WWC review of this study

Fostering At-Risk Kindergarten Children's Number Sense [Add 0/1 treatment vs. doubles strategy (control)]

Baroody, Arthur J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Purpura, David J.; Reid, Erin E. (2012). Cognition and Instruction, v30 n4 p435-470. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ982662

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    28
     Students
    , grade
    K

Reviewed: January 2023

No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards with reservations
Counting and Cardinality outcomes—Indeterminate effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Mental-Addition Test: n + 1 contrast transfer

Discovery learning using add-0/1–Baroody et al. (2012) vs. (Not applicable)

2 Weeks

Full sample: Add 0/1 versus Doubles;
28 students

0.24

0.15

No

--

Mental-Addition Test: small double transfer

Discovery learning using add-0/1–Baroody et al. (2012) vs. (Not applicable)

2 Weeks

Full sample: Add 0/1 versus Doubles;
28 students

0.14

0.30

No

--


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 14% English language learners

  • Female: 57%
    Male: 43%
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    Midwest

Setting

The analytic sample was comprised of 28 kindergartners from 6 classes in 2 schools across 2 districts in a mid-sized midwestern community. All students were at or below the 25th percentile on the TEMA-3 or were considered at academic risk, defined by having one or more of the following risk factors: free/reduced lunch, minority status, English language learner, low birth weight, fetal alcohol/drug syndrome, speech services, ADHD.

Study sample

The students in the study ranged from 5.1 to 6 years of age. In the analytic sample, 43 percent were male and 57 percent were female. Sixty-one percent (17 students) were eligible for free or reduced price lunch, 75 percent (21 students) were minority, and 14 percent (4 students) were English language learners.

Intervention Group

Both conditions began with sessions focused on mental addition prerequisites. These sessions were 30 minutes each, twice a week for 10 weeks. Subsequently, the Add 0/1 condition consisted of 20 30-minute sessions, delivered individually to students roughly 2 times per week for 9 weeks. In each session, the student completed a subset of 10 items from the following: after 3, 3 + 1, 1 + 3, 3 + 0, 2 + 4; after 4, 4 + 1, 1 + 4, 0 + 4; after 6. Then, students took a break in the form of a brief manual game. Then, students completed another subset of 10 items from the following: after 7, 7 + 1, 1 + 7, 0 + 7, 5 + 3; after 8, 8 + 1, 1 + 8, 8 + 0; after 9. 2 + 4 and 5 + 3 served as non-examples of the add-1 rule. A computer reward game was played at the end of each session.

Comparison Group

Both conditions began with sessions focused on mental addition prerequisites. These sessions were 30 minutes each, twice a week for 10 weeks. Subsequently, the Doubles condition consisted of 20 30-minute sessions, delivered individually to students roughly 2 times per week for 9 weeks. For the first 10 sessions, the intervention began with the student skip counting by 2 to 20, highlighting the even numbers from 1 to 20 on a counting list. Then the student solved addition problems on the counting list, with the goal of highlighting that the sums of all doubles, but not near doubles, are even. Sessions 11 to 20 involved skip counting by n, a related double, and near double, with the goal of showing that an n + n item, but not near doubles, could be determined by skip counting by n twice (except for 1 + 1). Alternatively, students practiced meaningful analogies for a double, the doubles, and a non-example (near double).

Support for implementation

The 4 interventionists participated in 6 3-hour training sessions on testing and training procedures before the study began.

 

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