WWC review of this study

Effects of daily and reduced frequency implementation of the Good Behavior Game in kindergarten classrooms

Dadakhodjaeva, K., Radley, K. C., Tingstrom, D. H., Dufrene, B. A., & Dart, E. H. (2019). Behavior Modification, 44(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445519826528.

  • Single Case Design
    , grade

Reviewed: January 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
Meets WWC standards without reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Good Behavior Game Intervention Report (516 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 56%
    Male: 44%

  • Urban
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  • Race
    Two or more races
  • Ethnicity
    Other or unknown    
  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Free or reduced price lunch (FRPL)    
    No FRPL    


The study took place in three kindergarten classrooms in one school in the southeastern United States.

Study sample

Participants included 59 students in three kindergarten classrooms in one school. A teacher and a teacher's aide were present in all three classrooms. All three classrooms were referred for participation in the study by school administration for high levels of disruptive behavior. Most students in the sample were Black (98%) and 2% were described as biracial. Three percent of students had an individualized education program, and 44% were male. Among all students in the school, 95% received free or reduced-price lunch.

Intervention Group

The Good Behavior Game is a classroom management strategy that promotes students collaborating together to create a positive learning environment. Students are placed into teams and are rewarded for demonstrating appropriate behaviors and not violating classroom rules. In this study, teachers introduced Good Behavior Game, reviewed rules for behavior, and divided each classroom into two teams. Teachers recorded each time a student misbehaved with a checkmark on a white-board visible to all students. Students received a reward for the day if their team did not exceed the checkmark threshold for their classroom. The threshold was set for each classroom during a baseline period and ranged from eight to 10 checkmarks. Students who earned a reward could choose an item from a treasure box, such as candy, erasers, stickers, or pencils. Students typically played Good Behavior Game once each day for 10 minutes.

Comparison Group

There is no comparison group in single case designs. In the baseline phases of the single case designs, the teachers managed their classroom in their typical manner, which included using Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS).

Support for implementation

The researcher trained the students' regular classroom teachers on Good Behavior Game procedures. Training included a discussion of the Good Behavior Game script, modeling the intervention steps, role-playing, and providing the teacher with performance feedback. The role-play component continued until each teacher demonstrated all intervention steps correctly.


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