WWC review of this study

Managing student behavior in dual immersion classrooms: A study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams.

Hansen, B. D., Caldarella, P., Williams, L., & Wills, H. P. (2017). Behavior Modification, 41(5), 626–646. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445517698418.

  • Single Case Design
    , grades

Reviewed: March 2023

Meets WWC standards without reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Intervention Report (289 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • 3% English language learners

  • Female: 54%
    Male: 46%
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  • Race
    Other or unknown
  • Ethnicity
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Other or unknown    


The study took place during French instruction in three French immersion classrooms at one elementary school in Utah.

Study sample

Participants included 74 students in three classrooms in grades 2 through 4. The student population of the entire school was 81% White and 11% Hispanic or Latino, but race and ethnicity information was not provided for the students in the three study classrooms. Most of the study participants (97%) were native English speakers who were learning French. Forty-six percent of the study participants were male.

Intervention Group

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a classroom management system designed to improve student behavior. The program includes establishing classroom rules and appropriate behaviors, playing a team-based game to reinforce appropriate behaviors, minimizing social attention to inappropriate behaviors, and providing self-management tools to individual students who need extra support. In this study, CW-FIT took place during French instructional time in French immersion classes. During the first few days of CW-FIT implementation, teachers taught the students target skills, including how to correctly get the teacher’s attention, follow directions, and ignore other students’ inappropriate behaviors. These skills were displayed on posters with visual reminders. After the first week, teachers briefly reviewed the skills at the beginning of each session and split their class into three to six groups of two to six students. Teachers awarded points to groups if every student in the group exhibited the target skills during a 2- to 5-minute interval. Teachers set a point goal, and every group that reached the goal received a reward at the end of the session. All of the CW-FIT materials the teacher used were translated into French for this study.

Comparison Group

There is no comparison group in single case designs. During the baseline sessions of the multiple baseline design, teachers delivered French instruction as part of French immersion classes. Teachers continued their standard classroom management practices with no formal behavior system in place.

Support for implementation

Researchers provided each teacher a 1-hour training on CW-FIT and provided additional coaching, if necessary.


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