WWC review of this study

Proximal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on the early risk behaviors for later substance abuse, depression, and anti-social behavior.

Ialongo, N., Wethamer, L., Kellam, S., Brown, C., Wang, S., & Lin, Y. (1999). American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(5), 599–641. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1023/A:1022137920532.

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    597
     Students
    , grade
    1

Reviewed: November 2021

No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards with reservations
Comprehension outcomes—Indeterminate effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS): Reading Comprehension subtest

Classroom-Centered Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample - Aggregated by WWC;
397 students

49.45

48.18

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS): Reading Comprehension subtest

Classroom-Centered Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Male;
student

48.29

43.87

No

--

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS): Reading Comprehension subtest

Classroom-Centered Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Female;
student

50.77

53.19

No

--
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Indeterminate effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS): Mathematics Computations and Concepts and Applications subscales

Classroom-Centered Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample - Aggregated by WWC;
397 students

52.67

50.97

No

--
Show Supplemental Findings

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS): Mathematics Computations and Concepts and Applications subscales

Classroom-Centered Intervention vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Male;
student

51.07

49.75

No

--


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Male: 53%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
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    Maryland
  • Race
    Black
    87%
    White
    13%

Setting

The study was conducted with first grade children and their families in nine Baltimore city public elementary schools.

Study sample

Student demographics are based on 678 children who were eligible to participate in the study, prior to receiving parental consent. Over half were male (53%), 87 percent were Black, and 13 percent were White. The average student was 6 years old. Almost two-thirds (62%) received free or reduced-price lunch.

Intervention Group

This review focuses on the Classroom-Centered intervention, which consisted of three components. The first component included enhancements to the English/language arts and mathematics curricula. New and supplementary curricular materials were added to increase critical thinking, composition, listening skills, and comprehension skills. The existing mathematics curriculum was replaced with the Mimosa mathematics program. The second intervention component consisted of enhancing the classrooms' behavior management practices. Students and their teachers participated in a weekly classroom meeting to promote child social problem solving within a group context. Also, the Good Behavior Game, a whole-class strategy designed to decrease aggressive or disruptive behavior and increase time on task, was implemented. Children were assigned to small teams and each team received points for exhibiting good behavior and lost points for off-task and shy or aggressive behavior. Points were exchanged for tangible rewards, which were gradually phased out and replaced with social reinforcers. The third intervention component included backup strategies for children who did not respond well to the intervention.

Comparison Group

The comparison condition included students from classrooms that conducted business as usual.

Support for implementation

No support for implementation was described in the report.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Ialongo, Nick; Poduska, Jeanne; Werthamer, Lisa; Kellam, Sheppard. (2001). The Distal Impact of Two First-Grade Preventive Interventions on Conduct Problems and Disorder in Early Adolescence. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, v9 n3 p146-60.

Reviewed: September 2008

Meets WWC standards without reservations


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 47%
    Male: 53%

  • Urban
  • Race
    Black
    87%
    White
    13%
 

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This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

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