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Accommodations for English Language Learner Students: The Effect of Linguistic Modification of Math Test Item Sets




REL West's study on middle school math assessment accommodations found that simplifying the language—or linguistic modification—on standardized math test items made it easier for English Language learners to focus on and grasp math concepts, and thus was a more accurate assessment of their math skills.

The results contribute to the body of knowledge informing assessment practices and accommodations appropriate for English language learner students.

The study examined students' performance on two sets of math items—both the originally worded items and those that had been modified. Researchers analyzed results from three subgroups of students—English learners (EL), non-English language arts proficient (NEP), and English language arts proficient (EP) students.

Key results include:

  • Linguistically modifying the language of mathematics test items did not change the math knowledge being assessed.
  • The effect of linguistic modification on students' math performance varied between the three student subgroups. The results also varied depending on how scores were calculated for each student.
  • For each of the four scoring approaches analyzed, the effect of linguistic modification was greatest for EL students, followed by NEP and EP students.

The RCT summary for this project is available at

Publication Type:

NCEE/REL Evaluation Report

Online Availability:
Publication Date:
June 2010