WWC review of this study

Reading rescue: An effective tutoring intervention model for language-minority students who are struggling readers in first grade.

Ehri, L. C., Dreyer, L. G., Flugman, B., & Gross, A. (2007). American Educational Research Journal, 44(2), 414–448. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ782099

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
    , grade

Reviewed: March 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards with reservations
Word reading  outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
Significant? Improvement

GMRT4 total

Reading Rescue (RES) vs. Business as usual

0 Days

Full sample;
134 students





Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Urban


The RES intervention was delivered in an individual format.

Study sample

Participants were language minority first grade students. They attended 5 low-SES urban public schools that implemented the RES tutoring intervention and 3 comparable schools that had not implemented RES. More than 90% of the students were form homes where Spanish was the first language. Almost all (95%) were low income, qualifying for free or reduced price lunch. Students in special education and those that did not have sufficient English or who were designated ELL were excluded from the study.

Intervention Group

"The RES intervention includes a scope and sequence of skills that RES tutors use to guide instruction; it is not scripted. In each session, the following components were taught: fluency; word analysis and comprehension; phonological awareness and word study; phonemic awareness; writing to develop phonological awareness, phonics, and comprehension; and comprehension and vocabulary development with a new book. Children read fiction and nonfiction books from the ""Ready Readers"" series. The intervention is a stand-alone intervention, implemented by tutors who were trained during 5-days of workshops. The tutoring lasts until children graduate from the program (dependent upon meeting several goals, not described in the current study). This study does not indicate how long each child was in the RES program (see pg. 424). It is not reported how long each session is. There is no home component. Formative assessment is used by the tutor to determine what to teach each child. This study also described a small group intervention that some control students received called ""Voyager Passport."" This group was not included in any outcomes that met standards. See page 425-426 of the study for a description of Voyager Passport."

Support for implementation

Tutors were trained by RES program staff. They received 5 days of workshops delivered at the schools. A school coordinator also served as a school resource and provided modeling, feedback, and support. Coordinators were tutors in their 2nd or 3rd year of implementation. RES program staff also provided ongoing training and technical assistance, as well as QA visits.

Reviewed: June 2016

Meets WWC standards with reservations

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

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