WWC review of this study

Patterns of change in the social-cognitive development of middle school children following a school-based multicultural literature program.

Demetriades-Guyette, A. (2002). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (05B), 2615. (UMI No. 3052695).

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
    , grades

Reviewed: September 2006

No statistically significant positive
Meets WWC standards with reservations
Knowledge, attitudes, & values outcomes—Indeterminate effect found for the domain
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

Relationship maturity (best response score)

Voices Literature and Character Education (Voices LACE) vs. None


Grades 6-7;
98 students





Relationship maturity (item rating score)

Voices Literature and Character Education (Voices LACE) vs. None


Grades 6-7;
98 students





Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 50%
    Male: 50%
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Both the intervention and comparison scools were part of Cambridge Public Schools, Massachusetts.

Study sample

The study included 100 sixth- and seventh-grade students from five middle schools. About 50% of the sample was female. A higher percentage of minority students were in the intervention group (77%) than in the comparison group (57%). The largest minoirty group in both the intervention (35%) and comparison conditions (20%) defined themselves as multiracial. The second largest minority group was African-American students in the intervention group (14%) and Asian students in the comparison group (13%).

Intervention Group

The program consisted of a 12-week literature-based curriculum. The program was co-taught by the regular classroom teachers and a staff developer from the Cambridge Youth Guidance Center.

Comparison Group

The comparison schools were drawn from the same school districts as the intervention schools and were matched on demographic characteristics. Comparison schools did not implement the Voices Literature and Character Education Program but intended to implement the program after the end of the study.

Outcome descriptions

The study investigated student outcomes in the knowledge, attitudes, and values domain using the GSID Relationship Questionnaire (REL-Q). This student survey included five subscales measuring interpersonal understanding and interpersonal skills. (See Appendix A2 for more detailed descriptions of the outcome measures.)

Support for implementation

Teachers participated in a three-day training prior to program implementation.


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