WWC review of this study

The Prevention, Identification, and Cognitive Determinants of Math Difficulty

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Paulsen, Kimberly; Bryant, Joan D.; Hamlett, Carol L. (2005). Journal of Educational Psychology, v97 n3 p493-513 . Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ734286

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    127
     Students
    , grade
    1

Reviewed: April 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III): Calculation

Preventative math tutoring—Fuchs et al. 2005 vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
127 students

8.34

6.71

Yes

 
 
24
 

Researcher-developed first-grade concepts/applications

Preventative math tutoring—Fuchs et al. 2005 vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
127 students

19.12

17.00

Yes

 
 
18
 

Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III): Applied Problems subtest

Preventative math tutoring—Fuchs et al. 2005 vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
127 students

22.16

22.08

Yes

 
 
1
 
Whole Numbers Computation outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Researcher-developed CBM computation-grade 1

Preventative math tutoring—Fuchs et al. 2005 vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
127 students

14.40

12.07

No

--

Researcher-developed whole numbers computation

Preventative math tutoring—Fuchs et al. 2005 vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
127 students

6.50

5.22

Yes

 
 
9
 

Researcher-developed subtraction fact fluency

Preventative math tutoring—Fuchs et al. 2005 vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
127 students

3.14

2.84

No

--
Whole Numbers Word Problems/Problem Solving outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Researcher-developed story problems

Preventative math tutoring—Fuchs et al. 2005 vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
127 students

4.84

3.33

Yes

 
 
20
 


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 50%
    Male: 50%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    South
  • Race
    Black
    50%
    Other or unknown
    5%
    White
    45%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    6%
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
    94%
  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Free or reduced price lunch (FRPL)    
    54%
    Other or unknown    
    46%

Setting

The study occurred in 41 first-grade classrooms in 10 schools (6 Title I and 4 non-Title I) of a large, southeastern metropolitan school district of the United States. The math tutoring intervention was administered in small groups outside of regular math instruction to students at-risk (AR) for the development of mathematics difficulty that were randomly assigned to receiving the intervention.

Study sample

The analytic sample is 50 percent male, 50 percent African American, 45 percent White, and 6 percent Hispanic. Roughly 54 percent of the student in the analytic sample qualified for subsidized lunch.

Intervention Group

The intervention condition involved the implementation of small-group math tutoring to AR math students outside of regular math instruction. Tutors worked with groups of two or three AR students that had been randomly assigned to the intervention group. Tutoring sessions occurred three times a week for 16 weeks. Each session lasted approximately 40 minutes. The first 30 minutes were used for small-group tutoring. The tutoring lessons followed the curriculum of regular math instruction. During the final 10 minutes, students individually used math software called Math Flash.

Comparison Group

The comparison condition was "business as usual". Specifically, the AR math students randomly assigned to the comparison condition received regular math instruction alongside the AR math students randomly assigned to the intervention group. However, the AR math students in the comparison group did not participated in the small-group math tutoring intervention as a supplement to each participating classroom's regular math instruction.

Support for implementation

Tutors participated in three training sessions. The first was a day training session providing an overview of the tutoring program during which tutoring goals, topics, and activities were presented. Tutors then practiced the activities with a partner. In a second session a week later, tutors learned how to use Math Flash after which a review session was held. Tutoring began one week after the review session.

Reviewed: April 2009

Meets WWC standards without reservations


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • Female: 50%
    Male: 50%

  • Urban
  • Race
    Black
    50%
    White
    45%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    6%
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
    94%
 

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This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

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