WWC review of this study

The final evaluation of Lions-Quest’s Skills for Action.

Laird, M., Bradley, L. R., & Black, S. (1998). Newark, OH: Lions Quest, Lions Clubs International Foundation.

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
    , grades

Reviewed: September 2006

No statistically significant positive
Meets WWC standards with reservations
Knowledge, attitudes, & values outcomes—Indeterminate effect found for the domain
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

Student Service Learning Survey

Lions Quest -- Skills for Action vs. None


Grades 9-12;
730 students





Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Rural, Suburban, Urban
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    Florida, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia


The study took place in 25 schools in seven states: Florida, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia. Urban, suburban, and rural schools were included in each state. African-American students in the participating schools ranged from 1% to 71%; Hispanic student percentages ranged from 1% to 25%. The percentage of college-bound seniors in the schools ranged from 17% to 90%.

Study sample

Almost 1,800 students in grades 9–12 in 26 classrooms at 25 schools were included.

Intervention Group

Students were enrolled in quarter, semester, or year-long courses that involved planning volunteer service activities, taking action, and reflecting on that service. Service projects were direct service, indirect service, or civil action. Implementation quality was measured by whether the service component of the Skills for Action program was the core focus of the classes, integrated into the curriculum of the class, or peripherally connected to the class.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison classes were matched with students in the intervention classes, sometimes in the same school, on grade level and grade point average. Comparison students did not participate in character education lessons or service learning.

Outcome descriptions

The primary outcome measure came from the Student Service Learning Survey, which includes scales examining four areas related to service: involvement with diverse groups, helping others, taking social action, and intentions to volunteer in the community. (See Appendix A2 for a more detailed description of the outcome measure.)

Support for implementation

Teachers who implemented the intervention attended a two-and-a-half-day workshop that covered practical experience with volunteer service, techniques for integrating service learning into courses, and engaging students in reflection as part of the service learning process.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Keister, S. C. (n. d.). Lions-Quest Skills for Action summary of research report to Quest International. (Available from Lions Quest, Lions Clubs International Foundation, 1984 Coffman Rd., Newark, OH 43055.) (study #1).


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This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

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