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Math

*RELs work in partnership with states and districts to 1) conduct original high quality research, 2) provide training, coaching, and technical support, and 3) disseminate high quality research findings about how to support achievement in math. A selected list of resources developed by the REL Program appears below.*

**Partnerships**

- Student Success in Mathematics Partnership (REL Appalachia)
- Identifying Practices to Boost Early Literacy and Numeracy in Kentucky (REL Appalachia)
- Improving Mathematics Instruction (REL Southeast)
- Broward Math Partnership (REL Southeast)
- Mississippi Department of Education (REL Southeast)

**Publications**

*Community Math Nights Facilitators' Toolkit*(REL Appalachia, Forthcoming). REL Appalachia is partnering with educators across the region to develop a toolkit that will equip educators with the knowledge, tools, activities, and resources for planning and implementing a community math night that engages children, families, and other community members in evidence-based math activities.*Supporting Teacher Enactment of the Probability and Statistics Standards (STEPSS)*(REL Southeast, January 2021). This study will investigate whether the STEPSS intervention increases students' conceptual understanding in statistics as compared with practice as usual through a randomized controlled trial. STEPSS includes two complementary components: four days of teacher professional development workshops in statistics, and implementation of 11 lessons designed to teach the grade 7 statistics and probability standards created by the American Statistical Association (Bridging the Gap and Statistics Education Web). STEPSS teachers will replace the current district-adopted textbook (HMH GO Math!) for the 20-day unit on statistics and probability with the 11-lesson unit. The study will use the Levels of Conceptual Understanding of Statistics (LOCUS) assessment to measure students' conceptual understanding in statistics.*Algebra I and College Preparatory Diploma Outcomes among Virginia Students Who Completed Algebra I in Grades 7–9*(REL Appalachia, October 2020). In Virginia, students must pass Algebra I to earn a high school diploma. Across the five Virginia Student Success in Mathematics (SSM) partnership school divisions, Algebra I is a significant stumbling block for students. This study examined whether students who completed Algebra I in grades 7–9 passed the Algebra I state assessment and whether they earned a college preparatory diploma.*The Reliability and Consequential Validity of Two Teacher-Administered Student Mathematics Diagnostic Assessments*(REL Southeast, September 2020). Several school districts in Georgia are currently using the Individual Knowledge Assessment of Number (IKAN; Ministry of Education, 2011) and the Global Strategy Stage (GloSS; Ministry of Education, 2012) for which there is very limited psychometric data. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-assessor reliability and consequential validity of the IKAN/GloSS diagnostic assessments.*What Grade 7 Foundational Knowledge and Skills Are Associated with Missouri Students' Algebra I Achievement in Grade 8?*(REL Central, August 2020). Algebra I is considered a gateway course for advanced math. The challenge for educators lies in determining which students are ready to take Algebra I in middle school and which students need more time to develop foundational knowledge and skills before taking Algebra I. To inform strategies that address this challenge, this study investigated the specific foundational knowledge and skills that are associated with achievement in Algebra I. The study examined whether student knowledge in five domains of math assessed in grade 7 was associated with Algebra I achievement.*Associations between the Qualifications of Middle School Algebra I Teachers and Student Math Achievement*(REL Central, October 2019). This report describes the associations between middle school teacher qualifications and student achievement in Algebra I. Results suggest that the teacher qualification most strongly associated with middle school student achievement in Algebra I was performance on mathematics certification exams, followed by years of experience teaching mathematics. Teacher performance on mathematics certification exams and years of experience teaching mathematics were also strongly associated with achievement in Algebra I for under-represented and disadvantaged student subgroups.*Math Course Sequences in Grades 6–11 and Math Achievement in Mississippi*(REL Southeast, August 2019). Effective with the 2014/15 school year, Mississippi adopted new academic standards and courses aligned to these new standards. This study examined the sequences of math courses that Mississippi students who started grade 6 in 2011/12 took in grades 6–11; the math achievement and demographic characteristics of students who took similar math sequences; and how math sequences, prior math achievement, and student demographic characteristics relate to college readiness in math.*Mississippi Mathematics Enrollment Sequences*(REL Southeast, August 2019). The purpose of this study was to examine how students in Mississippi met their mathematics requirements and the extent to which their mathematics sequence is related to student performance and demographic characteristics such as race and ethnicity.*PLC Facilitator's Guide for Improving Student Mathematical Problem Solving*(REL Southeast, June 2019). REL Southeast developed this facilitator's guide on the topic of mathematical problem solving for use in professional learning community (PLC) settings. The facilitator's guide is a set of professional development materials designed to supplement the What Works Clearinghouse practice guide, Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8 (Woodward et al., 2012). The practice guide provides research-based recommendations for teachers to incorporate into their classroom practice. The facilitator's guide is designed to complement and extend the practice guide by providing teachers in a PLC setting with additional, step-by-step guidance for the best ways to implement some of these evidence-based recommendations.*Impact of Providing Information to Parents in Texas About the Role of Algebra II in College Admission*(REL Southwest, March 2018). This study examined whether providing parents in Texas with an informational brochure about the role of Algebra II in college admission had an impact on students' Algebra II completion rates in grade 11. The study related to the passage of Texas House Bill 5, which made Algebra II optional to graduate high school.*Trends in Algebra II completion and failure rates for students entering Texas public high schools*(REL Southwest, February 2018). This study examines trends in the percentage of students who enrolled in Algebra II, complete Algebra II, and pass/fail their first advanced mathematics course (any mathematics course above geometry) by the end of their junior year for students who entered grade 9 during the 2004–05 through 2014–15 school years. The findings include the first class to graduate under new state requirements that made Algebra II optional to graduate.*Associations Between Predictive Indicators and Postsecondary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Success Among Hispanic Students in Texas*(REL Southwest, November 2017). Demand for skilled workers in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) is growing rapidly, yet Hispanics remain underrepresented in these high-paying fields as well as among those earning STEM degrees. This study identified factors that predict whether Hispanic and non-Hispanic high school students in Texas will go on to pursue or earn a postsecondary STEM degree.*Advanced Course Completion Rates among New Mexico High School Students following changes in graduation requirements*(REL Southwest, October 2017). An effort to promote college and career readiness, the state of New Mexico passed a law in 2008 requiring high school students to complete at least one unit of advanced coursework (for example, Advanced Placement, gifted and talented, honors, and International Baccalaureate courses) in order to graduate. The purpose of this was to study examine the completion of advanced coursework during the period following the legislative change for all high school students in New Mexico who were freshmen in 2009/10, 2010/11, and 2011/12 and were in a New Mexico high school for four years.*Advanced Course Offerings and Completion in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in Texas Public High Schools*(REL Southwest, October 2017). In Texas, where about half of K–12 students are Hispanic, educators are working to increase the number of Hispanic students earning postsecondary degrees in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This study examined Texas high school students' access to and completion of advanced STEM courses, with a focus on Hispanic students.*Impact of the Developing Mathematical Ideas Professional Development Program on Grade 4 Students' and Teachers' Understanding of Fractions*(REL Southeast, April 2017). A recent literature review of rigorous studies found only limited support for the assertion that teacher professional development (PD) in mathematics can improve student mathematics performance. This study adds to the limited evidence base by evaluating a PD program, Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI).*Examining English Learner Students' Algebra I Repeating Patterns: How Do Rates Vary Based on When Students Are Reclassified?*(REL West, February 2017). Previous research has done little to explore the Algebra I performance and repetition patterns among long-term English learner students or to examine the manner in which performance in and repetition of Algebra I varies across different English learner student subgroups. This study addresses this gap by examining variation in performance and course repetition patterns among different English learner student subgroups.*Predicting Math Outcomes from a Reading Screening Assessment in Grades 3–8*(REL Southeast, September 2016). This study explores the use of a universal screening assessment of reading skills for the identification of students who are at risk for low achievement in mathematics and provides support for the interpretation of screening scores to inform instruction. The study results demonstrate that a reading screening assessment predicted poor performance on a mathematics outcome with similar levels of accuracy as screening assessments that specifically measure mathematics skills.*The Effects of the Elevate Math Summer Program on Math Achievement and Algebra Readiness*. (REL West, July 2015). This randomized trial examined the effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and Algebra readiness, as well as math interest and self-efficacy, among rising 8th grade students in California's Silicon Valley. The Elevate Math summer math program targets students who score in the range between "high basic" and "low proficient" on state math tests.*Participation and Pass Rates for College Preparatory Transition Courses in Kentucky*(REL Appalachia, January 2015) The purpose of this study was to examine Kentucky high school students' participation and pass rates in college preparatory transition courses, which are voluntary remedial courses in math and reading offered to grade 12 students in the state.*Gearing Up to Teach the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in Rural Northeast Region Schools*(REL Northeast and Islands, December 2014). This study describes key challenges and necessary supports related to implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics identified by rural math educators in the Northeast. The research team interviewed state and district math coordinators and surveyed teachers to assess their most pressing challenges and associated needs.*Who Repeats Algebra I, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course is Repeated?*(REL West, November 2014). This study explores the prevalence of students repeating Algebra I, who is most likely to repeat the course, and the level of improvement for students who repeat. Using six years of data from a cohort of 3,400 first-time seventh grade students in a California school district, authors found that 44 percent of students repeated Algebra I.*Using Assessment Data to Guide Math Course Placement of California Middle School Students*(REL West, September 2014). This report provides findings from a study of placements that were based on different test scores available for middle school students in California. Findings indicate that placement into grade 8 Algebra I based solely on students' grade 6 California Standards Test (CST) proficiency status results in some students taking the course who have less than a 40 percent chance of succeeding.*Meeting Oregon's New High School Math Graduation Requirements: Examining Student Enrollment and Teacher Availability*(REL Northwest, April 2012). The study was motivated by a 2005 Oregon law that requires students to take three years of mathematics courses at the Algebra I level or above (advanced math), beginning with the Class of 2014. This study examines the percentage of Oregon students enrolled in high school-level math courses during 2006/07 and 2007/08 who would have been on track to graduate had the new mathematics requirements been in place.*Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Impact on Elementary School Mathematics in the Central Region: Final Report*(REL Central, 2011). This study was conducted to provide educators and policymakers with rigorous evidence about the potential of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL) to improve student achievement. Analysis did not reveal a statistically significant impact of CASL on the school-level average mathematics achievement of grade 4 and grade 5 students.

**Archived Webinars**

*The Strength of Partnerships: Supporting Design and Implementation of Equity-Oriented, Cohesive, Evidence-Based Mathematics Professional Learning Models*(REL Appalachia, October 5, 2021). The National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics Annual Conference focuses on important issues for leaders in mathematics education. This year's NCSM conference featured a virtual component, with a session presentation from REL Appalachia staff on the design and implementation of a coherent professional learning model (PLM), using interconnected, evidence-based learning experiences to enhance educators' mathematics instruction to support student achievement and success.*Algebra I and College Preparatory Diploma Outcomes Among Virginia Students: Findings and Discussion*(REL Appalachia, October 5, 2021). The National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics Annual Conference focuses on important issues for leaders in mathematics education. This year's NCSM conference featured a virtual component, with a session presentation from REL Appalachia staff, who shared outcomes from a REL Appalachia study of mathematics coursetaking pathways of students who completed Algebra in grades 7-9 in Virginia. The study compared outcomes for students who achieved the same proficiency levels on their state mathematics assessment in grade 5. The session explored how pathways differ for various student populations, as well as the implications for policy and practice.*Implementing a Professional Learning Model to Improve Mathematics Teaching Webinar 1*(REL Appalachia, April 14, 2021). This is the first of two webinars on building the capacity of mathematics instructional leaders, coaches, and school administrators to design and implement a professional learning model (PLM) to improve mathematics teaching. REL Appalachia staff introduce free, evidence-based resources to mathematics teacher leaders, coaches, and school administrators for use in planning their school- or district-level PLM, including resources relevant to remote or blended settings.*Algebra for All: Focus on Visual Representations*(REL Appalachia, October 17, 2018). This webinar shares research-based strategies that support all learners in preparing for algebra I, including English learner students and students who are struggling. Presenters focus on the use of visual representations to support mathematics content learning and reviewed mathematics tasks to demonstrate using visual representations to see algebraic relationships. Webinar presenters highlight research throughout, including recommendations from Institute of Education Sciences (IES) practice guides.*Assisting Struggling Students with Mathematics*(REL Central, September 21, 2017). This webinar presents research-based approaches to assisting students who are struggling in math. It focuses on recommendations from the What Works Clearinghouse practice guide Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention for Elementary and Middle Schools (Gersten et al., 2009). The webinar includes examples of instructional strategies related to those recommendations and resources and actionable knowledge that educators can implement to meet the needs of students.*Building Educators' Understanding of Early Math to Promote Students' Later Math Success*(REL West, October 22, 2015). In this archived webinar, Dr. Douglas Frye and Dr. Akihiko Takahashi share practical, research-based information about the IES Teaching Math to Young Children Practice Guide and recommendations for instruction.*Building Positive Math Attitudes Training Series*(REL Northwest, 2017–2018). This series was designed to build the capacity of upper-elementary teachers to improve students' attitudes and beliefs about math. Using a train-the-trainer model, each session has an accompanying set of materials (agendas, handouts, guides for facilitating interactive activities, and PowerPoint slides) that synthesize research on specific math attitudes and provide customized age- and setting-appropriate instructional support.*Changing Developmental Math from a Gatekeeper to a Bridge: The Promise of New Math Pathways*(REL Northwest, May 18, 2016). Few students who take postsecondary remedial or developmental math courses progress to college math and achieve their educational goals. This webinar recording highlights innovative strategies and policies community colleges are implementing across the country to create new developmental math pathways that use engaging content aligned to students' fields of study and reduce barriers to college success.*Coaching to Assist Teachers of Students Struggling in Mathematics*(REL Central, September 17, 2015). This webinar provided participants with a deeper understanding of how mathematics coaching can support teachers with students who are struggling to learn mathematics. This coaching increases teacher knowledge about intervention instruction in mathematics and the impact of monitoring students' progress through available resources, and warns against content and instructional practices that actually interfere with struggling students learning mathematics.*Early Childhood Math: Geometry, Patterns, Measurements, and Data Analysis*(REL Central, January 2020). This REL Central video focuses on actionable strategies to increase the quality of math instruction in children's early years. This brief discussion delves into the key components of "shapes and space" using Recommendation 2, "Teach geometry, patterns, measurement, and data analysis using a developmental progression" from the What Work's Clearinghouse practice guide Teaching Math to Young Children.*Early Childhood Math: Number and Operations*(REL Central, January 2020). This REL Central video focuses on actionable strategies to increase the quality of math instruction in children's early years. This brief discussion delves into the key components of "early number knowledge" using Recommendation 1, "Teach number and operations using a developmental progression" from the What Work's Clearinghouse practice guide Teaching Math to Young Children.*Early Childhood Math: Questioning Strategies*(REL Central, October 2019). This REL video focuses on actionable strategies to increase the quality of math instruction in the early years and to improve general language and broad cognitive competencies for learners.*Identifying and Assisting Elementary and Middle School Students Struggling with Mathematics*(REL Appalachia, December 4, 2013).This webinar focuses on equipping elementary and middle school mathematics teachers and curriculum coaches with: 1) research-based recommendations or identifying students struggling with mathematics, and 2) guidance on strengthening mathematics instruction and support for these students.*Improving Alaska Students' College Math Readiness*(REL Northwest, December 2013). High school and college math faculty and administrators learned about rigorous research on reforms and interventions geared toward improving students' preparation for postsecondary math courses.*Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8*(REL Appalachia, September 30, 2014). This webinar provided recommendations for instruction to improve students' problem-solving skills, along with strategies for division-level leaders as they make curricular decisions and develop and implement professional development for teachers. This event focused on the research and recommendations found in IES Practice Guides "Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 through 8" and "Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools."*Instructional Shifts in the CCSS for Mathematics*(REL West, October 11, 2012). This 90-minute webinar by Phil Daro, Site Field Director at Strategic Education Research Partnership and conference presenter, featured a more in-depth discussion of the topic.*Language, Discussion, and Questions in Early Math*(REL Central, May 2018). This recorded webinar presents research-based strategies that support early childhood language development and mathematical thinking through posing rich mathematical questions. It reviews strategies to implement Recommendation 4, "Teach children to view and describe their world mathematically," from the WWC practice guide Teaching Math to Young Children (Frye et al., 2013)*Mathematical Thinking and Communication: Access for English Learner Students*(REL Northeast and Islands, December 8, 2015). Although many educators consider mathematics to be a "universal language" and assume that English learner students (ELs) can do well in math independent of language, research shows that the ability to understand math and reason mathematically is closely linked to language proficiency. This webinar presents current research findings that demonstrate the importance of language proficiency for math learning among ELs. Participants engage with visual representations and explore their use to support mathematical reasoning and communication for English learners.*Mathematics Instruction and the Common Core: Where Do We Go from Here?*(REL Mid-Atlantic, October 1, 2015). In this webinar, Dr. William Schmidt of Michigan State University led a discussion of how the Common Core Standards affect the content of math instruction and presented helpful instructional tools for promoting the higher order conceptual thinking found in the standards.*Planting the Seeds for CCSS-M*(REL West, October 22, 2015). In this video, Dr. Akihiko Takahashi emphasizes the importance of problem solving when teaching mathematics to young students. He contrasts problem solving, "a task for which the solution is not known in advance," with exercises which students already know how to solve. Takahashi encourages teachers to challenge students to explore multiple strategies for problem solving.*Practices for Raising Student Achievement in Rural Districts*(REL Central, May 24, 2016). Matthew Irvin, PhD (University of South Carolina) shares an overview of his work on the effective use of online learning in rural schools with a particular focus on the effective use of learner-centered principles from an experimental study on student retention in distance education courses in rural schools.*Setting Up for Success: Preparing High School Students for College-level Math*(REL Northeast and Islands, February 14, 2019). This webinar presented research on efforts to reduce rates of student placement in college remedial mathematics. Researcher Dr. Angela Boatman shared findings from a recent impact evaluation of a pre-college remediation intervention—the Seamless Alignment and Integrated Learning Support (SAILS) program in Tennessee. Dr. Marla Davis from the Mississippi Department of Education discussed her state's experience implementing a pre-college math readiness program, including challenges, successes, and lessons learned.*Strategies to Increase Access and Success for Underrepresented Students in CTE and STEM*(REL Northwest, June 2017). This webinar shared tools and strategies to promote the participation, persistence, and completion of underrepresented students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and career and technical education (CTE) programs. Dr. Ben Williams from the National Alliance for Partnerships in Equity introduced a framework for collecting and using data to identify equity gaps and root causes, as well as implementing strategies to address these gaps.*Supporting Hispanic Students Preparing for STEM Careers - Practitioner Presentation*(REL Southwest, September 24, 2015). The webinar presents research on factors that influence Hispanic students' success in attaining science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) degrees, as well as strategies to support Hispanic students in preparing for college in STEM disciplines.*Teaching Math to Young Children*(REL Southwest, April 15, 2015). This bridge event webinar, "Teaching Math to Young Children," was hosted by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Southwest on April 15, 2015. The webinar presents an overview of the What Works Clearinghouse Teaching Math to Young Children practice guide, with a focus on teaching children to view their world mathematically.*Teacher Qualifications Associated with Success in Algebra I*(REL Central, March 2020). This REL Central webinar discusses new research on teacher qualifications associated with student success in Algebra I. Presenters provide an overview of the REL Central report Associations Between the Qualifications of Middle School Algebra I Teachers and Student Math Achievement. Additionally, they cover background on the design and constructs involved in math teacher certification exams.*Teaching Rational Numbers to Middle Schoolers*(REL Appalachia, August 26, 2015). REL Appalachia held a webinar on instructional strategies for improving instruction on rational numbers, a critical concept area in middle school mathematics. The webinar addressed the reasons students struggle with rational numbers and why it is a difficult subject to teach. It also provided specific, research-based strategies for teaching foundational concepts within the subject area.*Using Online Courses to Expand Access to Algebra I*(REL Northeast and Islands, May 17, 2012). Two new studies funded by the Institute for Education Sciences explore the impact of an online Algebra I course on student achievement. While the studies tested different interventions with different populations of students, both found that an online course could be effective at helping students learn Algebra.*Using Questioning Strategies to Support Struggling Math Students*(REL Central, December 2017). This webinar is designed to improve mathematics outcomes in the middle grades by introducing the use of questioning strategies to educators. Questioning strategies are explicit instruction discussed in the practice guide Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention for Elementary and Middle Schools (Gersten et al., 2009).

**Videos**

*How to Boost Your Middle Schooler's Math Confidence and Success*(REL Northwest). Middle school is all about transition—sometimes with surprising shifts in attitude and confidence. As the teen years approach, students enrolled in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses might feel frustrated with math, even if they excelled at it when they were younger. This REL Northwest video offers research-based ways parents can help their child respond to math challenges in positive ways and understand how and why math skills matter.*Teaching strategies for improving Algebra knowledge: A Practice Guide*(REL Central). This video describes the What Works Clearinghouse practice guide, Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle School and High School Students. The video briefly provides an overview of the guide's three evidence-based recommendations for teaching algebra to students in middle school and high school.*Two Classroom Strategies to Reduce Students' Math Anxiety*(REL Northwest). Math anxiety affects day-to-day math performance and can keep students away from entire career paths. So, how can we stop math anxiety from spreading? Developed in partnership with Washington STEM, this REL Northwest video demonstrates two evidence-based strategies for reducing elementary students' math anxiety.*Two Strategies to Help Your Child Learn to Love Math*(REL Northwest). When families cultivate children's natural curiosity about numbers and shapes, they can help them develop a lifelong love of math—which can lay the foundation for academic success. This short video by REL Northwest will teach parents and guardians two practical, evidence-based strategies for helping kids learn and appreciate math.

**Infographics**

*Characteristics of Middle School Algebra I Teachers That Were Most Strongly Associated with Student Math Achievement*(REL Central)*Designing and Implementing Transition Courses for College & Career Success*(REL Pacific)*Development of Mathematical Reasoning*(REL Southeast)*Examining educational inequities: How do Algebra I and high school outcomes differ for students who complete Algebra I in grades 7, 8, or 9?*(REL Appalachia)*Foundational Knowledge and Skills for Success in Algebra I*(REL Central)*Functional Reasoning: Part of the Development of Mathematical Reasoning*(REL Southeast)*Impact of Providing Information to Parents in Texas About the Role of Algebra II in College Admission*(REL Southwest)*Multiplicative Reasoning: Part of the Development of Mathematical Reasoning*(REL Southeast)*Proportional Reasoning: Part of the Development of Mathematical Reasoning*(REL Southeast)*Six Steps to Build Research into Cohesive Math Professional Learning*(REL Appalachia)*Solving Mathematical Problems in More than One Way: A Guide for Middle School Teachers*(REL Southeast)*The Sum Is Greater Than the Parts: Engaging Community to Promote Math Learning*(REL Appalachia)*Supporting Your Child in Developing Math Skills for Future Success*(REL Appalachia)*Things to Know About the IES Professional Learning Community (PLC) Facilitator's Guide on Mathematical Problem Solving*(REL Southeast)*Trends in Texas Hispanic student enrollment and performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics*(STEM) (REL Southwest)*Using Number Lines to Teach Number Concepts in the Elementary Grades*(REL Southeast)*What Does it Mean to Think Additively*(REL Southeast)

For more resources in ERIC on the topic of Math, click here.

For more resources in the What Works Clearinghouse on the topic of Math, click here.