WWC review of this study

Examining the Impact of a First Grade Whole Number Intervention by Group Size [Fusion 2:1 vs. Fusion 5:1]

Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Sutherland, Marah; Kosty, Derek; Turtura, Jessica; Smolkowski, Keith (2022). Grantee Submission. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED626858

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
     examining 
    322
     Students
    , grade
    1

Reviewed: December 2023

At least one finding shows promising evidence of effectiveness
At least one statistically significant positive finding
Meets WWC standards without reservations
General Mathematics Achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

easyCBM

Fusion 2:1 vs. Fusion 5:1

0 Days

Full sample;
251 students

26.40

24.90

Yes

 
 
11
 
Show Supplemental Findings

easyCBM

Fusion 2:1 vs. Fusion 5:1

9 Months

Full sample;
242 students

22.00

20.30

Yes

 
 
13
Number and Operations outcomes—Indeterminate effect found for the domain
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
    index
Evidence
tier

Test of Early Mathematical Ability (TEMA-3)

Fusion 2:1 vs. Fusion 5:1

0 Days

Full sample;
316 students

42.90

41.60

No

--

Assessing Student Proficiency in Early Number Sense (ASPENS)

Fusion 2:1 vs. Fusion 5:1

0 Days

Full sample;
322 students

43.70

42.30

No

--

ProFusion (Clarke et al., 2022)

Fusion 2:1 vs. Fusion 5:1

0 Days

Full sample;
316 students

46.20

43.50

No

--


Evidence Tier rating based solely on this study. This intervention may achieve a higher tier when combined with the full body of evidence.

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.


  • 14% English language learners

  • Female: 54%
    Male: 46%

  • Suburban, Urban
    • B
    • A
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    • h
    • i
    • b
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    • j
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    • y

    Oregon
  • Race
    Asian
    3%
    Black
    2%
    Native American
    1%
    Other or unknown
    21%
    Two or more races
    8%
    White
    65%
  • Ethnicity
    Hispanic    
    21%
    Not Hispanic or Latino    
    79%
  • Eligible for Free and Reduced Price Lunch
    Other or unknown    
    100%

Setting

The study took place in 53 first-grade classrooms from nine elementary schools in three school districts in Oregon. One school district was located in the urban area of Portland, and two districts were in suburban areas of western Oregon.

Study sample

The study included nine elementary schools with 36 teachers and 53 first-grade classrooms. A total of 460 students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 92 were assigned to receive 2:1 Fusion, 230 were assigned to receive 5:1 Fusion, and 138 were assigned to the comparison group. In this review, the group receiving 2:1 Fusion is the intervention group and the group receiving 5:1 Fusion is the comparison group. The no-services comparison group is not included in this review. Among the full study sample of 460 students, approximately 54% were female, 14% were English learners, and 17% received special education services. Sixty-five percent were White, 3% were Asian, 2% were Black, 1% were Native American, 8% were of multiple races, and 21% did not report race. Twenty-one percent were Hispanic or Latino.

Intervention Group

Fusion is a 60-lesson, Tier 2 first-grade mathematics intervention focused on whole number understanding. The Fusion 2:1 intervention was delivered in a small-group format (two students per interventionist), with lessons lasting for 30 minutes. The study administered the program five days per week for 12 weeks. Fusion is a supplemental intervention, so instruction did not interfere or replace regular mathematics instruction. Instruction began in the early winter and ended in the spring. The intervention aims to build students’ proficiency of whole number knowledge, specifically in operations and algebraic thinking, and number and operations in base-10. Lessons 1 through 30 focus on building proficiency in modeling, writing, and sequencing two-digit numbers. Lessons 31 through 60 focus on problem solving and two-digit addition and subtraction problems and compare two-digit numbers.

Comparison Group

Students in the 5:1 Fusion comparison group received the same intervention as students in the intervention group, except in a small group format with five students per interventionist.

Support for implementation

All interventionists participated in two four-hour professional development workshops delivered by project staff. They also received, on average, two coaching visits from coaches, involving direct observations and feedback on instructional quality and fidelity.

 

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