WWC review of this study

Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on Engagement in Physical Education

Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Healy, Sean; Judge, Joann P.; Lloyd, John Wills (2016). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, v49 n4 p975-979. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1121384

  • Single Case Design
    , grade

Reviewed: March 2023

Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Intervention Report (289 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • 5% English language learners

  • Female: 40%
    Male: 60%

  • Urban
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  • Race
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  • Ethnicity
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  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Other or unknown    


The study was conducted in one physical education class in a small, urban elementary school in Virginia.

Study sample

Participants included 20 students in one grade 2 physical education class. Sixty percent of the students were male and 40% were female. One student (5%) was an English learner, and three students (15%) received special education services for a language impairment. The study reported no other demographic information.

Intervention Group

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a classroom management system designed to improve student behavior. The program includes establishing classroom rules and appropriate behaviors, playing a team-based game to reinforce appropriate behaviors, minimizing social attention to inappropriate behaviors, and providing self-management tools to individual students who need extra support. In this study, the teacher grouped students into four teams based on who they believed would work well together. During the first two sessions, the teacher explained CW-FIT procedures and behavioral expectations to students, which included following directions the first time, ignoring inappropriate behavior from other students, and staying within the instruction area. During each session, the teacher wore a timer that vibrated every 2 minutes, prompting him to scan the students, deliver behavior-specific praise, and award points to teams that met expectations. The teacher delivered a brief reminder about behavior expectations to teams that did not receive a point. At the end of each session, the teacher totaled each team’s points, and teams that met the specified daily point goal received a reward, such as a dance party or a special game. CW-FIT sessions took place during a 30-minute physical education class while teams progressed through different activities, including whole-group warm-up activities and station-based activities such as four-square or tennis.

Comparison Group

There is no comparison group in single case designs. In the baseline and withdrawal phases of the single case design, teachers grouped students into four teams based on who would work well together, and teams progressed through whole-group warm-up activities and station-based activities such as four-square or tennis. No formal behavior system was in place.

Support for implementation

The researcher supported the teacher as he was explaining the procedures and expectations to students during the first 2 days of implementation. The manuscript does not provide any further information about support for implementation.


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