WWC review of this study

Brief Prompting to Improve Classroom Behavior: A First-Pass Intervention Option

Moore, Tara C.; Alpers, Andrew J.; Rhyne, Rachael; Coleman, Mari Beth; Gordon, Jason R.; Daniels, Stephanie; Skinner, Christopher H.; Park, Yujeong (2019). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, v21 n1 p30-41. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1199712

  • Single Case Design
    , grades

Reviewed: February 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
Meets WWC standards with reservations

To view more detailed information about the study findings from this review, please see Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) Intervention Report (289 KB)

Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Male: 100%

  • Urban
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  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
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This study took place in a general education physical science classroom in one urban high school located in the southeastern United States. Separate findings were presented from one special education classroom in one rural elementary school in the southeastern United States.

Study sample

Participants included three high school students in grades 9 and 10 who were co-taught by a general education teacher and special education teacher. The study also included findings for one grade 4 student taught by one special education teacher. All four focal students were male and diagnosed with learning disabilities. One of the high school students was also diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and the grade 4 student had a language impairment. The authors did not provide information on other sample characteristics.

Intervention Group

Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a classroom management system designed to improve student behavior. The program includes establishing classroom rules and appropriate behaviors, playing a team-based game to reinforce appropriate behaviors, minimizing social attention to inappropriate behaviors, and providing self-management tools to individual students who need extra support. During the initial session, the teachers taught the class skills that were developed for the game, including following teacher directions the first time, appropriately getting the teacher’s attention, respecting other students and ignoring bad behaviors, and trying one’s best. This initial session lasted 10 minutes and teachers provided the rationale for each rule and led students in role-playing each rule by providing examples. Before each CW-FIT session, the teachers reviewed the classroom rules and prompted students to provide examples of each behavior. The rules were also displayed on a poster in the classroom. In one class, the teacher also met individually with the focal student before some sessions began to prompt him to follow the rules. During all sessions, teachers responded to students’ appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a typical manner. The teachers did not award points or give students prizes for demonstrating class skills.

Comparison Group

There is no comparison group in single case designs. In the baseline and withdrawal phases of the single case designs, the teachers instructed their classrooms in the typical manner and managed behavior using business-as-usual practices. The teachers did not provide prompts of the classroom rules, though the rules were displayed in the high school classroom.

Support for implementation

The researcher conducted a 10-minute session with each teacher to train them on prompting students to follow the classroom rules and CW-FIT procedures. The researcher provided a script teachers could use to explain the rules to their students.


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