WWC review of this study

Measuring Academic Output during the Good Behavior Game: A Single Case Design Study

Fallon, Lindsay M., Marcotte, Amanda M., Ferron, John M. (2020). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions v22 n4 p246-258. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1265213

  • Single Case Design
    , grades

Reviewed: January 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Good Behavior Game Intervention Report (516 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Female: 50%
    Male: 50%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
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    • D
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  • Race
    Other or unknown
  • Ethnicity
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Free or reduced price lunch (FRPL)    


The study took place in two classrooms in a Title I elementary school in an urban setting in the northeastern United States.

Study sample

Participants included 45 students, including six focal students with the lowest writing test scores, in two classrooms taught by two teachers in grades 1 and 2. The study included a series of reversal-withdrawal single case designs to study the effectiveness of Good Behavior Game on classroom and student outcomes. There are separate single case designs for each classroom and for each of the focal students. Three of the six focal students were male and four were Black, one was White, and one was Hispanic or Latino. None of the six focal students received special education services. Across the two classrooms, 60% of students were male and 9% received special education services. Sixty percent were Black, 13% were White, 2% were Asian, and 24% did not report race. Sixteen percent were Hispanic or Latino. All students in the school were eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program due to the district's status as a high-needs district, and 60% of the students in the school were classified as economically disadvantaged and received some form of family aid.

Intervention Group

The Good Behavior Game is a classroom management strategy that promotes students collaborating together to create a positive learning environment. Students are placed into teams and are rewarded for demonstrating appropriate behaviors and not violating classroom rules. In this study, teachers created teams consisting of five or six students each, based on seating arrangements. At the beginning of each session, teachers reviewed the expected behaviors and rules of the game, which included staying seated and quietly focusing on writing tasks. All sessions lasted 15 minutes and took place during writing practice while students responded to a writing prompt. As the students wrote, the teachers walked around the room, praised students, and awarded points if students stayed seated and focused on writing. At the end of the session, the team with the most points received a prize selected by the teacher, such as stickers or candy.

Comparison Group

There is no comparison group in single case designs. In the baseline and withdrawal phases of the single case designs, the teachers instructed their classrooms in the typical manner without using a formal behavior system. Each session lasted 15 minutes and took place during writing practice. There were a total of 17 or 18 baseline-reversal sessions across classes.

Support for implementation

Researchers provided comprehensive Good Behavior Game training to teachers, which included modeling, role-play, rehearsal, and feedback.


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