WWC review of this study

Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Preschools: An Exploratory Study of CW-FIT Tier 1

Jolstead, Krystine A.; Caldarella, Paul; Hansen, Blake; Korth, Byran B.; Williams, Leslie; Kamps, Debra (2017). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, v19 n1 p48-60. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1123735

  • Single Case Design
    , grade

Reviewed: January 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Intervention Report (289 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • 51% English language learners

  • Female: 38%
    Male: 62%

  • Suburban
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  • Race
    Other or unknown
    Pacific Islander
  • Ethnicity
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Other or unknown    


The study took place in four preschool classrooms across two Title 1 elementary schools located in suburban Utah.

Study sample

Participants included 55 preschool students in four classrooms in two elementary schools. The students were taught by three teachers. Across the four classrooms, 35% of the students were White, 2% were Black, 2% were Pacific Islander, and 62% were Hispanic or Latino. More than half of the students (51%) were English learners, 62% of students were male, and none of the students had a disability.

Intervention Group

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a classroom management system designed to improve student behavior. The program includes establishing classroom rules and appropriate behaviors, playing a team-based game to reinforce appropriate behaviors, minimizing social attention to inappropriate behaviors, and providing self-management tools to individual students who need extra support. In this study, teachers grouped students into teams of three or four based on their seating arrangement. During the first several sessions, teachers described and modeled expectations for student behavior using 10-minuted scripted lessons to show students several skills: how to get attention, follow directions, and ignore other students' inappropriate behaviors. Teachers asked students to role-play the skills and then provided feedback. The target skills were posted in the classrooms, along with visuals and specific steps students should follow. During each session, teachers reviewed the skills and then observed and scored each group every 1.5 to 3 minutes. Teachers provided praise and points if every student on the team displayed the desired skills. Teachers provided feedback to the teams that did not receive points. Teachers set a point goal at the beginning of each day, and teams reaching the goal received a reward at the end of each session, which included extra recess time, stickers, games, dancing, and candy. Sessions took place during 20-minute whole-group instructional periods or 60-minute center-based activities such as learning the alphabet or creating art.

Comparison Group

There is no comparison group in single case designs. In the baseline and withdrawal phases of the single case designs, teachers used their normal classroom routines and did not provide rewards to students for good behavior. Sessions took place during whole-group instructional periods or center-based activities such as learning the alphabet or creating art.

Support for implementation

Researchers provided each teacher with a 2-hour training session where they described CW-FIT and allowed teachers to practice each component using scripted lessons. Researchers provided feedback to teachers and shared videos of teachers modeling the intervention. The researchers provided additional coaching and feedback to teachers for the first 1 to 2 weeks of implementation.

In the case of multiple manuscripts that report on one study, the WWC selects one manuscript as the primary citation and lists other manuscripts that describe the study as additional sources.

  • Jolstead, K.A. (2015). The effects of Classwide Function-Related Intervention Teams on preschool behavior. [Postgraduate thesis, Brigham Young University]. BYU ScholarsArchive. https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/5863/.


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