WWC review of this study

Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction in Regular Education Settings: Improving Outcomes for Students with and without Learning Disabilities.

De La Paz, Susan (1999). Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, v14 n2 p92-106. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ587699

  • Single Case Design
    , grades

Reviewed: October 2017

Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Self-Regulated Strategy Development Intervention Report (841 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 17%
    Male: 83%
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The study was conducted in two middle schools in one school district in the southeastern United States. In one middle school, the student population was 94% White, 5% African American, and 1% Asian or Latino; 18% of the students qualified for free or reduced-price lunch. In the other middle school, the student demographics were nearly identical, except only 12% of its students qualified for free or reduced-price lunch. The intervention took place in two seventh-grade and one eighth-grade general education classrooms.

Study sample

The study sample included six students in seventh or eighth grade who were identified as having LD by their school district. The students had verbal IQ scores that ranged from 85 to 125; scored below average on the reading, writing, or math sections of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT); had no other disabilities; and spoke English as their primary language. One student was female, while the other five were male. All students in the study sample were White, and their ages ranged from 12 to 14 years old. The study also included separate experiments for 14 other students without LD, who were described as low-, average-, or high-achieving students. The experiments for students without LD are not described in this report or included in the ratings of effectiveness.


The SRSD intervention model was used to teach students how to write effective essays. The PLAN and WRITE mnemonics were used to help students remember the writing steps and strategies they had learned. The PLAN mnemonic asked students to pay attention to the writing prompt, list the main ideas, add supporting ideas, and number their ideas. The WRITE mnemonic asked them to work from the plan they had developed, remember their goals, include transition words, try to use different kinds of sentences, and use exciting words. Twelve to 16 sessions were offered, varying by classroom. Each SRSD session took place during one full class period for 4 days a week, over a 4-week period; some sessions were lost due to weather and other factors. Post-training essay probes were administered immediately following SRSD instruction.


The study used a multiple probe design across classrooms for both outcomes. Each of the three classrooms had two students. During the baseline condition for each class, teachers taught their classes as usual.

Support for implementation

Teachers were given instruction manuals, and each attended 2 days of SRSD training.


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