting Preschool Children with Developmental Concerns: Effects of the Getting Ready Intervention on School-Based Social Competencies and Relationships (2019)
The current study reports the results of a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of the Getting Ready parent engagement intervention on young children's social-emotional competencies and the quality of the student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships. Participants were 267 preschool-aged children and their parents, as well as 97 preschool teachers. All children attended publicly funded preschool programs and were low income. In addition, all were considered educationally at risk due to developmental concerns in the areas of language, cognition and/or social-emotional development. Parent and teacher surveys were administered twice per academic year (fall and spring) for two academic years. Findings indicated that children in the treatment group were rated by their teachers to have greater improvement in social skills over two years of preschool as compared to their peers in the comparison condition. Teachers in the treatment condition reported significantly greater increases in their relationships with children as compared to children in the comparison group. Teachers in the intervention group also reported significant increases in their overall relationships with parents. The current findings illustrate the efficacy of Getting Ready at improving the social skills and important relationships for preschool children experiencing developmental risk. [This paper was published in "Early Childhood Research Quarterly" v48 n3 p303-316 2019.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 3
Cluster randomized trial of the classroom SCERTS intervention for elementary students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K 3
The Effects of Full-Day Prekindergarten: Experimental Evidence of Impacts on Children's School Readiness (2019)
This study is a randomized control trial of full- versus half-day prekindergarten (pre-K) in a school district near Denver, Colorado. Four-year-old children were randomly assigned an offer of half-day (4 days/week) or full-day (5 days/week) pre-K that increased class time by 600 hours. The full-day pre-K offer produced substantial, positive effects on children's receptive vocabulary skills (0.275 standard deviations) by the end of pre-K. Among children enrolled in district schools, full-day participants also outperformed their peers on teacher-reported measures of cognition, literacy, math, physical, and socioemotional development. At kindergarten entry, children offered full day still outperformed peers on a widely used measure of basic literacy. The study provides the first rigorous evidence on the impact of full-day preschool on children's school readiness skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 3
Feasibility of and Teacher Preference for Student-Led Implementation of the Good Behavior Game in Early Elementary Classrooms (2018)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classwide group contingency shown to reduce disruptive student behavior. We examined the feasibility of training young students to lead the GBG in one first-grade and three kindergarten classes. We also examined teacher preference for teacher-led GBG, student-led GBG, or no GBG using a concurrent chains procedure. We successfully trained students in all classes to lead the GBG, and the GBG reduced disruptive behavior regardless of who implemented it. Preference for who implemented the game varied across teachers. Results of this study suggest that students as young as kindergarten age can be trained to implement the GBG and that teacher preference should be taken into account when determining how classwide interventions are to be implemented.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-6 3
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT): Student and Teacher Outcomes from a Multisite Randomized Replication Trial (2018)
The purpose of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to demonstrate efficacy of the Class-wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program. The study was designed to replicate an initial RCT conducted by the CW-FIT developers in 1 site, with 2 additional research groups not involved in its development. The study was conducted across 3 states, in 21 culturally diverse schools, and with 83 teachers (classrooms) assigned to CW-FIT and 74 teachers (classrooms) assigned to the comparison group. The CW-FIT intervention included teaching prosocial skills and use of differential attention (teacher praise and points) for appropriate behaviors using a group contingency, class teams, goal setting, points, and rewards. Class-wide student on-task behavior improved, teacher praise and attention to appropriate behaviors increased, and reprimands decreased in the CW-FIT classes with significantly fewer changes over time for the comparison group.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 3
Promoting Cultural Responsivity and Student Engagement through Double Check Coaching of Classroom Teachers: An Efficacy Study (2018)
This article presents findings from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the impact of a novel coaching approach utilized as one element of the Double Check cultural responsivity and student engagement model. The RCT included 158 elementary and middle school teachers randomized to receive coaching or serve as comparisons; all participating teachers were exposed to school-wide professional development activities. Pre-post nonexperimental comparisons indicated improvements in self-reported culturally responsive behavior management and self-efficacy for teachers in both conditions following professional development exposure. With regard to the experimental findings, trained observers recorded significantly more proactive behavior management and anticipation of student problems by teachers, higher student cooperation, less student noncooperation, and fewer disruptive behaviors in classrooms led by coached teachers relative to comparison teachers. Taken together, the findings suggest the potential promise of coaching combined with school-wide professional development for improving classroom management practices and possibly reducing office discipline referrals among Black students.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Efficacy of the ASAP Intervention for Preschoolers with ASD: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (2018)
The advancing social-communication and play (ASAP) intervention was designed as a classroom-based intervention, in which the educational teams serving preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder are trained to implement the intervention in order to improve these children's social-communication and play skills. In this 4-year, multi-site efficacy trial, classrooms were randomly assigned to ASAP or a business-as-usual control condition. A total of 78 classrooms, including 161 children, enrolled in this study. No significant group differences were found for the primary outcomes of children's social-communication and play. However, children in the ASAP group showed increased classroom engagement. Additionally, participation in ASAP seemed to have a protective effect for one indicator of teacher burnout. Implications for future research are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 11 3
The Effectiveness of a Teacher Delivered Mindfulness-Based Curriculum on Adolescent Social-Emotional and Executive Functioning (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-4 3
Use of a Technology-Enhanced Version of the Good Behavior Game in an Elementary School Setting (2017)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a variation of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in which teachers used ClassDojo to manage each team's progress. ClassDojo is a computer-based program that enables teachers to award students with points for demonstrating target behaviors. Dependent variables included class-wide disruptive and academically engaged behavior, teachers' ratings on the Behavior Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS), and the rate of teacher praise statements delivered in each phase. Overall, results indicated that the GBG with ClassDojo was effective at reducing disruptive behavior, increasing academically engaged behavior, and was rated as socially valid. Additionally, when the intervention was in place, increases in the amount of behavior-specific praise statements delivered were observed across all three classrooms.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 3
Evaluation of a positive version of the Good Behavior Game utilizing ClassDojo technology in secondary classrooms (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 3
Effects of the Good Behavior Game on individual student behavior (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Overcoming the Research-to-Practice Gap: A Randomized Trial With Two Brief Homework and Organization Interventions for Students With ADHD as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Overcoming the Research-to-Practice Gap: A Randomized Trial with Two Brief Homework and Organization Interventions for Students with ADHD as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers (2017)
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of 2 brief school-based interventions targeting the homework problems of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention and the Completing Homework by Improving Efficiency and Focus (CHIEF) intervention, as implemented by school mental health providers during the school day. A secondary goal was to use moderator analyses to identify student characteristics that may differentially predict intervention response. Method: Two-hundred and eighty middle school students with ADHD were randomized to the HOPS or CHIEF interventions or to waitlist, and parent and teacher ratings were collected pre, post, and at a 6-month follow-up. Results: Both interventions were implemented with fidelity by school mental health providers. Participants were pulled from elective periods and sessions averaged less than 20 min. Participants in HOPS and CHIEF demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comparison with waitlist on parent ratings of homework problems and organizational skills and effect sizes were large. HOPS participants also demonstrated moderate effect size improvements on materials management and organized action behaviors according to teachers. HOPS participants made significantly greater improvements in parent- and teacher-rated use of organized actions in comparison with CHIEF, but not on measures of homework problems. Moderation analyses revealed that participants with more severe psychopathology and behavioral dysregulation did significantly better with the HOPS intervention as compared to the CHIEF intervention. Conclusions: Brief school-based interventions implemented by school providers can be effective. This type of service delivery model may facilitate overcoming the oft cited research-to-practice gap. [At the time of submission to ERIC, this article was in press with "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology."]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Preschools: An Exploratory Study of CW-FIT Tier 1 (2017)
Challenging behavior in preschool is a serious concern for teachers. Positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) have been shown to be effective in reducing such behaviors. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a specific multi-tiered intervention for implementing effective classroom management strategies using PBIS practices. CW-FIT has been shown to be effective in elementary classrooms but has not yet been evaluated with younger age groups. CW-FIT Tier 1 is a group contingency utilizing social skills training, teacher praise, and positive reinforcement to improve student behavior. The present study examined the effects of CW-FIT Tier 1 implementation on student group on-task behavior and on teacher praise and reprimand rates in four preschool classrooms. A single-subject delayed multiple baseline design with embedded reversals was used to evaluate impact. Results indicated the intervention increased student group on-task behavior and teacher praise to reprimand ratios. Both teachers and children found CW-FIT Tier 1 to be socially valid. Limitations and implications of this study for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Contrasting approaches to the response-contingent learning of young children with significant delays and their social–emotional consequences (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 3
The Efficacy of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation in the Home Setting: Outcomes and Mechanisms in Rural Communities (2017)
This study reports the results of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC), a family-school partnership intervention, on children's behaviors, parents' skills, and parent-teacher relationships in rural community and town settings. Participants were 267 children, 267 parents, and 152 teachers in 45 Midwestern schools. Using an Intent to Treat approach and data analyzed within a multilevel modeling framework, CBC yielded promising results for some but not all outcomes. Specifically, children participating in CBC experienced decreases in daily reports of aggressiveness, noncompliance, and temper tantrums; and increases in parent-reported adaptive skills and social skills at a significantly greater pace than those in a control group. Other outcomes (e.g., parent reports of internalizing and externalizing behaviors) suggested a nonsignificant effect at post-test. CBC parents reported using more effective parenting strategies, gaining more competence in their problem-solving practices, and feeling more efficacious for helping their child succeed in school than parents in the control group. Parents participating in CBC also reported significant improvements in the parent-teacher relationship, and the parent-teacher relationship mediated the effect of CBC on children's adaptive skills. Implications for practice in rural communities, study limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. [This article was published in "Journal of School Psychology" v62 p81-101 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-6 3
Student and Teacher Outcomes of the Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Team Efficacy Trial (2016)
Schools continue to strive for the use of evidenced-based interventions and policies to foster well-managed classrooms that promote improved student outcomes. The present study examined the effects of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT), a group contingency intervention, on the on-task and disruptive behavior of elementary school students with or at risk for emotional behavior disorders (EBD). Seventeen elementary schools, 159 general education teachers, and 313 students participated in the randomized-control group design study. Fidelity of implementation was strong for intervention group teachers and was measured across groups and throughout baseline conditions. Results suggest that CW-FIT can be used to increase on-task behavior and reduce the disruptive behavior of students with or at risk for EBD. In addition, teachers in intervention classes increased praise and reduced reprimands to individual students and along with their students, reported high levels of consumer satisfaction.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Early childhood mental health consultation: Results of a statewide random-controlled evaluation. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Randomized evaluation of peer support arrangements to support the inclusion of high school students with severe disabilities (2016)
Enhancing the social and learning experiences of students with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms has been a long-standing focus of research, legislative, and advocacy efforts. The authors used a randomized controlled experimental design to examine the efficacy of peer support arrangements to improve academic and social outcomes for 51 students with severe disabilities in high school general education classrooms. Paraprofessionals or special educators recruited, trained, and supported 106 peers to provide individualized academic and social assistance to students with severe disabilities throughout one semester. Compared to students exclusively receiving adult-delivered support (n = 48), students participating in peer support arrangements experienced increased interactions with peers, increased academic engagement, more progress on individualized social goals, increased social participation, and a greater number of new friendships. Moreover, an appreciable proportion of relationships lasted one and two semesters later after the intervention had concluded. These findings challenge prevailing practices for supporting inclusive education and establish the efficacy and social validity of peer support arrangements as a promising alternative to individually assigned paraprofessional support.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 3
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a School-Implemented School-Home Intervention for ADHD Symptoms and Impairment (2016)
Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel psychosocial intervention (Collaborative Life Skills, CLS) for primary-school students with ADHD symptoms. CLS is a 12-week program consisting of integrated school, parent, and student treatments delivered by school-based mental health providers. Using a cluster randomized design, CLS was compared to usual school/community services on psychopathology and functional outcomes. Methods: Schools within a large urban public school district were randomly assigned to CLS (12 schools) or usual services (11 schools). Approximately six students participated at each school (N = 135, mean age = 8.4 years, grade range = 2nd-5th, 71% boys). Using PROC GENMOD (SAS 9.4) the difference between the means of CLS and usual services for each outcome at post-treatment was tested. To account for clustering effects by school, the Generalized Estimating Equation method was used. Results: Students from schools assigned to CLS, relative to those assigned to usual services, had significantly greater improvement on parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptom severity and organizational functioning, teacher-rated academic performance and parent ratings of ODD symptoms and social/interpersonal skills. Conclusions: These results support the efficacy of CLS relative to typical school and community practices for reducing ADHD and ODD symptoms and improving key areas of functional impairment. They further suggest that existing school-based mental health resources can be re-deployed from non-empirically supported practices to those with documented efficacy. This model holds promise for improving access to efficient, evidence-based treatment for inattentive and disruptive behavior beyond the clinic setting. [This article was published in the "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry," v55 p762-770 2016.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Professional Development for Interdisciplinary Civic Education: Impacts on Humanities Teachers and Their Students (2015)
Background/Context: Billions of dollars are spent annually on professional development (PD) for educators, yet few randomized controlled trials (RCT) have demonstrated the ultimate impact PD has on student learning. Further, while policymakers and others speak to the role schools should play in developing students' civic awareness, RCTs of PD designed to foster civic learning are rare. This randomized controlled trial contributes to the knowledge base on the effectiveness of PD designed to integrate civic learning, ethical reflection, and historical thinking skills into high school humanities courses. Focus of Study: The study examined the impact of a PD intervention in two areas: (a) teacher self-efficacy, burnout, and professional engagement and satisfaction; and (b) the academic, civic, social, and ethical competencies of 9th and 10th grade students in the teachers' classes. Population/Participants/Subjects: The study involved 113 teachers and 1,371 9th and 10th grade students in 60 high schools from eight metropolitan regions in the United States. Intervention/Program/Practice: The intervention, Facing History and Ourselves, provides PD through a five-day seminar, curricular materials, and follow-up coaching and workshops to help teachers develop their capacities to implement an interdisciplinary historical case study unit using student-centered pedagogy. Research Design: The study used a school-level, randomized, experimental design to investigate impacts of the intervention for teachers and their 9th and 10th grade students. Findings/Results: Intervention teachers showed significantly greater self-efficacy in all eight assessed domains, more positive perceptions of professional support, satisfaction and growth, and greater personal accomplishment. Intervention students demonstrated stronger skills for analyzing evidence, agency, and cause and effect on an historical understanding performance measure; greater self-reported civic efficacy and tolerance for others with different views; and more positive perceptions of the classroom climate and the opportunities afforded for engaging with civic matters. Fidelity analysis found these causal effects despite the fact that roughly half of the intervention teachers did not fully implement the program. Conclusions/Recommendations: Educators need evidence-based approaches for teaching complex social, civic, and political issues enabling students of diverse mindsets and backgrounds to engage constructively with one another while obtaining necessary skills and knowledge. These findings provide empirical support for a professional development approach that engages teachers in fostering academic and civic competencies critical to both participation in a democracy and success in college and career.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Strengthening school readiness for Head Start children: Evaluation of a self-regulation intervention (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 3
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams "CW-FIT" Efficacy Trial Outcomes. (2015)
The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of the Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program for improving students' on-task behavior, and increasing teacher recognition of appropriate behavior. The intervention is a group contingency classroom management program consisting of teaching and reinforcing appropriate behaviors (i.e., getting the teacher's attention, following directions, and ignoring inappropriate behaviors of peers). Seventeen elementary schools, the majority in urban and culturally diverse communities, participated in a randomized trial with 86 teachers (classrooms) assigned to CW-FIT, and 73 teachers (classrooms) assigned to the comparison group. Class-wide student on-task behavior improved over baseline levels in the intervention classes. Teachers were able to implement the intervention with high fidelity overall, as observed in adherence to 96% of the fidelity criteria on average. Teacher praise and attention to appropriate behaviors increased, and reprimands decreased. These effects were replicated in new classrooms each of the 4 years of the study, and for all years combined.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Family-Based Training Program Improves Brain Function, Cognition, and Behavior in Lower Socioeconomic Status Preschoolers (2013)
Over the course of several years of research, the authors have employed psychophysics, electrophysiological (ERP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to study the development and neuroplasticity of the human brain. During this time, they observed that different brain systems and related functions display markedly different degrees or "profiles" of neuroplasticity. Most relevant for the application of research in cognitive neuroscience to the design of education interventions are results showing that some systems are highly modifiable by experience and are dependent on experience but only during particular time periods ("sensitive periods"). In such systems they also observed Systems that are most modifiable (i.e., display more neuroplasticity) display both enhancements in the deaf and blind, and greater vulnerability in those with or at risk for developmental disorders. One system that displays this profile is sustained selective attention. Considerable evidence documents the central role of selective attention in all aspects of learning and memory, and school readiness in particular (for review, see Stevens & Bavelier, 2012). Selective attention is a highly malleable system that is both enhanced in remaining modalities following sensory deprivation, shows deficits in developmental disorders and in typically developing children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds and that can be increased in both typically and non-typically developing children following computerized training (Stevens & Neville, 2009; Stevens, Lauinger, & Neville, 2009; Stevens, et al., 2008). Guided in part by these findings, the authors developed and assessed an eight-week, family-based training program designed to improve lower SES preschool children's academic readiness and, centrally, selective attention. 141 3-5 year-old children enrolled in Head Start (HS) and their parents participated in the current study which took place at the Brain Development Laboratory at the University of Oregon and Head Start sites in Lane County, Oregon. The training program, Parents and Children Making Connections: Highlighting Attention (PCMC-A), included both a child-directed component, as well as a family-based, parent directed component. Parents attended eight weekly, two-hour small-group classes that occurred in the evenings or on weekends at HS sites, and their children participated in concurrent small group training activities. Results show that a program that targets child attention using a family-based model involving children and their parents is highly effective in changing children's neurocognitive function as well as their parents' caregiving behaviors in the relatively short timeframe of eight weeks. The evidence presented here suggests that programs that target multiple pathways, including parents and the home environment, have the potential to narrow the large and growing gap in school readiness and academic achievement between higher and lower SES children. Two figures are appended.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-11 3
Experimental study of a self-determination intervention for youth in foster care (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 10-12 3
My life: Effects of a longitudinal, randomized study of self-determination enhancement on the transition outcomes of youth in foster care and special education. (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Randomized, Controlled Trial of the LEAP Model of Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (2011)
A clustered randomized design was used in which 28 inclusive preschool classrooms were randomly assigned to receive 2 years of training and coaching to fidelity in the LEAP (Learning Experiences and Alternative Program for Preschoolers and Their Parents) preschool model, and 28 inclusive classes were assigned to receive intervention manuals only. In total, 177 intervention classroom children and 117 comparison classroom children participated. Children were similar on all measures at start. After 2 years, experimental class children were found to have made significantly greater improvement than their comparison cohorts on measures of cognitive, language, social, and problem behavior, and autism symptoms. Behavior at entry did not predict outcome nor did family socioeconomic status. The fidelity with which teachers implemented LEAP strategies did predict outcomes. Finally, social validity measurement showed that procedures and outcomes were favorably viewed by intervention class teachers. (Contains 1 figure and 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K 3
Responding to Rule Violations or Rule Following: A Comparison of Two Versions of the Good Behavior Game with Kindergarten Students (2010)
The purpose of this study was to examine the differential effects of 2 versions of the Good Behavior Game (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969), allocating teacher attention to rule violations (GBG-response cost) and to rule following (GBG-reinforcement), on student and teacher behavior. The participants were 6 kindergarten students who were nominated as the 3 most disruptive students in each classroom. The study was conducted using single-case A/B/A/C/B/C reversal design with each teacher randomly assigned to either GBG-response cost or GBG-reinforcement condition for implementation in the first B phase. Results indicated that both versions were effective at reducing rule violations and that GBG-reinforcement consistently resulted in either comparable or lower levels of rule violations across classrooms and students. In addition, GBG-reinforcement was preferred by the teachers as a better fit to their classrooms. The implications of the findings to teachers and school psychologists in classroom settings are discussed. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K 3
An Evaluation of the Good Behavior Game in Early Reading Intervention Groups. (2010)
As an increasing number of studies document the link between the development of student academic and social behavior, there is a growing need to create and evaluate interventions that address both types of skill development in school contexts. It is of particular importance to focus on interventions that improve the learning environment to maximize student success. The Good Behavior Game (TGBG) is an example of a research-based intervention that can be easily modified and implemented in conjunction with academic interventions to maximize effectiveness of student supports. The present study focused on the development and implementation of a modified version of TGBG implemented during the delivery of a secondary level early literacy intervention for students at-risk for reading difficulties. Specifically, this study examined whether instructional assistants' implementation of TGBG was functionally related to changes in student and instructor outcomes. The student outcomes assessed were (1) problem behavior, (2) academic engagement, and (3) pre-literacy skill development. The instructor outcomes assessed were provision of opportunities to respond to instruction, specific praise, and corrective statements for student social behavior. Data were also collected on fidelity of implementation, contextual fit, and social validity of TGBG. A concurrent multiple baseline design across five instructional reading groups was used to evaluate effects of TGBG. Results indicated that TGBG was functionally related to reductions in student problem behavior. In addition, a functional relation was established between implementation of TGBG and increases in instructor provision of specific praise statements and decreases in provision of corrective statements. Academic engagement and provision of opportunities to respond remained high and stable throughout the study. Pre-literacy trajectories did not appear to be functionally related to TGBG implementation; however, this may have been due to the short timeframe of the study. Instructional assistants implementing TGBG as well as students participating in TGBG rated it positively. Conceptual, practical, and future research implications are discussed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 3
A Randomized Controlled Trial of the First Step to Success Early Intervention: Demonstration of Program Efficacy Outcomes in a Diverse, Urban School District (2009)
This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It consists of three modular components (screening, school intervention, parent training); lasts approximately 3 months; and is initially set up, delivered, and coordinated by a behavioral coach (e.g., school counselor, behavior specialist, social worker). Project Year 1 of this efficacy trial was devoted to gearing-up activities (e.g., hiring, training, planning, logistical arrangements); Years 2 and 3 each involved implementing First Step with approximately 100 behaviorally at-risk students. Students, teachers, and classrooms were randomly assigned to either intervention or usual care comparison conditions. Year 4 activities focused on conducting long-term, follow-up assessments and implementing sustainability procedures to preserve achieved gains. Pre-post teacher and parent ratings of student behavior and social skills showed moderately robust effect sizes, ranging from 0.54 to 0.87, that favored the intervention group. Direct measures of academic performance (oral reading fluency, letter-word identification) were not sensitive to the intervention. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Promoting Academic and Social-Emotional School Readiness: The Head Start REDI Program (2008)
Forty-four Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to enriched intervention (Head Start REDI--Research-based, Developmentally Informed) or "usual practice" conditions. The intervention involved brief lessons, "hands-on" extension activities, and specific teaching strategies linked empirically with the promotion of: (a) social-emotional competencies and (b) language development and emergent literacy skills. Take-home materials were provided to parents to enhance skill development at home. Multimethod assessments of three hundred and fifty-six 4-year-old children tracked their progress over the course of the 1-year program. Results revealed significant differences favoring children in the enriched intervention classrooms on measures of vocabulary, emergent literacy, emotional understanding, social problem solving, social behavior, and learning engagement. Implications are discussed for developmental models of school readiness and for early educational programs and policies.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Effects of a Pre-Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention: A Randomized Experiment (2008)
Research indicates that a socioeconomic status-related gap in mathematical knowledge appears early and widens during early childhood. Young children from economically disadvantaged families receive less support for mathematical development both at home and in preschool. Consequently, children from different socioeconomic backgrounds enter elementary school at different levels of readiness to learn a standards-based mathematics curriculum. One approach to closing this gap is the development and implementation of effective mathematics curricula for public preschool programs enrolling economically disadvantaged children. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 Head Start and state preschool classrooms, with 278 children, to determine whether a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention was effective. Intervention teachers received training that enabled them to implement with fidelity, and a large majority of parents regularly used math activities teachers sent home. Intervention and control groups did not differ on math assessments at pretest; however, gain scores of intervention children were significantly greater than those of control children at posttest. Thus, the intervention reduced the gap in children's early mathematical knowledge. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 3
Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention (2007)
Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory) predicted a flat trajectory. A mediational model including learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and causal attributions and strategies was tested. In Study 2, an intervention teaching an incremental theory to 7th graders (N=48) promoted positive change in classroom motivation, compared with a control group (N=43). Simultaneously, students in the control group displayed a continuing downward trajectory in grades, while this decline was reversed for students in the experimental group.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 3
A Pilot Evaluation of Small Group Challenging Horizons Program (CHP): A Randomized Trial (2007)
This study examined the efficacy of an after-school program, the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP), that met four days a week and focused on improving organization, academic skills, and classroom behavior. The CHP was compared with a community control that included involvement in a district-run after-school program that met one to three days a week and focused on preparation for standardized testing. Participants were 48 middle-school youth, referred as experiencing a combination of learning and behavior problems, randomly assigned to either the CHP or the control. Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral and academic functioning were collected at the beginning of the academic year and again after one semester of intervention. Relative to the control, participants in the CHP made significant improvements in parent rated academic progress, self-esteem, and overall severity of problem. While teacher ratings did not reach significance, CHP participants made medium effect size improvements in academic progress and small improvements in overall severity. Core class grades and discipline records were also examined to provide a broad picture of functioning beyond rating scale data.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 3
Progress report of the randomized trial of Positive Action in Hawaii: End of third year of intervention. (2006)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Building a Foundation against Violence: Impact of a School-Based Prevention Program on Elementary Students (2005)
This study examined the effectiveness of the Too Good for Violence Prevention Program (TGFV), a multifaceted interactive intervention. Grounded in Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the TGFV curricula focus on developing personal and interpersonal skills to solve conflict non-violently and resist social influences that lead to violence. Participants were 999 third grade students and 46 teachers in ten elementary schools. The schools were matched on student characteristics and academic performance and assigned to treatment or control conditions. Teachers and students completed checklists assessing students' behaviors prior to, following, and 20 weeks after program delivery. Results show that treatment students, as compared to control students, were perceived by teachers as evidencing more frequent use of personal and social skills and of prosocial behaviors after program delivery. Student survey data show that treatment students, as compared to control students, evidenced more positive scores in the areas of emotional competency skills, social and resistance skills, and communication skills after program delivery. The benefits of the TGFV program continued to be observed at the 20-week follow-up. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 3
The effects of a group-oriented contingency—the Good Behavior Game—on the disruptive behavior of children with developmental disabilities (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
Efficacy of a theory-based abstinence-only intervention over 24 Months: A randomized controlled trial with young adolescents. (February 2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Middle school classroom management: A randomized control trial of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams for Middle Schools (CW-FIT MS) (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Systematically Removing Components of the Good Behavior Game in Preschool Classrooms (2021)
Disruptive classroom behavior produces a host of problems for students and teachers. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an effective procedure to reduce disruptive behavior. In this study, experimenters conducted the GBG in two preschool classes and demonstrated its effectiveness using a reversal design. Subsequently, experimenters systematically removed components of the GBG in a multiple baseline across classes design. Several features of the GBG were successfully removed without a return of disruptive behavior. Vocal feedback could not be removed in either class without disruptive behavior increasing. These data demonstrate one potential way to reduce teacher effort while maintaining the effects of the GBG.
Reviews of Individual Studies Not reported -1
Efficacy of Teacher-Implemented Good Behavior Game Despite Low Treatment Integrity (2020)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a well-documented group contingency designed to reduce disruptive behavior in classroom settings. However, few studies have evaluated the GBG with students who engage in severe problem behavior in alternative schools, and there are few demonstrations of training teachers in those settings to implement the GBG. In the current study, 3 teachers were trained to implement the GBG in a restrictive setting for students with histories of emotional and behavioral disorders and delinquency. The teachers used the GBG to produce substantial reductions in problem behavior despite low treatment integrity. Clinical implications and future directions for research are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-9 -1
Managing Student Behavior in a Middle School Special Education Classroom Using CW-FIT Tier 1 (2020)
Middle school special education teachers often express concern about challenging student behavior. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT), a behavior management program based on school-wide positive behavior support, have been effective in elementary general education classrooms. The present study, the first to apply it in a middle school special education setting, used an ABAC design to examine effects on student on-task behavior and teacher praise rates in a self-contained special education classroom for students with severe disabilities and their typically developing peer tutors. Results suggested that CW-FIT Tier 1 is associated with improvements in student on-task behavior and teacher praise rates, especially when peer tutors are included in the intervention and when the timer is silent. Both teachers and students reported the intervention to be socially valid. Study limitations and areas for future research are addressed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 -1
Improving Student Behavior in Middle School Art Classrooms: Initial Investigation of CW-FIT Tier 1 (2020)
Classroom management is commonly challenging in middle schools. Class-wide function-related intervention teams (CW-FIT) is a multitiered intervention designed to decrease problem behaviors at the classroom level. It is comprises evidence-based practices such as teaching classroom expectations, increasing teacher praise, and using positive reinforcement in an interdependent group contingency. CW-FIT has shown promise in a variety of school settings, but it has not been tested in middle school art classrooms. This initial investigation examined the effects of CW-FIT using a single-subject ABAB design in two middle school art classrooms. Results indicated that class on-task behavior increased by more than 25% and teacher praise-to-reprimand ratios more than doubled during CW-FIT implementation compared with baseline levels. Results also indicated that on-task behavior for students identified as at risk for behavioral disorders improved by more than 18% during the intervention. Teachers and students found the intervention to be socially valid. Resulting implications were promising for using CW-FIT in other middle school art classrooms.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
The Evaluation of the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model (2020)
Purpose: The Santa Ana Unified School District received an i3 grant (Investing in Innovation; funded by the U.S. Department of Education Grant number U411C160074) to build on their existing school climate practices. Called the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model, the aim is to improve school climate, student-adult relationships, create social emotional learning programs, and provide students the needed structure to access challenging curriculum and expectations. As part of this enhanced model, School Climate Liaisons (SCLs) were hired to support and provide coaching to schools in the intervention group on PBIS [Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports], RP [Restorative Practice] implementation, and behavioral interventions. As part of the i3 grant requirements, the district employed a rigorous cluster-randomized trial whereby half of the district's elementary schools were assigned to receive the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model and half were assigned to a waitlist control. The confirmatory research question is: Do students in grades 4 and 5 at follow-up, in schools assigned to receive support from PBIS and Restorative Practice school climate specialists and community liaisons, who receive services for two years, exhibit higher levels of self-management at the end of the second year, as compared to students in grades 4 and 5 in schools assigned to not receive such support? Additionally, there were exploratory research questions examining changes in other SEL [social-emotional learning] measures including growth mindset, self-efficacy, and social awareness. Methods: This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled design whereby half of the study schools were assigned to the treatment condition and the other half of schools were assigned to the "business as usual" control condition. In total, 35 schools (30 K-5 schools; 5 K-8 schools) were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control condition. All students within these schools were included in the evaluation. Students in the treatment schools (n = 17) were eligible to receive services through the grant. Randomization occurred in May 2017. The 2016-17 school year served as a baseline school year (i.e., no services were provided). The Enhanced Positive School Climate Model began in the 2017-18 school year and continued into the 2018-19 school year for treatment schools only. Control schools were waitlisted and began receiving services in the 2019-20 school year. Students enrolled in district schools in May 2017 were tracked using student roster information through the end of the 2018-19 school year. Only students who were in study schools continuously from the 2016-2017 to 2018-2019 school years were included in the impact analysis. The confirmatory and exploratory outcomes referenced below were conducted using extant data from the district. Data were used from routine data collection processes within the district from the annual CORE climate student survey. The primary outcome measure was the five-item self-management scale on the CORE District's student survey (Taylor, Oberle, Durlak, & Weissberg, 2017; Transforming Education, 2014; https://www.rand.org/education-and-labor/projects/assessments/tool/2014/panorama-social-emotional-learning-questionnaire-measures.html) asked of all students in grades 4-12 each year. For the confirmatory research question (and all exploratory questions), adjusted post-intervention outcomes for students in treatment schools were compared to the outcomes for their counterparts in the control schools. This involved fitting conditional multilevel regression models (i.e., hierarchical linear modeling [HLM]), with additional terms to account for the nesting of individuals within schools (see Goldstein 1987; Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002; Murray 1998). Results: Eight two-level models were estimated per grade level to address the confirmatory and exploratory research questions. Although the students in treatment schools had slightly higher self-management, growth mindset and self-efficacy scores at follow-up, only the difference in fourth grade self-efficacy scores was statistically significant. In contrast, students in control schools had very slightly higher social awareness scores; this finding was not statistically significant. Implications: Meaningful and statistically significant differences were not found between students who attended schools that received the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model compared to their peers in schools that did not receive the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model. The lack of findings may be due to the other changes in school climate practices throughout the district during the study period. Additionally, variations in the implementation of the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model may have contributed to the lack of findings. Although the findings are not significant, the direction of results is mostly consistent, indicating increases in SEL competencies for students receiving additional school climate supports. Future studies should continue to investigate the relationship between whole-school approaches to school climate and changes in SEL competencies for students.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
An Adaption of the Good Behaviour Game to Promote Social Skill Development at the Whole-Class Level (2020)
Social skill interventions are utilised by educational psychologists (EPs) to promote positive social behaviour amongst pupils. These have predominantly occurred for target populations, rather than at the whole-class level. Research into evidence-based, whole-class interventions for social skill development is warranted. The Good Behaviour Game (GBG) is a contingency management intervention for promoting positive behaviour at the whole-class level. The current study evaluates an adaptation of the GBG to target engagement in social skills in a mainstream primary school classroom setting. An ABAB reversal design was used to evaluate teacher implementation of the GBG. The GBG was shown to be effective in promoting engagement in targeted social behaviour of "positive social interactions" and "working as team". No change in behaviour was observed for the targeted social behaviour of "supporting peers". The paper discusses the implications of the findings, limitations, relevancy to EP practice and impetus for further research.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
Improving Student Learning and Engagement through Gamified Instruction: Evaluation of iPersonalize (2019)
The purpose of this research study was to evaluate iPersonalize, a gamified instructional approach developed by Fullerton School District (FSD) in California to encourage student engagement and promote achievement. An instructional approach is considered gamified when it incorporates computer game elements to augment existing classroom, instructional, and assessment processes (Bedwell, Pavlas, Heyne, Lazzara, & Salas, 2012; Landers, 2015). The study employed a randomized controlled trial designed to support causal inferences about the effectiveness of iPersonalize for impacting sixth-grade student engagement and achievement in English language arts (ELA). The study included 1,295 students from 42 classrooms in 15 schools. All students were enrolled in sixth grade in FSD during the 2017/18 school year. Students in 24 of these classrooms were assigned to ELA instruction using iPersonalize. Students in the remaining 18 classrooms were assigned to business-as-usual instruction. Teachers in both groups were expected to teach the same ELA unit. Teachers in the iPersonalize group were expected to incorporate elements of gamification, while the teachers in the control group were expected to not incorporate elements of gamification. Key findings from the study were as follows: (1) On both reading and writing assessments, the difference between the treatment group and the control group was small and not statistically significant, indicating that the two groups performed similarly; (2) Students in both groups reported similar levels of engagement in school; (3) Gender did not significantly moderate the impact of iPersonalize on student achievement or student engagement; (4) The impact of the program on reading and writing assessments was close to zero, regardless of the extent to which students interacted with the online learning management system; and (5) There was some evidence to suggest that the program had a stronger impact on engagement for students who were already the most engaged in school.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 -1
Evaluation of Reading Apprenticeship across the Disciplines (RAAD): Effective Secondary Teaching and Learning through Literacy Leadership (2019)
Reading Apprenticeship is a model of academic literacy instruction designed by the Strategic Literacy Initiative (SLI) at WestEd to improve student literacy skills and academic achievement. Based on understandings of the close relationship between curricular reform and professional development, Reading Apprenticeship includes an instructional framework and associated professional development model for secondary and post-secondary teachers across the academic subject areas. Teachers across the subject areas learn how to build student capacities to carry out intellectually engaged reading, make meaning, acquire academic and disciplinary language, read independently, and set personal goals for literacy development. In 2015, the U.S. Department of Education awarded SLI a three-year Supporting Effective Educator Development (SEED) grant to disseminate Reading Apprenticeship professional learning through the Reading Apprenticeship Across the Disciplines (RAAD) project, a cross-disciplinary blended model of Reading Apprenticeship. Through RAAD, WestEd served 2,240 teachers from 570 schools in 6 states (California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, Texas, and Wisconsin). As part of the grant, IMPAQ International conducted an independent evaluation of RAAD effectiveness. This report presents findings from the randomized controlled trial conducted in California, New York, Texas, and Wisconsin. The impact evaluation employed a group-randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 40 middle schools from 6 blocks, labeled A through F, were randomly assigned to a treatment group (19 schools), which received the RAAD intervention; or a control group (21 schools), which was set to receive delayed professional development. Grade 7 or 8 English Language Arts (ELA), science, and social studies teachers recruited from treatment schools received the RAAD professional development and ongoing support during the 2016-18 study period, while control schools conducted business as usual. Two years of data were collected from the study schools. Findings from this study demonstrate the success of the RAAD project in offering teachers professional learning and support to scale to help them change their instructional practices to foster metacognitive inquiry, increase class time spent reading, and encourage use of collaboration and reading strategies by students. These findings were accompanied by significant reduction in traditional teacher practices and are consistent with positive findings from other studies of Reading Apprenticeship. However, this study also shows that this iteration of the Reading Apprenticeship fell short of improving student literacy and achievement as measured by standardized assessments.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Interdependent Group Contingencies Reduce Disruption in Alternative High School Classrooms (2019)
Group contingencies have been indicated to be effective in reducing disruptive behavior and increasing academic engagement in school settings. Previous research has demonstrated their efficacy with a wide range of student ages, but there have been few studies with older students who engage in severe disruptive behavior. In the current study, we implemented an interdependent group contingency in three high school classrooms of students aged 14-19 years with histories of delinquency, emotional and behavioral disorder diagnoses, or both. Results indicated that interdependent group contingencies can be effective in reducing the disruptive classroom behavior of these students. Implications for future research and special considerations for this population are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
A feasibility study and a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of the PAX 'Good Behaviour Game' in disadvantaged schools [Doctoral dissertation, Queen's University Belfast]. (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 -1
Efficacy Study of a Social Communication and Self-Regulation Intervention for School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2019)
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the initial efficacy of a parent-assisted blended intervention combining components of Structured TEACCHing and Social Thinking, designed to increase social communication and self-regulation concept knowledge in 1st and 2nd graders (n = 17) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents. Method: A randomized delayed treatment control group design with pre- and postintervention assessments of both parents and children was implemented within a community practice setting. Two follow-up assessments at 3 and 6 months post intervention were also completed. Results: Overall, results indicate that the intervention is efficacious in teaching social communication and self regulation concept knowledge to children with ASD and their parents. Both parents and children demonstrated an increase in social communication and self-regulation knowledge after participating in the Growing, Learning, and Living With Autism Group as compared to a delayed treatment control group. The effects of the intervention did not extend to parent-child interactions coded from video recordings. Child treatment effects were maintained at the 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Preliminary efficacy of the Growing, Learning, and Living With Autism Group was established. Based on parent report at the conclusion of the intervention, this is a socially valid intervention for teaching social communication and self-regulation skills to school-age children with ASD. [This is the online version of an article published in "Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools." For the final published version of this article, see EJ1222622.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-3 -1
Exploring Solutions to Address Students' Social Competencies to Facilitate School Success: A Usability and Feasibility Study (2019)
In this methodological illustration, we examined Tier 2 social skills interventions to support school success for students with or at risk for emotional or behavior disorders. We presented findings examining the usability and feasibility of the "Social Skills Improvement System-Intervention Guide" and "Positive Action Counselor's Kit," which emphasize teaching and reinforcing social skills associated with success within and beyond school settings. We described how data-informed decision-making processes were conducted to design, implement, and evaluate social skills interventions, including monitoring student outcomes across the two programs. We end with a discussion of barriers and enablers toward conducting data-informed social skills interventions in authentic educational settings.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Teacher-Delivered Book Reading and Play on Vocabulary Learning and Self-Regulation among Low-Income Preschool Children (2019)
There is a need for empirically based educational practices shown to support learning, yet validation tends to require a high degree of experimental control that can limit ecological validity and translation to classrooms. We describe our iterative intervention design to support preschoolers' vocabulary through book reading coupled with playful learning, including the process of translating research-based methods to an authentic teacher-delivered intervention. Effectiveness of the teacher-implemented intervention was examined by comparing book reading alone versus book reading plus play in supporting vocabulary development in preschoolers (N = 227) from low-income families with diverse backgrounds. Teachers used definitions, gestures, and pictures to teach vocabulary. During play, teachers led play with story-related figurines while using target vocabulary. Ten teachers read books and engaged children in play (read + play [R + P]), and 6 used only book reading (read-only [RO]). For children in both the R + P and RO conditions, within-subjects analyses of gains on taught versus control words revealed large effects on receptive (R + P, d = 1.08; RO, d = 0.92) and expressive vocabulary (R + P, d = 1.41; RO, d =1.23). Read-only had a statistically significant effect (d = 0.20) on a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary, but there were no statistically significant differences between conditions. Moderate to large effects were found using an expressive task when words were tested 4 months after they were taught. Implications for curriculum design and the potential benefits of enhancing children's vocabulary through book reading and playful learning are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 -1
A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Combination of Two School-Based Universal Preventive Interventions (2019)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG, Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969) and the PATHS Curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies; Greenberg, Kusche, Cook, & Quamma, 1995) represent 2 universal, elementary school, preventive interventions which have been shown in large-scale, randomized controlled trials to have an immediate and beneficial impact (GBG, Dolan et al., 1993; PATHS, Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group [CPPRG], 1999) on aggressive/disruptive and off-task behavior. Importantly, both risk behaviors are strong predictors of antisocial behavior, drug abuse, and low educational and occupational attainment in adolescence and young adulthood (Kellam et al., 2008). What has yet to be explored within a randomized controlled trial is whether the combination of these interventions would yield significantly greater impact on aggressive/disruptive and off-task behavior than the GBG alone. One reason for expecting additive if not synergistic effects as a result of combining the two interventions is that the GBG, by increasing attention to task and reducing disruptive behavior in the classroom, may facilitate the acquisition of the emotion regulation, social problem-solving, and conflict resolution skills taught in PATHS. To that end, a group randomized, effectiveness trial was carried out, wherein 27 schools were randomly assigned to one of 3 conditions, (a) the PAX GBG Alone (Embry, Staatemeier, Richardson, Lauger, & Mitich, 2003), (b) PATHS to PAX (that is, the PAX GBG + PATHS), or (c) a standard setting (control) condition. Classroom observations and teacher ratings of student behavior were carried out at pretest and 6 months later at posttest. Limited evidence of the superiority of the combined approach was found and potential reasons why and future directions are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 -1
A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Combination of Two School-Based Universal Preventive Interventions (2019)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG, Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969) and the PATHS Curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies; Greenberg, Kusche, Cook, & Quamma, 1995) represent 2 universal, elementary school, preventive interventions which have been shown in large-scale, randomized controlled trials to have an immediate and beneficial impact (GBG, Dolan et al., 1993; PATHS, Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group [CPPRG], 1999) on aggressive/disruptive and off-task behavior. Importantly, both risk behaviors are strong predictors of antisocial behavior, drug abuse, and low educational and occupational attainment in adolescence and young adulthood (Kellam et al., 2008). What has yet to be explored within a randomized controlled trial is whether the combination of these interventions would yield significantly greater impact on aggressive/disruptive and off-task behavior than the GBG alone. One reason for expecting additive if not synergistic effects as a result of combining the two interventions is that the GBG, by increasing attention to task and reducing disruptive behavior in the classroom, may facilitate the acquisition of the emotion regulation, social problem-solving, and conflict resolution skills taught in PATHS. To that end, a group randomized, effectiveness trial was carried out, wherein 27 schools were randomly assigned to one of 3 conditions, (a) the PAX GBG Alone (Embry, Staatemeier, Richardson, Lauger, & Mitich, 2003), (b) PATHS to PAX (that is, the PAX GBG + PATHS), or (c) a standard setting (control) condition. Classroom observations and teacher ratings of student behavior were carried out at pretest and 6 months later at posttest. Limited evidence of the superiority of the combined approach was found and potential reasons why and future directions are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 -1
A state-wide quasi-experimental effectiveness study of the scale-up of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2019)
The three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework promotes the development of systems and data analysis to guide the selection and implementation of evidence based practices across multiple tiers. The current study examined the effects of universal (tier 1) or school-wide PBIS (SW-PBIS) in one state's scale-up of this tier of the framework. Annual propensity score weights were generated to examine the longitudinal effects of SW-PBIS from 2006–07 through 2011–12. School-level archival and administrative data outcomes were examined using panel models with an autoregressive structure. The sample included 1316 elementary, middle, and high schools. Elementary schools trained in SW-PBIS demonstrated statistically significantly lower suspensions during the fourth and fifth study years (i.e., small effect size) and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the first two study years as well as in one and two later years (i.e., small to large effect sizes), respectively. Secondary schools implementing SW-PBIS had statistically significantly lower suspensions and truancy rates during the second study year and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the second and third study years. These findings demonstrate medium effect sizes for all outcomes except suspensions. Given the widespread use of SW-PBIS across nearly 26,000 schools in the U.S., this study has important implications for educational practices and policies.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 -1
Effects of National Board Certified Instructional Leaders on Classroom Practice and Student Achievement of Novice Teachers. A Study Report Developed for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2019)
The study examined the effect of National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in instructional leadership roles, operationalized as mentors to novice teachers, on (a) classroom practices of mentored novice teachers in Grades K-12 and (b) student achievement of mentored teachers' students in Grades 4-8. The study compared outcomes between NBCT mentors and non-NBCT mentors. The study examined the effect of NBCT mentors after one academic year and was conducted in San Francisco Unified School District. Using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, we examined novice teachers' classroom practices on the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, Instructional Support, and across all three domains. The results did not reach statistical significance, but the effect sizes for Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and a global measure across all domains suggest meaningful differences between classroom practices of novice teachers mentored by NBCTs and non-NBCTs. These effect sizes were 0.28, 0.28, and 0.21 standard deviations, respectively. The effect size for the domain of Instructional Support was near zero at -0.06 standard deviations. Our sample size for the analysis of classroom practices did not have sufficient power to estimate differences at a statistically significant level. We examined student achievement using the state's standardized test scores in mathematics and English language arts. Our achievement measure includes either subject: That is, we did not estimate effects separately for mathematics and English language arts. The results suggest that students taught by teachers mentored by NBCTs had a higher level of achievement than students mentored by non-NBCTs. The difference was statistically significant at a p value of 0.05, and the effect size was meaningful at 0.18 standard deviations. Small sample sizes and low statistical power prevent us from making confident conclusions about the effect of NBCTs in instructional leadership roles on classroom practices of supported teachers and student achievement. However, the evidence is encouraging and warrants additional rigorous research on the impact of NBCTs as instructional leaders.
Reviews of Individual Studies Not reported -1
Does the Good Behavior Game Evoke Negative Peer Pressure? Analyses in Primary and Secondary Classrooms (2019)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management system that employs an interdependent group contingency, whereby students work as a team to win the game. Although previous anecdotal data have suggested that this arrangement may promote prosocial behavior, teachers may have concerns about its fairness and potential to evoke negative peer interactions (especially toward students who break the rules). We evaluated disruptive behaviors and social interactions during the GBG in a secondary classroom for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, as well as in a primary classroom for students with mild developmental disabilities. Results indicate that the GBG reduced disruptive behaviors; further, negative peer interactions decreased and positive interactions increased when the game was being played. Social validity results indicate that the majority of students thought the interdependent group contingency was fair.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 -1
Investing in Innovation (i3) validation study of Families and Schools Together (FAST) final report (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Mindfulness plus reflection training: Effects on executive function in early childhood (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Mindfulness plus reflection training: Effects on executive function in early childhood (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The Chicago School Readiness Project: Examining the Long-Term Impacts of an Early Childhood Intervention (2018)
The current paper reports long-term treatment impact estimates for a randomized evaluation of an early childhood intervention designed to promote children's developmental outcomes and improve the quality of Head Start centers serving high-violence and high-crime areas in inner-city Chicago. Initial evaluations of end-of-preschool data reported that the program led to reductions in child behavioral problems and gains in measures of executive function and academic achievement. For this report, we analyzed adolescent follow-up data taken 10 to 11 years after program completion. We found evidence that the program had positive long-term effects on students' executive function and grades, though effects were somewhat imprecise and dependent on the inclusion of baseline covariates. Results also indicated that treated children had heightened sensitivity to emotional stimuli, and we found no evidence of long-run effects on measures of behavioral problems. These findings raise the possibility that developing programs that improve on the Head Start model could carry long-run benefits for affected children. [This paper was published in "PLOS ONE" Jul 2018.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-3 -1
Good Behaviour Game: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary. (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 -1
Promoting afterschool quality and positive youth development: Cluster randomized trial of the PAX Good Behavior Game. (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 -1
Improving Student Behavior in Art Classrooms: An Exploratory Study of CW-FIT Tier 1 (2018)
Disruptive student behavior, a common concern for teachers, presents particular challenges for those who teach art. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a multitiered intervention for implementing effective classroom management strategies aligned with schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports. CW-FIT has proven effective in general education classrooms, with its emphasis on social skills instruction, teacher praise, group contingency, and positive reinforcement. This first study of CW-FIT implementation in elementary art classrooms examined its effects on student on-task behavior. The researchers used a single-subject (AB) design in one classroom and reversal designs (ABAB) in two classrooms. Results indicated student on-task behavior significantly improved, and the teacher was able to implement CW-FIT with fidelity as well as increase her praise-to-reprimand ratios. Both teacher and students found the intervention to be socially valid. Study implications and limitations are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
A Cluster Randomized Trial of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in First Grade (2018)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions. Teachers assigned to the treatment condition implemented the SSIS-CIP over a 12-week period. Students' social skills, problem behaviors, and approaches to learning were assessed via teacher ratings and direct observations of classroom behavior. In addition, their early literacy and numeracy skills were measured via computer-adaptive standardized tests. SSIS-CIP participation yielded small positive effects in students' social skills (particularly empathy and social engagement) and approaches to learning (academic motivation and engagement). Students' problem behaviors and academic skills, however, were unaffected by SSIS-CIP exposure.
Reviews of Individual Studies 8-10 -1
An evaluation of the Positive Action program for youth violence prevention: From schools to summer camps. (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8-Not reported -1
2013 Collaborative Regional Education (CORE) i3 Study: Implementation and Impact Study Results. Final Report (2018)
The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of evaluation findings at the culmination of the Collaborative Regional Education (CORE) i3 2013 grant, including implementation and impact results from the local and national study phases. The goal of CORE is to have a positive impact on students' college and work readiness outcomes by improving teachers' use of classroom technology and project-based learning (PBL). This report provides details on data collection procedures and results obtained during school year (SY) 2017-18, which represents the second year of the national-phase study and final year of the evaluation. Impact and implementation study findings from all grant years are presented separately in the report.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
Classroom Management in an Urban, Alternative School: A Comparison of Mindfulness and Behavioral Approaches (2018)
Managing classroom behavior is an important prerequisite to effective teaching and a salient need in alternative schools. Unfortunately, students from these schools are often underrepresented in the intervention literature. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different theoretical approaches to classroom management, one behavioral (i.e., the good behavior game) and the other mindfulness-based (i.e., mindfulness skills training), with a sample of fifth-grade, predominantly African American students from an urban, high-poverty alternative school. The study examined the effectiveness of the two interventions in comparison to each other and a treatment-as-usual control using a quasi-experimental group design with blocked random assignment. Results revealed that neither intervention led to significant improvements in student internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, or wellbeing. Though, some practically meaningful treatment effects were found through examination of effect sizes. Mindfulness skills training was the only condition to yield meaningful pre-post change in student outcomes, including a moderate therapeutic effect for externalizing behavior and an iatrogenic effect with respect to student wellbeing. These findings provide preliminary evidence that mindfulness skills training might have differential effects on student mental health outcomes, compared with education as usual and a traditional classwide behavioral intervention. Additionally, study findings make clear the importance of careful deliberation when transporting evidence-based interventions to unique student populations and intervention contexts.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
Classroom Management in an Urban, Alternative School: A Comparison of Mindfulness and Behavioral Approaches. (2018)
Managing classroom behavior is an important prerequisite to effective teaching and a salient need in alternative schools. Unfortunately, students from these schools are often underrepresented in the intervention literature. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different theoretical approaches to classroom management, one behavioral (i.e., the good behavior game) and the other mindfulness-based (i.e., mindfulness skills training), with a sample of fifth-grade, predominantly African American students from an urban, high-poverty alternative school. The study examined the effectiveness of the two interventions in comparison to each other and a treatment-as-usual control using a quasi-experimental group design with blocked random assignment. Results revealed that neither intervention led to significant improvements in student internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, or wellbeing. Though, some practically meaningful treatment effects were found through examination of effect sizes. Mindfulness skills training was the only condition to yield meaningful pre-post change in student outcomes, including a moderate therapeutic effect for externalizing behavior and an iatrogenic effect with respect to student wellbeing. These findings provide preliminary evidence that mindfulness skills training might have differential effects on student mental health outcomes, compared with education as usual and a traditional classwide behavioral intervention. Additionally, study findings make clear the importance of careful deliberation when transporting evidence-based interventions to unique student populations and intervention contexts.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
Managing Student Behavior in an Elementary School Music Classroom: A Study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (2017)
Classroom management is a common concern for teachers. Music teachers in particular experience unique behavior challenges because of large class sizes, uncommon pacing requirements, and performance-based outcomes. Positive behavior support is an evidence-based framework for preventing or eliminating challenging behaviors by teaching and reinforcing appropriate social skills. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT), a specific positive behavior support intervention involving social skills instruction, positive reinforcement, and group contingencies, has proven effective in elementary schools but has not been evaluated specifically in music classrooms. The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of CW-FIT in increasing on-task behavior and teacher praise-to-reprimand ratios in a sixth-grade music classroom. A single-subject reversal (ABAB) design was used. Results indicated that student on-task behavior increased when CW-FIT was implemented. Teacher praise-to-reprimand ratios also improved. Results suggest the teacher and the students found CW-FIT valuable and enjoyable. Study limitations and implications are addressed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-4 -1
Managing student behavior in dual immersion classrooms: A study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams. (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-7 -1
The effect of mentoring on school attendance and academic outcomes: A randomized evaluation of the Check & Connect program (Working Paper WP-16-18) (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Efficacy Trial of the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) Curriculum: Preliminary Outcomes (2017)
A classroom randomized trial (n = 31 classrooms) was conducted using the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum compared to usual curricula. Head Start and community preschool classrooms enrolling low income children were randomly assigned to deliver SSEL (n = 16) or usual curricula (n = 15). Data are reported for four year olds independently assessed for executive functioning (EF) and social-emotional skills (SE) in fall and spring of the preschool year. Analyses used three level Hierarchical Linear Modeling, including two EF tasks or two SE tasks as level 1, child as level 2, and classroom as level 3. Controlling for baseline EF, SE, cognitive ability, parent income, child sex, age, and ethnicity, children receiving the SSEL curriculum had significantly better end of preschool EF skills and marginally significantly better end of preschool SE skills. The curriculum is thus promising in its potential to improve at-risk preschool children's EF and SE.
Reviews of Individual Studies Not reported -1
An Evaluation of Interdependent and Independent Group Contingencies during the Good Behavior Game (2017)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) uses an interdependent group contingency to improve classroom behavior. Despite the wealth of research on the effectiveness of the GBG, some teachers may have concerns about their students' abilities to work in teams, particularly if they have a history of poor social skills. We used an alternating treatments design to compare the relative effectiveness of the GBG with interdependent and independent group contingencies in a classroom for children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Our results showed that both versions of the GBG reduced verbal disruptions, inappropriate sitting, and off-task behaviors for all children. However, the majority of children preferred the interdependent arrangement. We discuss how these results may promote more widespread use of the GBG with children with substantial behavioral challenges.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 -1
Using Multi-Component Consultation to Increase the Integrity with Which Teachers Implement Behavioral Classroom Interventions: A Pilot Study (2017)
The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component consultation package in improving teachers' classroom management skills, particularly among teachers with lower baseline levels of knowledge, skills, and intervention-supportive beliefs. Participants were 58 elementary school teachers (93% female; 50% Non-Hispanic White) who received up to eight biweekly consultation sessions focused on general classroom management strategies and implementation of a daily report card (DRC) intervention with one target student with or at-risk for ADHD. Teachers were randomly assigned to either a comparison consultation condition designed to mirror current best practices (Frank & Kratochwill, 2014; Noell & Gansle, 2014) or a multi-component condition designed to simultaneously address teacher knowledge, skills, and beliefs as possible barriers to implementation of classroom interventions. Teachers in both conditions showed significant improvements in labeled praise, appropriate response to student rule violations, and general competence in classroom management. In support of the hypotheses, teachers with lower baseline levels of knowledge, skills, and intervention-supportive beliefs demonstrated more improvement in key outcomes in response to multi-component consultation, as compared to the comparison consultation (Cohen's "d" ranged from 0.33 to 1.12). Implications for research and practice in school consultation are discussed. [This paper was published in "School Mental Health" v9 p218-234 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-6 -1
Effects of CW-FIT on Teachers' Ratings of Elementary School Students at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (2017)
Students with deficits in social skills have been found to experience both short- and long-term problems, including interpersonal conflicts and academic difficulties. These problems are compounded for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Class-wide function-related intervention teams (CW-FIT), a multi-tiered classroom management program, has been shown to be effective in increasing on-task behavior and decreasing disruptive behavior of students at risk for EBD. The present study examined the effects of CW-FIT on teachers' ratings of students' social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence. A randomized control trial was completed with 160 elementary school teachers located in 19 schools across three states. Teachers completed rating scales on 350 students identified as at risk for EBD, for whom consent had been obtained. After being randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions, CW-FIT was implemented for approximately four months in treatment classrooms, after which teachers completed post-test ratings on all students. CW-FIT implementation was associated with significantly improved teacher ratings of social skills and academic competence for students at risk for EBD, but no significant changes in teacher ratings of student problem behaviors were found. Higher fidelity of CW-FIT implementation was associated with improved outcomes. Implications, limitations, and areas for future research are addressed. [This paper was published in "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions."]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 -1
The Good Behavior Game with Students in Alternative Educational Environments: Interactions between Reinforcement Criteria and Scoring Accuracy (2016)
The good behavior game (GBG) is a class-wide contingency management strategy that involves rewarding teams who engage in low levels of disruptive behavior. The GBG has been found to be effective with neuro-typical individuals from preschool to high school. In Study 1, teachers and experimenters implemented the GBG on alternating days in an alternative educational environment. Descriptive data were collected on method of selecting the maximum point criteria, scoring accuracy, and GBG efficacy. Both versions of the GBG reduced the frequency of target disruptive responses relative to baseline, despite differences in the selection of the maximum point criteria and scoring accuracy across teacher- and experimenter-implemented versions. In Study 2, only teachers implemented the GBG and reinforcement criteria were made more stringent to compensate for low levels of scoring accuracy. The teacher-implemented GBG reduced the total frequency of target responses exhibited by students in two classrooms, despite low scoring accuracy.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 -1
Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on Engagement in Physical Education (2016)
We examined whether a group contingency increased engagement during elementary school physical education sessions. The intervention employed procedures (explicit instruction, goal setting, and reinforcement) drawn from the first tier of classwide function-related intervention teams (CW-FIT; Wills et al., 2009). Results showed salutary increases in engagement that corresponded with the teacher's implementation.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
A cluster randomized controlled trial of the Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) curriculum. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Evaluation of violence prevention approaches among early adolescents: Moderating effects of disability status and gender (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 -1
Helping Students Make the Transition into High School: The Effect of Ninth Grade Academies on Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes (2016)
Ninth Grade Academies (NGAs)--also called Freshman Academies--have attracted national attention as a particularly intensive and promising approach for supporting a successful transition for high school freshmen. An NGA is a self-contained learning community for ninth-graders that operates as a school within a school. NGAs have four core structural components: (1) a designated separate space within the high school, (2) a ninth-grade administrator who oversees the academy, (3) a faculty assigned to teach only ninth-grade students, and (4) teachers organized into interdisciplinary teams that have both students and a planning period in common. The theory of action behind NGAs is that when these components are employed together, they interact to create a more personalized learning environment where ninth-grade students feel less anonymous and more individually supported. This, in turn, should help students succeed in school and stay on track to high school graduation. NGAs have shown promising results when employed as part of a whole-school reform model, but in these cases schools have received external support from a developer to create and sustain them. A growing number of schools and districts have been experimenting with NGAs on their own, but the little research that exists on their effectiveness is limited to anecdotal accounts. This study, which is based on a quasi-experimental research design, examines the effect of NGAs on students' progress toward graduation, their academic achievement, and their behavior in several school districts in Florida. The sample for this study includes 27 high schools that created NGAs between 2001-2002 and 2006-2007, along with 16 comparison high schools that serve ninth-grade students with similar characteristics as students in the NGA schools. As context for understanding the impact findings, this study also looks at the extent to which the key features of the NGA model were implemented in the NGA schools in the study and how this differs from the structures and supports in the comparison schools. The key finding is that the NGAs in this study do not appear to have improved students' academic or behavioral outcomes (credit earning, state test scores, course marks, attendance, suspensions, or expulsions). The findings also suggest that it can be difficult for schools to fully implement the components of the NGA model without expert assistance: Three years after their creation, only half the NGAs in the study had all four structural components of the model in place. Nationally, school districts continue to create NGAs, and recent efforts to implement them have incorporated various enhancements that are intended to strengthen and improve their implementation, but little is known about their effectiveness. Because students' experience in ninth grade is an important predictor of their future success, these efforts to create and improve NGAs should be examined in future studies. Appended are: (1) Technical Information; and (2) Beyond the Sunshine State: Ninth Grade Academies in Other School Districts. ["Helping Students Make the Transition into High School: The Effect of Ninth Grade Academies on Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes" was written with Janet Quint.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 -1
The Use of Structural Behavioral Assessment to Develop Interventions for Secondary Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors (2015)
Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables have been assessed, contextually based manipulations are developed and implemented, and interventions are developed from the results to reduce or prevent challenging behaviors from occurring. A major advantage of structural assessment is that teachers may find interventions based on the results easy to implement and relevant to the classroom. However, most of the research on SBA has been conducted with younger children with autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, and those with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to extend the research by training a general education teacher to use SBA to develop interventions for secondary students displaying challenging behaviors who are at risk in general education classrooms. An alternating treatments design was used with four at-risk middle school students. Results indicated that a brief SBA can easily be conducted in general education classrooms, and interventions developed from manipulations can not only decrease (a) verbal outbursts (e.g., talking out of turn, arguing, laughing at inappropriate times); (b) inappropriate contact with others (e.g., touching, pushing, hitting, kicking, braiding hair); (c) taking other's belongings; (d) being out of the student's assigned seat without permission; and (e) passing notes but also increase writing and eyes on materials or eyes on the teacher during a language arts class. Implications for practice and future research are described.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
The Effects of the Good Behavior Game with General-Education High School Students (2015)
The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by evaluating the effect of the interdependent group contingency procedure known as the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on decreasing disruptive behaviors with general-education high school students. Although many studies exist that have used the GBG to alter behaviors across ages ranging from preschool to adulthood, few studies exist in which the GBG has been used in general-education high school classrooms. The present study used separate ABAB withdrawal designs in three classrooms, with withdrawal and reimplementation in two of the classrooms. All three classrooms demonstrated large effect sizes with clear and substantial decreases in disruptive behaviors during the intervention phases. Teachers found the intervention acceptable, supporting the use of a modified version of the GBG in high school classrooms. Students found it generally acceptable as well, though with some reservations regarding certain aspects of the procedure.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
The Impact of the Reading Apprenticeship Improving Secondary Education (RAISE) Project on Academic Literacy in High School: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Pennsylvania and California Schools. Research Report (2015)
The Reading Apprenticeship instructional framework was developed by WestEd's Strategic Literacy Initiative (SLI) two decades ago to help teachers provide the literacy support students need to be successful readers in the content areas. It has since reached over 100,000 teachers in schools across the country, at the middle school, high school, and college levels. The Reading Apprenticeship framework focuses on four interacting dimensions of classroom learning culture: Social, Personal, Cognitive, and Knowledge-Building. These four dimensions are woven into subject-area teaching through metacognitive conversation--conversations about the thinking processes students and teachers engage in as they read. The context in which this all takes place is extensive reading--increased in-class opportunities for students to practice reading complex academic texts in more skillful ways. Teachers also work with students on explicit comprehension strategy instruction, vocabulary and academic language development techniques, text-based discussion, and writing. Reading Apprenticeship is designed to help teachers create classroom cultures in which students feel safe to share reading processes, problems, and solutions. In 2010, WestEd received a "Validation" grant from the Department of Education's Investing in Innovation Fund (i3) competition to scale-up and conduct a randomized controlled trial of the intervention through a project called Reading Apprenticeship Improving Secondary Success (RAISE). RAISE took place in California, Michigan, Utah, Pennsylvania, and Indiana and worked with nearly 2,000 teachers who served approximately 630,000 students during the grant period. This report presents findings from the randomized controlled trial conducted in two of those states: California and Pennsylvania. The report presents key implementation and impact findings from the i3 impact evaluation of the RAISE project. Most of the findings in this report are from the sample of students and data collected during teachers' second year in the study, after treatment teachers had received the full "dose" of professional development delivered over 12 months and could therefore be expected to fully implement Reading Apprenticeship. Data sources for this report include principal, teacher, and student surveys; professional development observations and attendance records; school district student records; and an assessment of students' literacy skills. Overall, the study's findings demonstrate the potential of RAISE to address the paucity of content-specific reading instruction in U.S. secondary schools--especially in science, where the need may be greatest. Appended are the following: (1) Impact Estimation Model; (2) Student Survey Constructs; (3) Teacher Survey Constructs; (4) Analytic Sample Baseline Equivalence; (5) Student Literacy Assessment; (6) Sample Attrition; (7) Additional Impact Analyses for Teacher Mediating Outcomes; (8) Additional Impact Analyses for Student Mediating Outcomes; (9) Additional Impact Analyses for Student Literacy; (10) Fidelity of Implementation Summary; and (11) Context for Program Implementation.
Reviews of Individual Studies K -1
Immediate and Distal Effects of the Good Behavior Game (2015)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) has been demonstrated to reduce disruptive student behavior during implementation. The effects of playing the GBG on disruption immediately before and after the GBG are unknown. The current study evaluated the effects of the GBG on disruption in 5 kindergarten classes immediately before, during, and after GBG implementation. The GBG reduced disruption during implementation but did not affect rates of disruption during activity periods that preceded or followed the GBG.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
The impact of intensive reading intervention on level of attention in middle school students (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 -1
Using a narrative-and play-based activity to promote low-income preschoolers’ oral language, emergent literacy, and social competence. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 -1
Identifying academic demands that occasion problem behaviors for students with behavioral disorders: Illustrations at the elementary school level. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies Not reported -1
An evaluation of the Good Behavior Game in a high school special education setting (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
A randomized controlled trial of Pivotal Response Treatment Group for parents of children with autism. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Implementing a pivotal response social skills intervention with Korean American children with autism. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Promoting Prosocial Behavior and Self-Regulatory Skills in Preschool Children through a Mindfulness-Based Kindness Curriculum (2015)
Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function, self-regulation, and prosocial behavior in a sample of 68 preschool children. The KC intervention group showed greater improvements in social competence and earned higher report card grades in domains of learning, health, and social-emotional development, whereas the control group exhibited more selfish behavior over time. Interpretation of effect sizes overall indicate small to medium effects favoring the KC group on measures of cognitive flexibility and delay of gratification. Baseline functioning was found to moderate treatment effects with KC children initially lower in social competence and executive functioning demonstrating larger gains in social competence relative to the control group. These findings, observed over a relatively short intervention period, support the promise of this program for promoting self-regulation and prosocial behavior in young children. They also support the need for future investigation of program implementation across diverse settings.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
A Randomized Trial Comparison of the Effects of Verbal and Pictorial Naturalistic Communication Strategies on Spoken Language for Young Children with Autism (2014)
Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (=9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-6 -1
The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior (2014)
Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing effective self-management interventions. The purpose of this study was to link self-management procedures to hypothesized behavior function in three children with E/BD. Results demonstrated that self-monitoring (SM) alone could be enhanced using information derived from FBA and that consequences delivered by teachers were less effective than a self-management treatment package.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-3 -1
Implementation of the Good Behavior Game in Classrooms for Children with Delinquent Behavior (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-4 -1
Effects of the FITKids randomized controlled trial on executive control and brain function. (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 -1
Enhancing the Academic Development of Shy Children: A Test of the Efficacy of INSIGHTS (2014)
This study investigated the efficacy of the INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament intervention in supporting the academic development of shy kindergarten and first-grade children. INSIGHTS is a temperament-based intervention with teacher, parent, and classroom programs. The participants included 345 children from 22 low-income, urban elementary schools who were randomly assigned to INSIGHTS or a supplemental after-school reading program. Growth-curve modeling showed that shy children in INSIGHTS evidenced more rapid growth in critical thinking and math than their shy peers in the attention-control condition during kindergarten and the transition to first grade. The effects of INSIGHTS were partly indirect through improved behavioral engagement. INSIGHTS enhances the academic development of early elementary school children with shy temperaments.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 -1
Effects of the Good Behavior Game on classwide off-task behavior in a high school basic algebra resource classroom (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 -1
The impact of eMINTS professional development on teacher instruction and student achievement: Year 1 report. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 -1
Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools (2013)
Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. Results: PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. Conclusions: A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 -1
The Effect of the Extinction Procedure in Function-Based Intervention (2013)
In this study, we examined the contribution of the extinction procedure in function-based interventions implemented in the general education classrooms of three at-risk elementary-aged students. Function-based interventions included antecedent adjustments, reinforcement procedures, and function-matched extinction procedures. Using a combined ABC and reversal phase design (A-B-A-B-C-B), a functional relation between the full intervention and dramatically improved levels of on-task behavior were clearly established. On removal of the extinction procedure, on-task behavior rapidly dropped to lower levels. Reinstatement of the full intervention occurred following the partial intervention condition. In every case, on-task levels rapidly improved. Using the "Intervention Rating Profile-15" and "Children's Intervention Rating Profile," acceptability ratings were highest for full intervention. Limitations and implications for further research are presented. (Contains 3 figures and 3 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 -1
Assessing the Effectiveness of First Step to Success: Are Short-Term Results the First Step to Long-Term Behavioral Improvements? (2013)
This article reports on the effectiveness of First Step to Success, a secondary-level intervention appropriate for students in early elementary school who experience moderate to severe behavior problems and are at risk for academic failure. The authors demonstrate the intervention's short-term effects on multiple behavioral and academic outcomes as delivered off-the-shelf in a variety of classrooms and schools across the country--effects that were mitigated by fidelity of implementation. Furthermore, the authors assess the body of evidence on First Step to Success against the standards for effectiveness and widespread dissemination promulgated by the Society for Prevention Research, thereby suggesting directions for further research. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Training Paraprofessionals to Facilitate Social Interactions between Children with Autism and Their Typically Developing Peers (2013)
To support children with autism in inclusive classrooms, schools are increasingly utilizing paraprofessionals. However, research suggests that paraprofessionals often lack sufficient training and may inadvertently hinder the social interactions between children with disabilities and their peers. This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to empirically investigate whether paraprofessionals could learn to implement social facilitation procedures based on Pivotal Response Treatment. Results indicated that the paraprofessionals learned to utilize the social facilitation procedures with fidelity and generalized the techniques to untrained activities. Furthermore, once the paraprofessionals met the fidelity criteria, decreases in hovering and uninvolved behavior and increases in social facilitation and monitoring were observed. Likewise, the reciprocal social behavior of the children with autism increased rapidly. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Immediate effects of a school readiness intervention for children in foster care (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool Students: A Study of "Strong Start Pre-K" (2012)
The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated students' emotional regulation, internalizing behaviors, and the quality of the student-teacher relationship. Results indicated a significant decrease of internalizing behaviors and more improvement in the student-teacher relationship in the treatment conditions. Results also supported the use of the optional booster lessons contained in the curriculum. Treatment integrity and social validity ratings of "Strong Start Pre-K" were high. Limitations and implications of this study are addressed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 -1
A Randomized Trial Examining the Effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation and the Mediating Role of the Parent-Teacher Relationship (2012)
The present study is a large-scale randomized trial testing the efficacy of a family-school partnership model (i.e., conjoint behavioral consultation) for promoting behavioral competence and decreasing problem behaviors of students identified by their teachers as disruptive. The focus of this study is on student behavioral outcomes and the potential role of parent-teacher relationships as a mediating variable. Two hundred seven students, from 82 classrooms, and their families and teachers participated. Results indicated that, relative to the control group, students in the conjoint behavioral consultation condition demonstrated greater increases in adaptive behaviors and social skills over the 8-week intervention period. Compared to teachers in the control group, those in the experimental conjoint behavioral consultation condition demonstrated significantly greater change in their reported relationships with parents. Furthermore, improvements in teacher-reported relationships with parents mediated the effects of conjoint behavioral consultation on positive changes in children's behaviors. Interpretation and implications of these findings are discussed. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 -1
Class-Wide Positive Behavior Support and Group Contingencies: Examining a Positive Variation of the Good Behavior Game (2012)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a powerful group contingency with a history of documented empirical support. The purpose of this study was to compare two interdependent group contingencies, the GBG and a positive variation, the Caught Being Good Game (CBGG), in a school implementing school-wide positive behavior support. A kindergarten and fourth-grade classroom teacher with 17 and 20 students, respectively, implemented both versions of the game in a counterbalanced fashion. Using a withdrawal design, results showed similar effects on disruptive and on-task behaviors. The CBGG is discussed as an effective variation of the GBG that is acceptable to both teachers and students. (Contains 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 -1
Functional Communication Training without Extinction Using Concurrent Schedules of Differing Magnitudes of Reinforcement in Classrooms (2012)
This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders (SEBD), and mild to severe intellectual disabilities. Functional analyses revealed inappropriate behaviors as escape maintained. During subsequent FCT, the reinforcement provided for inappropriate behaviors was escape from task for 30 s (S[superscript R-]). The reinforcement for the alternative mand was a 30-s escape from task during which access to a preferred activity was provided (S[superscript R-]/PA). Results for three of the participants who had mild to moderate intellectual disabilities were highly successful. Time on task and generalization data also were recorded for two of the participants All sessions were implemented in the participants' natural classrooms by their classroom teachers, without the adverse side effects of extinction. (Contains 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
Training a General Educator to Use Function-Based Support for Students at Risk for Behavior Disorders (2012)
Function-based support (FBS) is an intervention strategy for decreasing problem behaviors and increasing replacement behaviors through the use of functional behavioral assessment and behavior support planning. Although FBS has been demonstrated to facilitate positive outcomes for children in a variety of educational settings, it has yet to be widely adopted because many schools have limited access to personnel (i.e., school psychologist, behavior specialist) with the expertise to implement it. This series of single-subject studies reports the ongoing development and validation of a method for training general educators to successfully and independently implement FBS for at-risk students in their classrooms. These studies highlight the experiences of one teacher who participated in three training phases and implemented FBS with three at-risk students. Results suggest that training was effective as indicated by knowledge gains regarding FBS principles and procedures, successful mastery and application of FBS practices, positive student outcomes, and favorable teacher and student perceptions of social validity. The implications and limitations of these results, as well as future directions for this line of research, are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 4 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Findings from a Randomized Experiment of Playworks: Selected Results from Cohort 1 (2012)
Recess periods often lack the structure needed to support physical activity and positive social development (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2010). The Playworks program places full-time coaches in low-income schools to provide opportunities for organized play during recess and throughout the school day. Playworks activities are designed to engage students in physical activity, foster social skills related to cooperation and conflict resolution, improve students' ability to focus on class work, decrease behavioral problems and improve school climate. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) contracted with Mathematica Policy Research and its subcontractor, the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities (JGC) at Stanford University, to conduct a rigorous evaluation of Playworks. Twenty-five schools interested in implementing Playworks were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received Playworks in the 2010-2011 school year or to a control group that was not eligible to implement Playworks until the following year. The authors collected data from students, teachers and school staff in spring 2011 to document the implementation of Playworks and assess the impact of the program on key outcomes in six domains: (1) school climate, (2) conflict resolution and aggression, (3) learning and academic performance, (4) recess experience, (5) youth development and (6) student behavior. Ultimately, four additional schools will be added to the study and further analyses will be released. A description of study design and data sources. (Contains 4 exhibits, 15 tables and 2 endnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Reducing Developmental Risk for Emotional/Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Tools for Getting Along Curriculum (2012)
Researchers have demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies--such as social problem solving--provided in school settings can help ameliorate the developmental risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. In this study, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of Tools for Getting Along (TFGA), a social problem-solving universally delivered curriculum designed to reduce the developmental risk for serious emotional or behavioral problems among upper elementary grade students. We analyzed pre-intervention and post-intervention teacher-report and student self-report data from 14 schools, 87 classrooms, and a total of 1296 students using multilevel modeling. Results (effect sizes calculated using Hedges' g) indicated that students who were taught TFGA had a more positive approach to problem solving (g = 0.11) and a more rational problem-solving style (g = 0.16). Treated students with relatively poor baseline scores benefited from TFGA on (a) problem-solving knowledge (g = 1.54); (b) teacher-rated executive functioning (g = 0.35 for Behavior Regulation and 0.32 for Metacognition), and proactive aggression (g = 0.20); and (c) self-reported trait anger (g = 0.17) and anger expression (g = 0.21). Thus, TFGA may reduce risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties by improving students' cognitive and emotional self-regulation and increasing their pro-social choices. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing to Improve Middle School Students' Academic Performance (2012)
Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective method of promoting change in adults, but research on adolescents is limited. This study tests the efficacy of MI for promoting academic achievement in middle school students. Participants were 103 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students randomly assigned to either a MI (n = 50) or a waitlist control condition (n = 53). Students in the MI condition participated in a single MI session during the 7th or 8th week of the second semester. In comparison to the control group, students who received MI demonstrated significant improvements in their class participation, overall positive academic behavior, and significantly higher 4th quarter math grades. Thus, consistent with other studies finding single session effects of MI, a single MI session can have beneficial effects on academic behaviors. Pending further study and replication of these findings, MI could become an efficient and effective new counseling approach for improving academic performance. (Contains 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-11 -1
Better schools, less crime? (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 -1
The Effects of the Good Behavior Game on the Conduct of Regular Education New York City High School Students (2011)
The efficacy of the Good Behavior Game was examined in a multiethnic New York City public high school. Classroom rules were posted and students were divided into two teams. A reinforcement preference questionnaire was used to select daily and weekly prizes. The classroom teacher indicated that he was going to place a check on the board after every rule infraction as he named rule violators and their infractions. Students were also told that the team with the fewest marks at the end of each day would become the daily winners and receive prizes. They were also told that the team with the fewest marks for the week would be recognized as the weekly winners and receive additional prizes. The rate of disruptive behavior was charted across four treatment phases using a reversal design. The game phases were associated with marked reductions in the rate of seat leaving, talking without permission, and aggression. Teacher and student feedback supported the social validity of the procedure. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K -1
Classwide Intervention to Manage Disruptive Behavior in the Kindergarten Classroom (2010)
The authors present an investigation of a classwide intervention to reduce disruptive behavior in a kindergarten classroom. Participants included children in 3 kindergarten classrooms and their teachers in an at-risk school district in Northeast Ohio. On the basis of student behaviors and teacher goals, the authors chose the Good Behavior Game plus Plus Merit. A total of 3 teachers implemented the Good Behavior Game Plus Merit in the classroom. The authors used a single-subject reversal design (ABAB) to test experimental control. They collected direct observations of student behavior during each phase of the intervention. Results indicated a decrease in negative, disruptive behavior during intervention. Last, the authors discuss the implications for implementing this intervention in the kindergarten classroom. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
The Comparative Effects of Function-Based versus Nonfunction-Based Interventions on the Social Behavior of African American Students (2010)
Disproportionality has been a persistent problem in special education for decades. Despite mandates outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004), African American students continue to be disproportionately represented in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category in special education (e.g., Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Simmons, Feggins-Azziz, & Chung, 2005). Additionally, African Americans represent the highest percentages of students identified as at risk (Gay, 2000) and receive a disproportionate number of referrals for disciplinary actions (Cartledge & Dukes, 2008) among racial groups. Even though many hypothesized reasons for such disproportionate rates have been researched (e.g., poverty, inherently bad behavior, cultural bias, ineffective behavioral management), the findings are conflicting. Disproportionality among this population continues, and successful educational outcomes are far too infrequent. One promising intervention that can decrease exclusionary practices imposed on African American students and address disproportionality in both special education and disciplinary action is to use functional behavioral assessments and function-based interventions. The effectiveness of FBAs and function-based interventions for students with ED and those at risk for developing ED have been well documented (e.g., Heckaman, Conroy, Fox, & Chait, 2000; Reid & Nelson, 2002). However, only two studies have involved African American students as participants in FBA implementation (i.e., Kamps, Wendland, & Culpepper, 2006; Lo & Cartledge, 2006) and only one included African Americans as a means to address disproportionality (i.e., Lo & Cartledge). Additionally, professional development on FBA has largely been limited to special education personnel only. In order for FBAs to be effective in preventing problem behavior of African American students before they are referred to special education, research on FBA and professional development targeted to general education teachers is critical. This study examined the comparative effects of function-based versus nonfunction-based interventions on the off-task and replacement behavior of African American students at risk for ED and the extent to which general education teachers could implement FBAs with high fidelity. Findings indicated that function-based interventions resulted in higher decreases of off-task behavior than nonfunction-based interventions. Additionally, descriptive results showed that both general education teachers were able to implement FBAs and function-based interventions with high levels of fidelity. Finally, social validity data suggested that teachers felt that FBAs and function-based interventions were of social importance. Teachers' perceptions also changed on the extent to which students had continued needs for disciplinary action and special education services in the ED category. Specifically, teachers felt students were no long in need of special education services or disciplinary action as a result of the function-based interventions. Limitations of the study, suggestions for future research, and implications for practice are also discussed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-6 -1
Enhancing the Effectiveness of Special Education Programming for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using a Daily Report Card (2010)
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up a considerable proportion of students who receive special education services in schools. The present study aimed to enhance the outcomes of students with ADHD in special education settings by using a daily report card (DRC). Thirty-three children with ADHD in special education placements were randomly assigned to an intervention condition wherein behavioral consultants worked with the teacher and parent to construct and implement a DRC based on the child's individualized education plan goals and objectives. These children were compared to 30 children in a business as usual control condition. Results indicated positive effects of the DRC on observations of classroom functioning, individualized education plan goal attainment, and teacher ratings of academic productivity and disruptive behavior in the classroom. Further, a greater percentage of children with ADHD in the DRC group were normalized on measures of disruptive behavior and impairment. The intervention did not result in incremental improvement in academic achievement, teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms or impairment, or the student-teacher relationship. The implications of these results for working with children with ADHD in special education settings are discussed. (Contains 5 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 -1
Function-Based Planning for Young Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (2010)
This study examined the efficacy of function-based intervention for young children at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in inclusive environments. Participants were two kindergarten students and one first-grade student, all of whom exhibited chronic disruptive behavior in the classroom despite previous interventions implemented through their school's existing behavioral support system. The study was conducted across three phases: (a) a descriptive functional behavioral assessment (FBA) was completed for each student, (b) a systematic process was used to construct and then test individualized interventions, and (c) the interventions were then provided to each student during his most problematic classroom activity using a multiple baseline design. Classroom interventions substantially improved the on-task behavior of each student, and social validity ratings by teachers showed strong preference for the function-based intervention over the previously used classroom practices. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are presented. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-6 -1
Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial (2010)
This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (M enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to 1-year posttrial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math, that 20.7% better in Hawai'i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math, and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range = 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. (Contains 6 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Using Positive Behavior Support Procedures in Head Start Classrooms to Improve School Readiness: A Group Training and Behavioral Coaching Model (2009)
Social-emotional competence is an important determinant of school readiness. School readiness, in turn, sets the stage for school success. There is clear longitudinal evidence that school success, attachment and bonding to the schooling process, and full engagement of schooling can, in combination, operate as a protective factor against a host of long-term health risk behaviors and negative outcomes. Herein, we describe an experimental study of an evidence-based model of early intervention. Head Start teachers and assistants in 13 centers participated in the study. Centers were randomly assigned either to a wait-list control condition or the intervention. This universal intervention was based, respectively, upon the emerging bodies of knowledge in Positive Behavior Support and Behavioral Coaching. The intervention program's application was associated with medium to large effect size improvements in participating students' overall social competence (as an essential school readiness skill) as measured through (a) enhancements in their ratings of adaptive student behavior and (b) corresponding decreases in student levels of challenging behavior and aggression as reflected on teacher rating scales. Feedback from participating teachers indicated they viewed their experiences with the intervention quite positively. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
An Intervention for Relational and Physical Aggression in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study (2009)
A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of analysis and both observations and teacher-reports were obtained at pre- and post-test. Focus groups were used to develop the initial program. The 6-week program consisted of developmentally appropriate puppet shows, active participatory sessions, passive concept activities and in vivo reinforcement periods. Preliminary findings suggest that the "Early Childhood Friendship Project" tended to reduce physical and relational aggression, as well as physical and relational victimization and tended to increase prosocial behavior more for intervention than control classrooms. Teachers and interventionists provided positive evaluations of the program and there is evidence for appropriate program implementation. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Brief Report: Toward Refinement of a Predictive Behavioral Profile for Treatment Outcome in Children with Autism (2009)
Previously researchers identified a behavioral profile that predicted treatment response of children with autism to a specific behavioral intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT). This preliminary investigation sought to refine this profile by obtaining six participants matching the original nonresponder profile on all but one of the profile behaviors (toy contact or avoidance) and then assessing their response to PRT. In addition, participants received a course of Discrete Trial Training (DTT) to determine whether the profile predicted child response to this intervention. Altering the original profile behavior of toy contact led to improved response to PRT while, altering the profile behavior of high avoidance had little impact on treatment response, and the profile was not predictive of response to DTT. (Contains 4 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Direct and Collateral Effects of the First Step to Success Program (2009)
First Step to Success is a multicomponent behavioral program for at-risk children who show signs of antisocial behavior at the point of school entry. The program incorporates behavioral intervention techniques, including praise and feedback, positive reinforcement, social skills training, teacher and parent collaboration, and time-out/response cost. First Step to Success also incorporates techniques to encourage adaptive behavior across the school day and in the home, such as sequential application of the program across the school day, delayed reinforcement at home for school performance, and parent education. This study employed a multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate previous research findings on the program. All children improved on measures of problem behavior, academic engaged time, and teacher ratings of behavioral adjustment. The authors extended prior research by assessing the collateral effects of the program on classroom peer and teacher behavior. Positive changes were found for both peer and teacher behavior. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Dissemination of the Coping Power Program: Importance of Intensity of Counselor Training (2009)
This study examined an important but rarely investigated aspect of the dissemination process: the intensity of training provided to practitioners. Counselors in 57 schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: Coping Power-training plus feedback (CP-TF), Coping Power-basic training (CP-BT), or a comparison condition. CP-TF counselors produced reductions in children's externalizing behavior problems and improvements in children's social and academic skills in comparison to results for target children in both the comparison and the CP-BT conditions. Training intensity was critical for successful dissemination, although the implementation mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear, as condition effects were not significant for completion of session objectives but were significant for the quality of counselors' engagement with children. (Contains 3 tables and 3 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 -1
Impact Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education's Student Mentoring Program. Final Report. NCEE 2009-4047 (2009)
This report summarizes the findings from a national evaluation of mentoring programs funded under the U.S. Department of Education's Student Mentoring Program. The impact evaluation used an experimental design in which students were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Thirty-two purposively selected School Mentoring Programs and 2,573 students took part in the evaluation, which estimated the impact of the programs over one school year on a range of student outcomes. The evaluation also describes the characteristics of the program and the mentors, and provides information about program delivery. The Student Mentoring Program is designed to fund grantees to enable them to provide mentoring to at-risk students in grades 4-8. The ultimate goal of the program is to improve student academic and behavioral outcomes through the guidance and encouragement of a volunteer mentor. Seventeen total impacts in the domains of academic achievement/engagement, interpersonal relationships/personal responsibility, and high-risk/delinquent behavior were measured. The main finding of the Impact Study was that there were no statistically significant impacts of the Student Mentoring Program for the sample as a whole on this array of student outcomes. However, there was some scattered evidence that impacts were heterogeneous across types of students. In particular, impacts on girls were statistically significantly different from impacts on boys for two self-reported scales: Scholastic Efficacy and School Bonding, and Pro-social Behaviors. For boys, the impact on Prosocial Behaviors was negative and statistically significant. For girls, the impact on Scholastic Efficacy and School Bonding was positive and statistically significant. The impact on truancy was negative and statistically significant for students below age 12. There were negative associations between program supervision of mentors and site-level impacts on three of the seventeen individual outcome measures: Pro-social Behaviors, grades in math and social studies, and a positive relationship with the outcome of school-reported delinquency. The report also presented results demonstrating that the Student Mentoring Program represented a fairly low level of intensity in terms of service: although grantees, on average, adhered to the general intents of the legislation and program guidance, they were simultaneously constrained by the limits of the school calendar and the population from which to draw mentors. Thirty-five percent of the control group students reported receiving mentoring either from the program or elsewhere in the community; this finding, coupled with the fact that not all treatment group students met with a mentor, reduced the treatment contrast and may have led to some dilution of the impacts on students compared to expectations. Seven appendices are included; (1) Sampling Design and Methodology; (2) Survey Instruments; (3) Construction of Student Outcome Measures; (4) Impact Analysis Results on Original Student Survey Scales and Measures; (5) Sensitivity Tests; (6) Standard Errors and Confidence Intervals of Main Effects; and (7) Site-Level Predictors and Impacts. (Contains 109 footnotes and 122 exhibits.) ["Impact Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education's Student Mentoring Program. Final Report" was written with the assistance of Christine Dyous, Michelle Klausner, Nancy McGarry, Rachel Luck and William Rhodes.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-9 -1
High School Students as Mentors: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study (2008)
High schools have recently become a popular source of mentors for school-based mentoring (SBM) programs. The high school Bigs program of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, for example, currently involves close to 50,000 high-school-aged mentors across the country. While the use of these young mentors has several potential advantages, their age raises questions about their capacity to be consistent, positive role models, and, in turn, their potential to yield strong impacts for the youth they mentor. With support from The Atlantic Philanthropies and in collaboration with Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, Public/Private Ventures set out to address these questions using data from our large-scale random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters SBM (Herrera, et al. 2007). We found that, on average, high school students were much less effective than adults at yielding impacts for the youth they mentor. However, our research identified several program practices that were linked with longer, stronger and more effective high school mentor relationships. High School Students as Mentors stresses the need for programs with high school volunteers to use the inherent strengths of these volunteers and, at the same time, meet their distinct needs. Big Brothers Big Sisters of America is already initiating most of the changes suggested in the study in its high school Bigs program; it has convened a group of six of its strongest Big Brothers Big Sisters agencies to review these and other findings and share their own experiences and strategies in an effort to strengthen their model. (Contains 41 endnotes, 3 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-12 -1
The Study of Mentoring in the Learning Environment (SMILE): A randomized evaluation of the effectiveness of school-based mentoring (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
The Negative Impacts of Starting Middle School in Sixth Grade (2008)
Using administrative data on public school students in North Carolina, we find that sixth grade students attending middle schools are much more likely to be cited for discipline problems than those attending elementary school. That difference remains after adjusting for the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the students and their schools. Furthermore, the higher infraction rates recorded by sixth graders who are placed in middle school persist at least through ninth grade. An analysis of end-of-grade test scores provides complementary findings. A plausible explanation is that sixth graders are at an especially impressionable age; in middle school, the exposure to older peers and the relative freedom from supervision have deleterious consequences. These findings are relevant to the current debate over the best school configuration for incorporating the middle grades. Based on our results, we suggest that there is a strong argument for separating sixth graders from older adolescents. (Contains 4 figures, 6 tables and 14 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness. Report from the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Initiative. NCER 2008-2009 (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness. Report from the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Initiative. NCER 2008-2009 (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 -1
Functional Assessment-Based Intervention for Selective Mutism (2007)
The process of functional assessment has emerged as an essential component for intervention development. Applications across divergent types of problem behavior, however, remain limited. This study evaluated the applicability of this promising approach to students with selective mutism. Two middle school students served as participants. The functional assessment included indirect and direct methods as well as a specially designed student interview that did not require speech. Individualized interventions were developed and experimentally evaluated. Results indicated that the assessment-based interventions effectively increased speaking in school contexts. (Contains 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Using a mand-model procedure to teach preschool children initial speech sounds. (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-8 -1
Function-Based Interventions for Students Who Are Nonresponsive to Primary and Secondary Prevention Efforts: Illustrations at the Elementary and Middle School Levels (2007)
This article illustrates how to (a) use schoolwide data to monitor student responsiveness to primary and secondary prevention efforts to identify students for tertiary preventions and (b) design, implement, and evaluate a function-based intervention in collaboration with two general education teachers, who served as the primary interventionists. Results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of function-based interventions with students who are nonresponsive to primary and secondary prevention efforts. A clear functional relationship was demonstrated between the introduction of the intervention and changes in student behavior using a changing criterion design at the elementary level and an ABAB withdrawal design at the middle school level. Limitations and directions for future research are offered.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 -1
Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Function-Based Interventions Using a Systematic, Feasible Approach (2007)
Although functional assessment-based interventions have produced desired outcomes in student behavior in applied settings, most of those interventions involved strong, sustained participation with researchers in intervention design, implementation, and assessment. In this article, we describe a systematic approach to designing, implementing, and evaluating function-based interventions that was developed by Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, and Lane (2007) and was implemented using a collaborative process with the teacher as the primary interventionist and assessor. Second, we document two experiments conducted using this systematic approach. Results of both withdrawal designs revealed a functional relation between the intervention procedures and the dependent variables. Further, both interventions were rated as socially valid by the teacher and students. Implications for educational practices are discussed. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Classroom-Based Cognitive--Behavioral Intervention to Prevent Aggression: Efficacy and Social Validity (2006)
Classroom teachers need effective, efficient strategies to prevent and/or ameliorate destructive student behaviors and increase socially appropriate ones. During the past two decades, researchers have found that cognitive strategies can decrease student disruption/aggression and strengthen pro-social behavior. Following preliminary pilot work, we conducted a study to determine whether a class-wide, social problem-solving curriculum affected measures of knowledge and behavior for 165 4th and 5th grade students at risk for behavior problems. We found significant positive treatment effects on knowledge of problem-solving concepts and teacher ratings of aggression. Outcomes differed across teachers/classrooms, and there was no evidence that booster lessons affected treatment efficacy. Teacher ratings of social validity were generally positive. We discuss issues about classroom-based prevention research and future research directions.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
Masked Intervention Effects: Analytic Methods for Addressing Low Dosage of Intervention (2006)
This chapter examines how a particular strategy for analyzing evaluation data, intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses, may underestimate the true effects of interventions. Such underestimation of intervention effects can profoundly influence policies for prevention and treatment of children's mental health problems, which can in turn lead to negative consequences for children's healthy development. However, evaluating treatment is a complicated issue because poorer outcomes for some may be due to characteristics of the participants, such as low motivation or chaotic family conditions, rather than qualities of the intervention. ITT analyses purposely ignore these nonrandom sources of variance. Using ITT analyses, evaluations of programs to reduce oppositional defiant disorders and conduct disorders in children and adolescents have consistently revealed that cognitive-behavioral interventions have the most promise and clearest evidence for efficacy, with effect sizes on outcome analyses in the moderate to large range (from 0.3 to over 1.0). These interventions usually involve behavioral parent training but also can include social problem-solving skills training, anger management training, and social skills training with the children. Using analyses of the effects of an intervention designed to reduce children's externalizing behavior problems and thus their risk for later delinquency and substance use as an example, the authors compare how propensity analyses and three types of complier average causal effect (CACE) analyses fare in comparison to traditional ITT analyses and often-used as-treated analyses. Although these techniques have been presented as an alternative and possible improvement, analyses of compliance have not considered the consequences of how the criteria for compliance are determined for a particular intervention, nor do they account for whether the compliance analyses produce different effects at different levels of compliance. Therefore, the present example also compares two levels of compliance, one representing a criterion of at least minimal compliance with the intervention and a second representing a high level of attendance and compliance. The general conclusion as a result of comparing these multiple strategies is that how one specifies parents' compliance in an evaluation design for a preventive intervention affects the interpretation of findings of program efficacy. The authors suggest that future research should aggressively pursue methods for setting optimal thresholds in analytic approaches that extend beyond ITT. (Contains 1 table.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The Effects of a Creative Dance and Movement Program on the Social Competence of Head Start Preschoolers (2006)
The effects of an eight-week instructional program in creative dance/movement on the social competence of low-income preschool children were assessed in this study utilizing a scientifically rigorous design. Forty preschool children from a large Head Start program were randomly assigned to participate in either an experimental dance program or an attention control group. Teachers and parents, blind to the children's group membership, rated children's social competence both before and after the program, using English and Spanish versions of the Social Competence Behavior Evaluation: Preschool Edition. The results revealed significantly greater positive gains over time in the children's social competence and both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems for the experimental group compared with the control group. Small-group creative dance instruction for at-risk preschoolers appears to be an excellent mechanism for enhancing social competence and improving behavior. The implications for early childhood education and intervention are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Individual Behavioral Profiles and Predictors of Treatment Effectiveness for Children With Autism (2005)
Differential responsiveness to intervention programs suggests the inadequacy of a single treatment approach for all children with autism. One method for reducing outcome variability is to identify participant characteristics associated with different outcomes for a specific intervention. In this investigation, an analysis of archival data yielded 2 distinct behavioral profiles for responders and nonresponders to a widely used behavioral intervention, pivotal response training (PRT). In a prospective study, these profiles were used to select 6 children (3 predicted responders and 3 predicted nonresponders) who received PRT. Children with pretreatment responder profiles evidenced positive changes on a range of outcome variables. Children with pretreatment nonresponder profiles did not exhibit improvements. These results offer promise for the development of individualized treatment protocols for children with autism.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Intensive Behavioral Treatment for Children with Autism: Four-Year Outcome and Predictors (2005)
Twenty-four children with autism were randomly assigned to a clinic-directed group, replicating the parameters of the early intensive behavioral treatment developed at UCLA, or to a parent-directed group that received intensive hours but less supervision by equally well-trained supervisors. Outcome after 4 years of treatment, including cognitive, language, adaptive, social, and academic measures, was similar for both groups. After combining groups, we found that 48% of all children showed rapid learning, achieved average posttreatment scores, and at age 7, were succeeding in regular education classrooms. Treatment outcome was best predicted by pretreatment imitation, language, and social responsiveness. These results are consistent with those reported by Lovaas and colleagues (Lovaas, 1987; McEachin, Smith, & Lovaas, 1993).
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
The Effects of Developmental Mentoring and High School Mentors' Attendance on Their Younger Mentees' Self-Esteem, Social Skills, and Connectedness (2005)
Far more has been written about the possible outcomes of cross-age mentoring than about actual outcomes and the processes that lead to change. This study examined the effect of mentors' attendance on their mentees' outcomes after six months of developmental mentoring. Developmental mentoring is a structured, cross-age peer mentoring program designed to promote children's development by facilitating connectedness. In this randomized study of 73 Caucasian, rural youth, multiple analyses of covariance revealed that connectedness to school and parents at posttest were significantly greater for mentees than for the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed that changes in self-esteem, social skills, and behavioral competence were highly related to mentors' attendance, suggesting relational processes accounted for more change than did exposure to program curricula. However, the relationship between mentors' inconsistent attendance and mentees' decline in self-esteem and behavioral competence suggests that absent mentors may do more harm than good. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
Short-term effects of a literature-based character education program among fourth grade students: Report to the Young People's Press, Inc. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Effects of a School-Based Social-Emotional Competence Program: Linking Children's Goals, Attributions, and Behavior (2005)
This study examined the effects of the Second Step social-emotional learning program and addressed the relations between social cognitions and prosocial and antisocial behavior. Children (N = 1,253) in intervention and control groups were assessed by teacher ratings, self report, and observation in two conflict situations. Intervention children were more likely to prefer prosocial goals and give egalitarian reasons for satisfaction than control children. Intervention children also required less adult intervention, and behaved less aggressively and (among girls) more cooperatively. Teacher ratings of social behavior showed improvement over time. Individual and dyadic behavior varied as a function of goals, hostile attributions, and attitude concordance within dyads. Findings are discussed with respect to social-cognitive models of aggression and prosocial behavior.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Replication Study of the First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (2005)
This article describes a replication of the "First Step to Success" program (Walker, Stiller, Severson, & Golly, 1998) with at-risk students in the first and second grade to determine program effectiveness in decreasing inappropriate behaviors and increasing academic engagement time. This expands the "First Step to Success" program to (1) serve slightly older students than those in the earlier kindergarten studies; (2) assess implementation effects across a full school day rather than half-day periods; and (3) determine effects when used in conjunction with individualized, across-the-day, contingency reinforcement systems. A multiple-baseline design was used to study the effects of the "First Step to Success" early intervention program. Three students and their parent(s) and teachers participated in the study. Direct observation measures showed dramatic improvements in academic engagement time and decreases in disruptive behavior. Findings across students indicated that intensive behavioral interventions increased positive outcomes for students who are at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 -1
Connect with Kids: 2004–2005 Study Results for Kansas and Missouri. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
The Effects of a Peer-Mediated Positive Behavior Support Program on Socially Appropriate Classroom Behavior (2004)
This study explored the results of aligning functional behavioral assessment (FBA) information with positive behavior support plans (PBS plans) designed with consideration for teacher acceptability. The independent variable had the three major components of a package, including assessment and planning (FBA), training (teachers, students, and peers) and student interventions (PBS plans). The student PBS plans included a combination of selfmonitoring, teacher-peer mediated support, and positive reinforcement including praise and a token economy. Same age peers were used as change agents to mediate these PBS plans that had been designed for 2 male third grade students who were at-risk for social and academic failure. The effects of this package were examined in relationship to a response class of socially appropriate classroom behaviors. Single subject ABAB designs were used to evaluate the student interventions. The at-risk students showed immediate, marked improvement in their socially appropriate classroom behavior; treatment gains maintained as reinforcement was thinned. Social validity was measured by social comparison with a normative sample of same-aged students and subjectively by the teachers, students, and peers who participated.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 -1
Sustained Effects of the PATHS Curriculum on the Social and Psychological Adjustment of Children in Special Education (2004)
In this study, the authors examined the long-term effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies) curriculum on the adjustment of school-age children with special needs. The PATHS curriculum focuses on promoting children's emotional development, self-regulation, and social problem-solving skills. Eighteen special education classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions in this controlled trial. Teachers received both training and ongoing consultation and provided PATHS to students in Grades 1 through 3. Data were collected before the intervention and for 3 successive years. Growth curve analysis indicated that the intervention reduced the rate of growth of teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors 2 years after the intervention and produced a sustained reduction in depressive symptoms reported by the children. Discussion focuses on the need for social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in special education and factors that can promote SEL among children with special needs.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
First Step to Success: An Early Intervention for Elementary Children at Risk for Antisocial Behavior (2004)
The increased prevalence and seriousness of antisocial behavior displayed by today's youths have become serious concerns for parents, educators, and community members. Antisocial behavior has a developmental course that starts with minor offenses in preschool (e.g., whining, teasing, noncompliance) and develops into major offenses (e.g., vandalism, stealing, assault, homicide) in older children and adolescents. Research results suggest that if interventions are implemented in the early elementary years, the likelihood of preventing future antisocial behavior is improved. Furthermore, interventions are said to be more successful if family members and teachers are involved. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an early intervention strategy, First Step to Success, involving (a) teacher-directed and (b) a combination of teacher- and parent-directed strategies on the behaviors of elementary school children at risk for antisocial behavior. The results suggest that interventions involving teachers and parents were associated with decreases in problem behavior in the classroom that maintained over 1 academic school year after intervention. Implications and recommendations are presented based on the outcomes and limitations of the study. (Contains 4 tables and 6 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
The Coping Power Program for Preadolescent Aggressive Boys and Their Parents: Outcome Effects at the 1-Year Follow-Up. (2004)
This study evaluates the effects of the Coping Power Program with at-risk preadolescent boys at the time of transition from elementary school to middle school. Aggressive boys were randomly assigned to receive only the Coping Power child component, the full Coping Power Program with parent and child components, or a control condition. Results indicated that the Coping Power intervention produced lower rates of covert delinquent behavior and of parent-rated substance use at the 1-year follow-up than did the control cell, and these intervention effects were most apparent for the full Coping Power Program with parent and child components. Boys also displayed teacher-rated behavioral improvements in school during the follow-up year, and these effects appeared to be primarily influenced by the Coping Power child component.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Evaluation of a two-year middle-school physical education intervention: M-SPAN. (2004)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-2 -1
Treating Children With Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Intervention Outcomes for Parent, Child, and Teacher Training (2004)
Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT + TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT + CT + TT); or a waiting list control. Reports and independent observations were collected at home and school. Following the 6-month intervention, all treatments resulted in significantly fewer conduct problems with mothers, teachers, and peers compared to controls. Children's negative behavior with fathers was lower in the 3 PT conditions than in control. Children showed more prosocial skills with peers in the CT conditions than in control. All PT conditions resulted in less negative and more positive parenting for mothers and less negative parenting for fathers than in control. Mothers and teachers were also less negative than controls when children received CT. Adding TT to PT or CT improved treatment outcome in terms of teacher behavior management in the classroom and in reports of behavior problems.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Evaluating the Lions-Quest Skills for Adolescence drug education program: Second-year behavior outcomes. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 -1
Dissemination of an evidence-based prevention innovation for aggressive children living in culturally diverse, urban neighborhoods:The Early Risers effectiveness study. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-6 -1
Long-Term Effects of the Positive Action Program. (2003)
Used a matched-schools design, school-level achievement, and disciplinary data to evaluate the effectiveness of the elementary-level Positive Action program on students' performance and behavior over time. Results indicated that program participation improved student behavior, school involvement, and academic achievement into high school. The program had equally strong behavioral effects in higher risk schools. There was a clear dose-response relationship for most outcomes. (SM)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-4 -1
Technical report: Evaluation of the Too Good for Drugs Elementary School Prevention Program. (2003)

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