WWC review of this study

The effects, generalization, and incidental benefits of class-wide function-related intervention [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kansas].

Kitson, L. G. (2020). KU ScholarWorks. https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/31823.

  • Single Case Design
    , grades

Reviewed: February 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Intervention Report (289 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • 33% English language learners

  • Female: 17%
    Male: 83%

  • Suburban
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  • Race
    Other or unknown
  • Ethnicity
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Free or reduced price lunch (FRPL)    
    No FRPL    


This study took place in three general education classrooms located in one public, Title I elementary school in a midwestern, suburban community of the United States.

Study sample

Participants included three teachers and six students from three classrooms in one school. The students were in kindergarten and grades 1 and 3. All six focal students were identified by their teachers as having high levels of disruptive and off-task behavior and were at risk for social-emotional difficulties. Four students (67%) were Hispanic or Latino and two (33%) were White. Two students (33%) were English learners and five (83%) were male. Across the school, 65% of students received free or reduced-price lunch.

Intervention Group

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a classroom management system designed to improve student behavior. The program includes establishing classroom rules and appropriate behaviors, playing a team-based game to reinforce appropriate behaviors, minimizing social attention to inappropriate behaviors, and providing self-management tools to individual students who need extra support. In this study, teachers used a 15-minute lesson to teach their students three target skills, including how to correctly get the teacher's attention, follow directions, and ignore inappropriate behavior of other students. During the lesson, they provided modeling and examples of the skills, asked students to practice the skills, and provided feedback. Each skill was also presented on a poster that was displayed in the classroom. After this lesson, the teachers grouped their classrooms into teams of three to five students based on their seating arrangements and introduced the CW-FIT game. Before each session, they reviewed the skills and point requirements for the day. During each session, the teachers used a timer that sounded every 3 minutes. When the timer went off, the teachers scanned each team and provided praise and one point if every student on the team was demonstrating appropriate behaviors. Teachers provided direct feedback to teams that did not receive points. The point sheet was displayed to the class. At the end of each session, teachers rewarded teams that achieved the point goal for that day, which ranged from 12 to 14 points. Teachers provided extra support to students who were not responding to CW-FIT; they provided students a small chart to monitor their own behavior and record when they were behaving appropriately. They also provided students with help cards that they could use when they needed help on an assignment. Students could earn extra points using these tools. Each session lasted approximately 45 minutes and occurred during a math lesson.

Comparison Group

There is no comparison group in single case designs. During the baseline phases of the multiple baseline designs, the teachers instructed their students as they normally would.

Support for implementation

A researcher provided two, one-hour training sessions to the teachers. The first training session covered CW-FIT's purpose, how the intervention is conducted, and the materials (scripts, posters, and timers) used. Teachers were encouraged to practice and ask questions. During the second training, the researcher reviewed intervention procedures and additional practice time was allotted. At the end of the session, the teachers conducted a mock CW-FIT session and the researcher determined whether all intervention steps were followed. If a teacher did not obtain 100% fidelity, the researcher provided feedback and asked the teacher to re-do the mock intervention. All teachers were expected to receive 100% on the mock intervention before implementing the intervention in the classroom. After the training, teachers could request additional support from the primary investigator if needed. This support included the primary investigator attending the first intervention session to provide assistance and feedback following the sessions. Teachers received additional training, as needed, to implement the strategies used with students who needed extra support.


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