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REL Midwest Ask A REL Response

Discipline

January 2018

Question:

What does the research say about the relationship of visual, public behavior management displays (e.g., clip charts or behavior management charts) and student well-being (e.g., psychological impact of public shaming or praise)?



Response:

Following an established Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest protocol, we conducted a search for research reports, descriptive studies, and literature reviews on the relationship between visual, public behavior management displays (e.g., clip charts or behavior management charts) and student well-being (e.g., psychological impact of public shaming or praise). For details on the databases and sources, keywords, and selection criteria used to create this response, please see the Methods section at the end of this memo.

Below, we share a sampling of the publicly accessible resources on this topic. The search conducted is not comprehensive; other relevant references and resources may exist. We have not evaluated the quality of references and resources provided in this response, but offer this list to you for your information only.

Research References

Doll, C., McLaughlin, T. F., & Barretto, A. (2013). The token economy: A recent review and evaluation. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 2(1), 131–149. Retrieved from https://www.insikapub.com/index.php/vol-02-no-01-july-2013/2013112-the-token-economy-a-recent-review-and-evaluation

From the abstract: “This article presents a recent and inclusive review of the use of token economies in various environments (schools, home, etc.). Digital and manual searches were carried using the following databases: Google Scholar, Psych Info (EBSCO), and The Web of Knowledge. The search terms included: token economy, token systems, token reinforcement, behavior modification, classroom management, operant conditioning, animal behavior, token literature reviews, and token economy concerns. The criteria for inclusion were studies that implemented token economies in settings where academics were assessed. Token economies have been extensively implemented and evaluated in the past. Few articles in the peer- reviewed literature were found being published recently. While token economy reviews have occurred historically (Kazdin, 1972, 1977, 1982), there has been no recent overview of the research. During the previous several years, token economies in relation to certain disorders have been analyzed and reviewed; however, a recent review of token economies as a field of study has not been carried out. The purpose of this literature review was to produce a recent review and evaluation on the research of token economies across settings.”

Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2008-012. Princeton, NJ: What Works Clearinghouse. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED502720

From the ERIC abstract: “This guide is intended to help elementary school educators as well as school and district administrators develop and implement effective prevention and intervention strategies that promote positive student behavior. The guide includes five recommendations and indicates the quality of the evidence that supports them: (1) Identify the specifics of the problem behavior and the conditions that prompt and reinforce it; (2) Modify the classroom learning environment to decrease problem behavior; (3) Teach and reinforce new skills to increase appropriate behavior and preserve a positive classroom climate; (4) Draw on relationships with professional colleagues and students’ families for continued guidance and support; and (5) Assess whether schoolwide behavior problems warrant adopting schoolwide strategies or programs and, if so, implement ones shown to reduce negative and foster positive interactions. Suggested strategies for carrying out each recommendation are included, identifying potential roadblocks to implementation that may be encountered and possible circumventions.”

Goodman, J. F. (2017). The shame of shaming. Phi Delta Kappan, 99(2), 26–31. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1155606

From the ERIC abstract: “Historically, public schools have often used shaming techniques to discipline students, even though researchers have found shaming to be not just an ineffective means of curtailing misbehavior, but, more important, psychologically harmful to children. The author reviewed policy documents from nine leading charter management organizations and found that they provide official support for specific disciplinary practices that entail shaming.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Krach, S. K., McCreery, M. P., & Rimel, H. (2017). Examining teachers’ behavioral management charts: A comparison of Class Dojo and paper-pencil methods. Contemporary School Psychology, 21(3), 267–275. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1150000

From the ERIC abstract: “Many teachers report using behavioral management charts in their classrooms as a means of managing student behaviors, but little is known about exactly what behaviors teachers are charting, or specifically how. Misunderstanding over how real-world teachers maintain behavioral charts may cause miscommunication between the teacher and the school psychologist. This study sought to determine how teachers collect and track behavioral data. Researchers examined behavioral charts used by teachers in a Title I elementary school that reported using Positive Behavioral Intervention Supports (PBIS). Researchers evaluated charts for ten classrooms (~150 students) and compared the type of data collected by each teacher for each child. Findings indicated that teachers either used no system, their own systems, or a computer-based system (Class Dojo) for charting behavior. An analysis of each of these systems found that Class Dojo provided significantly more data (positive and negative notations) in general, as well as more reliable data than any other system reviewed. Discussions of these findings within a PBIS framework, as well as general concerns about the computer-based system, are provided.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Krach, S. K., McCreery, M. P., Wilcox, R., & Focaracci, S. D. (2017). Positive behavioral supports: Empirically supported use of behavioral logs. Intervention in School and Clinic, 53(2), 67–73. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1155900

From the ERIC abstract: “Teachers commonly use behavioral logs as a primary method for controlling classroom behavior, but frequently they are using these logs incorrectly. For this reason, this article provides specific information on how to correctly use behavioral logs for techniques such as check-in/check-out, behavioral report cards, and token economies. Each of these are described in terms of empirical support for their use and how they would be integrated into a positive behavioral and intervention support model. Concrete examples are provided for school-based practitioners to use when working with their own students.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and treatment of children, 31(3), 351–380. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ798223

From the ERIC abstract: “Classroom management is a critical skill area. Teachers should be trained and supported in implementing practices that are likely to be successful; that is, practices that are backed by evidence. The purpose of this paper is to describe the outcomes of a systematic literature search conducted to identify evidence-based classroom management practices. Although the need for additional research exists, 20 practices, in general, were identified as having sufficient evidence to be considered for classroom adoption. Considerations for incorporating these practices are suggested, and a self-assessment tool is proposed as means of evaluating and enhancing use of these practices. Suggestions for future research are also presented.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Tillery, A., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., & Collins, A. S. (2010). General education teachers’ perceptions of behavior management and intervention strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 86–102. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ875293

From the ERIC abstract: “In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with kindergarten and first-grade general education teachers to determine their perceptions of student behavior. This study describes the teachers’ perspectives of and approaches to behavior management and intervention strategies (e.g., use of praise, rewards, implementation of classroom management, and knowledge about PBIS and RTI). A unique contribution of this study is the in-depth data that provide specific descriptions of the teachers’ perceptions. Findings indicated that the teachers in this study tended to concentrate more on individual student behavior when describing behavior management strategies than on group or schoolwide behavior. In addition, the teachers were unfamiliar with RTI and PBIS despite training occurring in the system on these initiatives during the study. Lastly, the teachers perceived themselves as strong influences on student behavior development and described the use of positive strategies. Meeting teachers’ training needs for implementation of schoolwide PBIS and topics for future research are discussed.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Methods

Keywords and Search Strings

The following keywords and search strings were used to search the reference databases and other sources:

  • “Classroom techniques” “student behavior” charts

  • Shaming

  • “Behavior management” chart

  • “Self-concept” charts student behavior

  • Impact of behavior clip charts on student well-being

  • Graduated discipline system “shame-based” student behavior

  • Clip chart

  • Public shaming

  • “Project Achieve” classroom management

  • Check-in/check-out

Databases and Search Engines

We searched ERIC for relevant resources. ERIC is a free online library of more than 1.6 million citations of education research sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). Additionally, we searched IES and Google Scholar.

Reference Search and Selection Criteria

When we were searching and reviewing resources, we considered the following criteria:

  • Date of the publication: References and resources published over the last 15 years, from 2002 to present, were include in the search and review.

  • Search priorities of reference sources: Search priority is given to study reports, briefs, and other documents that are published or reviewed by IES and other federal or federally funded organizations.

  • Methodology: We used the following methodological priorities/considerations in the review and selection of the references: (a) study types—randomized control trials, quasi-experiments, surveys, descriptive data analyses, literature reviews, policy briefs, and so forth, generally in this order, (b) target population, samples (e.g., representativeness of the target population, sample size, volunteered or randomly selected), study duration, and so forth, and (c) limitations, generalizability of the findings and conclusions, and so forth.
This memorandum is one in a series of quick-turnaround responses to specific questions posed by educational stakeholders in the Midwest Region (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin), which is served by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL Region) at American Institutes for Research. This memorandum was prepared by REL Midwest under a contract with the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES), Contract ED-IES-17-C-0007, administered by American Institutes for Research. Its content does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of IES or the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.