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REL Midwest Ask A REL Response

Early Warning Systems

April 2018

Question:

What does the research say about the types of initiatives and programs that have the greatest impact on academic achievement for homeless and high-mobility students?



Response:

Following an established Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest protocol, we conducted a search for research reports and descriptive studies on initiatives and programs with the greatest impact on academic achievement for homeless and high-mobility students. For details on the databases and sources, keywords, and selection criteria used to create this response, please see the Methods section at the end of this memo.

Below, we share a sampling of the publicly accessible resources on this topic. References are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in order of relevance. The search conducted is not comprehensive; other relevant references and resources may exist. For each reference, we provide an abstract, excerpt, or summary written by the study’s author or publisher. We have not evaluated the quality of these references, but provide them for your information only.

Research References

Bejarano, C., & Valverde, M. (2012). From the fields to the university: Charting educational access and success for farmworker students using a community cultural wealth framework. Journal of the Association of Mexican American Educators, 6(2), 22–29. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ995438. Full text available at http://amaejournal.utsa.edu/index.php/amae/article/view/88

From the ERIC abstract: “In 2002, the New Mexico State University College Assistance Migrant Program (NMSU CAMP) was created to increase the number of baccalaureate degrees held by students from farmworker backgrounds by mediating structural impediments that typically normalize post-secondary inequities for this population. Migrant and seasonal farmworker students are significantly marginalized and underserved in the United States. There is also a notable lack of research exploring their success in higher education. This article addresses this gap through an exploratory analysis of quantitative and qualitative data spanning years 2006-2011 that include 130 self- administered questionnaires, six key informant interviews, and numerous observations. A ‘community cultural wealth’ framework [CCW] (Yosso, 2005) is utilized to explore factors contributing to students’ entrance into the university and their persistence thereafter. The findings suggest that farmworker students utilized the notions of ‘familia’ and ‘pedagogies of the home’ (Delgado Bernal, 2001) to navigate their transition inside an unfamiliar terrain, while the CAMP program itself utilized similar notions of ‘familia’ to break the practice of ‘manufacturing sameness’ typically experienced by students in the freshmen year.”

Clemens, E., Hess, R. S., Strear, M. M., Rue, L., Rizzolo, S., & Henninger, J. (2018). Promoting resilience in youth experiencing homelessness through implementation of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Preventing School Failure, 62(2), 105–115. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1172970

From the ERIC abstract: “This Consensual Qualitative Research study explored experiences of youth, families, and homeless liaisons to better understand how educational environments can foster resilience among youth experiencing homelessness. The purpose of the study was to provide educational stakeholders with guidance on how to actualize the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act into saturated services that promote strength, hope, and high expectations for youth experiencing homelessness. A bioecological framework was used to conceptualize the interplay of systems. Four domains emerged from participants’ collective beliefs on the implementation of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act: critical incidents, philosophy of services, community and school collaboration, and relationships with families. Lessons learned and implications for school practice are discussed.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Dill, V., Lopez, P., Stahlke, T., & Stamp, J. (2016). Boosting student attendance: Beyond stickers, stars, and candy bars. Educational Leadership, 74(3). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1119251

From the ERIC abstract: “We know that students cannot learn if they are not in school, and that students with economic challenges miss school more frequently than other students. What obstacles create this attendance gap, and how can school districts provide the supports to improve attendance for these students? The authors of this article, who work with the Texas Homeless Education Office at the Charles A. Dana Center University of Texas at Austin, describe how 135 Texas school districts have used intensive attendance tracking and targeted support to raise the attendance rates of their homeless student populations. The authors write that other districts could use these same strategies to improve attendance for other students struggling with the challenges of poverty.”

Dukes, C. (2013). College access and success for students experiencing homelessness: A toolkit for educators and service providers. Minneapolis, MN: National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED558534. Full text available at http://www.fostercareandeducation.org/DesktopModules/Bring2mind/DMX/Download.aspx?EntryId=1873&Command=Core_Download&method=inline&PortalId=0&TabId=124

From the ERIC abstract: “This toolkit serves as a comprehensive resource on the issue of higher education access and success for homeless students, including information on understanding homeless students, assisting homeless students in choosing a school, helping homeless students pay for application-related expenses, assisting homeless students in finding financial aid and scholarships for school, and helping homeless students succeed in college.”

Escamilla, A., & Trevino, N.G. (2014). An investigation of the factors contributing to successful completion of undergraduate degrees by the students enrolled in the College Assistance Migrant Program. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 13(3), 158–176. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1027793

From the ERIC abstract: “Students from farmworker families are often cited as having deficits that prohibit completion of undergraduate degree program. Statistics regarding graduates of the College Assistance Migrant Program in a southwestern university have shown graduation rates that are similar to the general population of graduates at that university. This qualitative pilot study reveals some possible implications for how alleged deficits for completing college can be converted into assets.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Gibson, M. A., & Hidalgo, N. (2009). Bridges to success in high school for migrant youth. Teachers College Record, 111(3), 683–711. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ829125

From the ERIC abstract: “Background/Context: Among the children of immigrants, one of the populations placed at greatest risk of not finishing high school are the children of migrant farmworkers. Although it is difficult to track graduation rates for migrant students because of their mobility, the U.S. Department of Education estimates that only half of all migrant children finish high school. These children face many of the same obstacles as children of immigrants whose families must cope with severe economic hardships, but they also must deal with additional challenges associated with their families’ migratory lifestyles and living situations. Purpose: This article offers some background on the barriers that migrant youth face in school; describes the services provided to these young people by the federally funded Migrant Education Program, focusing on the authors’ research on the role of migrant education resource teachers; and discusses the implications of study findings and related research for improving educational opportunities for low-income children of immigrants. Research Design: Findings are drawn from 4 years of ethnographic research in one Northern California high school, where 80% of the Mexican-descent migrant students in the Class of 2002 completed 12th grade, and from a set of comparative interviews carried out with migrant education resource teachers in four additional high schools. The analysis centers on the nature of the relationships that develop between migrant students and migrant teachers, including the teachers’ multiple roles as mentors, counselors, advocates, and role models, and on the kinds of support provided to students that help them navigate successfully through high school. Conclusions/Recommendations: Study findings suggest that the migrant students’ school persistence and academic success were due at least in part to the supplemental services they received from the Migrant Education Program and, in particular, to the support provided to them by the migrant resource teachers. A key to the teachers’ effectiveness was the holistic nature of their relationships with students and their ability to connect students with the resources and networks needed for school success. In addition, the migrant teachers’ own identities as academically successful Mexican Americans, many of them the children of migrant farmworkers themselves, increased their ability to serve as role models and to help students build bridges between their multiple worlds. Findings support many of those reported in the literature on successful college outreach programs. Unlike these programs, the Migrant Education Program is not selective; it serves all eligible students.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Hallett, R. E., Low, J. A., & Skrla, L. (2015). Beyond backpacks and bus tokens: Next steps for a district homeless student initiative. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 28(6), 693–713. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1070433

From the ERIC abstract: “How policies get translated and enacted by school districts frame how students experience reforms associated with federal law. This qualitative case study of a Northern California school district explores the importance of integrating homeless student initiatives within all aspects of the district functioning. Drawing from the equity framework of Skrla, McKenzie, Scheurich, and Dickerson (2011), the authors investigate the roles of the administrative, political, and professional systems as a school district enacts McKinney-Vento mandates. Findings suggest the following: (1) the complexity of HHM student experiences require more than counting students; (2) districts should consider how HHM students and associated programming fit within the district mission; and, (3) the educational needs of HHM students exceed access to school sites. Based upon these findings, states and districts should track HHM student performance in order to more fully understand the needs of this marginalized population as well as to evaluate initiatives designed to serve these students.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Howland, A., Chen, L.-T., Chen, M.-E., & Min, M. (2017). Exploring socio-demographics, mobility, and living arrangement as risk factors for academic performance among children experiencing homelessness. Preventing School Failure, 61(4), 268–279. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1155975

From the ERIC abstract: “Homeless children usually experience high mobility. Yet, it is not clear if the degree of mobility among homeless children is associated with their academic performance. Furthermore, an emerging body of literature is beginning to examine the impact of specific living arrangements (e.g., living with families or friends) on homeless family and child outcomes. This research aimed to examine the effects of demographic risk factors, as well as mobility and type of living arrangement, on the academic performance of homeless children receiving educational support through the McKinney-Vento Act. Although neither mobility or living arrangement were associated with standardized test achievement, minority status, gender, special learning needs, and absenteeism still presented as risk factors for academic achievement in this sample of children experiencing homelessness. Recommendations for teacher practices and classroom instructions are presented.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Ingram, E. S., Bridgeland, J. M., Reed, B., & Atwell, M. (2017). Hidden in plain sight: Homeless students in America’s public schools. Washington, DC: Civic Enterprises. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED572753

From the ERIC abstract: “Student homelessness is on the rise, with more than 1.3 million homeless students identified during the 2013-14 school year. This is a 7 percent increase from the previous year and more than double the number of homeless students in 2006-07. As high as these numbers seem, they are almost certainly undercounts. Despite increasing numbers, these students—as well as the school liaisons and state coordinators who support them—report that student homelessness remains an invisible and extremely disruptive problem. Students experiencing homelessness struggle to stay in school, to perform well, and to form meaningful connections with peers and adults. Ultimately, they are much more likely to fall off track and eventually drop out of school more often than their non-homeless peers. This study: (1) provides an overview of existing research on homeless students; (2) sheds light on the challenges homeless students face and the supports they say they need to succeed; (3) reports on the challenges adults—local liaisons and state coordinators—face in trying to help homeless students; and (4) recommends changes in policy and practice at the school, community, state and national level to help homeless students get on a path to adult success.”

Masten, A. S., Fiat, A. E., Labella, M. H., & Strack, R. A. (2015). Educating homeless and highly mobile students: Implications of research on risk and resilience. School Psychology Review, 44(3), 315–330. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1141554

From the ERIC abstract: “Homelessness among children in poverty continues to confront schools, educators, and policymakers with major challenges. This commentary summarizes findings from 2 decades of research on academic risk and resilience in children experiencing homelessness. Recent research corroborates the early conclusion that although children experiencing homelessness share many risks with other disadvantaged children, they fall higher on a continuum of cumulative risk. Research also indicates resilience, with many homeless students succeeding in school. Implications for educational practice, training, research, and policy are discussed, particularly regarding school psychology. Evidence underscores the importance of identification, assessment, and administrative data; outreach and communication to ensure that mandated educational rights of homeless children are met; and coordinating education across schools and systems to provide continuity of services and learning. Early childhood education, screening, and access to quality programs are important for preventing achievement disparities that emerge early and persist among these students. Additional research is needed to inform, improve, and evaluate interventions to mitigate risk and promote school success of students facing homelessness.”

Miller, P. M., Pavlakis, A., Samartino, L., & Bourgeois, A. (2015). Brokering educational opportunity for homeless students and their families. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 28(6), 730–749. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1070450

From the ERIC abstract: “This qualitative study in a Midwestern US city examines how school and community-based organizations support homeless students’ connections to education-related resources and relationships. Drawing from organizational brokerage theory, which delineates how individuals’ chances to thrive are shaped by the organizations in which they participate, the study finds that brokerage practice unfolds and is affected by variables at three specific levels. First, social workers, teachers, and principals at the ‘individual school’ level arranged for registration, enrollment, and other immediate connections for students. Second, ‘school district’-level actors played key roles in orchestrating homeless students’ transportation and educators’ professional development across the city. Third, a range of ‘neighborhood factors’—including immigration and housing trends—affected the ways and extents to which organizations identified and supported homeless students. The study concludes by presenting several implications for research and practice.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE. (2013). Housing and education collaborations to serve homeless children, youth, and families (Best Practices in Interagency Collaboration Brief Series). Greensboro, NC: Author. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED574594

From the ERIC abstract: “While both the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and he U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) base their services and eligibility criteria on the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (hereafter referred to as ‘The McKinney-Vento Act’), each agency uses a different definition of ‘homeless’ due to differences in the federal statute. This brief is designed for staff of homeless assistance programs and members of Continuums of Care (CoCs) funded by HUD, as well as for State Coordinators for Homeless Education and local homeless education liaisons who operate under the guidance of ED. The brief provides basic information to help homeless service providers and homeless education staff understand each other’s role in supporting children, youth, and families experiencing homelessness, while offering tools to enhance collaboration among agencies. A section on federal definitions of ‘Homeless’ is included.”

National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE. (2015). Local homeless education liaisons: Important information for new liaisons (Best Practices in Homeless Education Brief Series). Greensboro, NC: Author. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED574622

From the ERIC abstract: “Homeless children and youth experience many challenges in enrolling and attending school and achieving educational success. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (reauthorized under Title X, Part C of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and subsequently referred to as the McKinney-Vento Act in this brief) ensures rights and services for homeless children and youth that remove barriers to their education. School districts or local educational agencies (LEAs) are responsible for identifying homeless children and youth and linking them with educational and other services. The McKinney-Vento Act requires every school district to appoint a local homeless liaison (local liaison) [42 U.S.C. § 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii)]. A local liaison who has the skills and capacity to carry out the position is key to ensuring that homeless children and youth receive all protections and services necessary for them to succeed in school. By describing a set of steps to orient new local liaisons to their position, this brief will assist with (1) understanding the responsibilities of the position; (2) becoming familiar with procedures and resources for serving homeless students in their LEA; (3) determining where to target time and effort; and (4) identifying resources and support for becoming an effective homeless liaison. The brief also includes information on and links to helpful resources.”

National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE. (2015). Supporting college completion for students experiencing homelessness (Best Practices in Homeless Education Brief Series). Greensboro, NC: Author. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED574624

From the ERIC abstract: “Since the College Cost Reduction and Access Act ([CCRAA], 20 U.S.C. § 1001 et seq.) was signed into law in September of 2007, the issue of college access for youth experiencing homelessness has garnered increased attention. Among other provisions, the CCRAA confers independent student status on unaccompanied homeless youth. This status allows these youths’ federal financial aid packages to be calculated based on their own income and assets, and not those of their parent(s) or guardian(s), and eliminates the need for the signature of a parent or guardian on the youths’ Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). This CCRAA provision has helped to ensure that unaccompanied homeless youth have access to the financial support necessary to pay for college. Gaining entry to college and securing financial aid, however, are only the first steps along the path to degree completion. While college entry statistics for low-income, first-generation college students demonstrate a modest narrowing of the gap between students in the top and bottom income quartiles (The Pell Institute 2015), bachelor’s degree attainment statistics are far less encouraging. In response to the continued gap in degree attainment between low-income and high-income students, post-secondary institutions around the country are building programs aimed at providing post-matriculation support for students at high risk of dropping out, including students experiencing homelessness. This brief examines how the following universities are supporting their homeless student populations with the intention of spotlighting promising practices that may be replicated at other post-secondary institutions across the country: (1) Florida State University (FSU); (2) Kennessaw State University (KSU); and (3) the University of Massachusetts Boston (UMB). Chosen for their varying approaches to program development, these institutions demonstrate what can be done with no dedicated funding, a modest investment of institutional funding, and a fully-funded university center.”

Nuñez, A.-M., & Gildersleeve, R. E. (2016). Sociocritical matters: Migrant students’ college access. Educational Policy, 30(3), 501–535. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1097043

From the ERIC abstract: “Migrant students face many educational, economic, social, and cultural challenges to college access. Anti-bilingual, anti-affirmative action, and anti-immigrant policies also constrain their postsecondary pathways. With these issues in mind, this article draws on quantitative and qualitative research to examine the influence of a residential outreach program at a public university on migrant student participants’ college access. We find evidence that cultivating sociocritical skills to challenge exclusionary political and economic systems while also cultivating academic skills and knowledge about college can broaden migrant students’ sense of postsecondary possibilities. To expand college access for migrant students, we suggest that outreach programs address the development of these and other skills.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Parke, C. S., & Kanyongo, G. Y. (2012). Student attendance, mobility, and mathematics achievement in an urban school district. Journal of Educational Research, 105(3), 161–175. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ960684

From the ERIC abstract: “The authors aim to describe student attendance-mobility within a large urban district in ways that are meaningful and useful to schools and the community. First, the prevalence of mobility and nonattendance in Grades 1-12 across all students and by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic subgroups is presented. Second, the impact on student mathematics achievement is examined. Results show that nonattendance-mobility negatively impact mathematics achievement as measured by the state’s assessment, even after controlling for socioeconomic status and gender. Interestingly, there is not a differential impact across ethnicities. Black and White subgroups show similar patterns of achievement across attendance and mobility levels. Finally, the authors take a closer look at the 10 district high schools to determine where nonattendance-mobility is of particular concern. Implications for districts are discussed in terms of targeting the extent of the problem and where it is occurring, using that information to improve attendance and reduce mobility, and finally, instituting systematic approaches to deal with student movement in and out of schools.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Ramirez, A. D. (2012). The impact of the College Assistance Migrant Program on migrant student academic achievement in the California State University system. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 11(1), 3–13. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ964594

From the ERIC abstract: “The 7-year longitudinal study examined the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP) impact on migrant student achievement in the California State University system. Participants included migrant students, Latinos, and general student populations from 2002-2009. The analysis of variance and chi-square test of independence were used to explore statistical differences in persistence, 1st-year and cumulative grade point averages, and baccalaureate degree attainment. When compared with other groups, CAMP students were found to have higher academic achievement.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Sosa, S. I., Peek, S., Muhammad, S., Gonder, T., Cook, J., Bolton, J., et al. (2013). Advocating for the McKinney-Vento Homelessness Act: The role of professional counselors. Georgia School Counselors Association Journal, 20(1). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1072610

From the ERIC abstract: “Homeless youth in the United States is rapidly increasing with more children living in unstable or temporary environments. They may encounter difficulties meeting enrollment requirements, have poor attendance, low academic performance, and experience behavioral and emotional issues. The reauthorization of McKinney-Vento Act (MCKV) in 2002 was created to overcome these obstacles. However, many school districts are not implementing these regulations and very little research exists on the effectiveness of MCKV, which this paper will explore.”

Sulkowski, M. L. (2016). The student homelessness crisis and the role of school psychology: Missed opportunities, room for improvement, and future directions. Psychology in the Schools, 53(7), 760–771. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1106458

From the ERIC abstract: “Affecting more than 1 million youth, student homelessness is growing at an unprecedented rate in the United States. This is alarming because homeless students face significant barriers to their academic success and positive life outcomes. Unfortunately, despite the significant risks and challenges they face, homeless students often are overlooked and not provided with important educational and social-emotional supports. In addition, information on student homelessness is relatively limited in the school psychology literature and practice guidelines, which can forestall efforts to help these students. To date, only a few empirical articles have been published on student homelessness in school psychology journals and in practitioner-related literature. To help address this paucity, this article discusses barriers to the academic success of homeless students, as well as ways to reduce these barriers. Additionally, important protective factors, resilience, and ways to overcome homelessness-related stigma are reviewed. Lastly, ways that school psychologists can become key stakeholders in efforts to help support the academic and life success of homeless students are discussed. The overall goal for this article is to encourage school psychologists to redouble their efforts to support a highly at-risk yet often neglected student population.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Uretsky, M. C., & Stone, S. (2016). Factors associated with high school exit exam outcomes among homeless high school students. Children & Schools, 38(2), 91–98. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1096458

From the ERIC abstract: “Little is known about academic performance among homeless high school students, although correlates of academic performance are well documented among their peers in the elementary and middle school grades. This study explores the relationship between student-level demographic and academic performance indicators (for example, grade point average [GPA], attendance, standardized test score performance) and high school exit exam performance (that is, whether students took and passed high school exit exams, respectively) in a sample of 10th- to 12th-grade students identified as homeless by their district’s McKinney-Vento program (N = 494 students in 25 high schools). Factors related to taking the exit exams included grade level, cumulative GPA, and previous test-taking behavior. Among students who had taken the exit exams, standardized test scores, GPA, and English fluency related to exit exam outcomes, suggesting the potential for academic skills remediation among this subgroup. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for future research, practice, and policy.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Welsh, R. O. (2018). Opposite sides of the same coin? Exploring the connections between school absenteeism and student mobility. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 23(1–2), 70–92. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1174388

From the ERIC abstract: “Mobile students and absent students are important subsets of at-risk students in schools and districts nationwide. As such, student mobility and school absenteeism are two challenges in K-12 education with significant policy and equity implications. Although both issues are at the nexus of schooling and society and there is an apparent overlap in the attributes of these student subgroups, school absenteeism and student mobility are often discussed in separate conversations. This article connects the two disparate literatures in hopes of forging stronger ties that may benefit policymakers, researchers, educators, and students. The limited empirical evidence is mixed but suggests that school absenteeism and student mobility are correlated and absenteeism plays a small mediating role in the relationship between student mobility and student outcomes. The reasons underlying student mobility and student absenteeism are interrelated but not all reasons are common. The overlapping causes of student mobility and chronic absenteeism indicate that economic and social circumstances are important underlying factors. In particular, poverty is a key shared reason for missing or switching schools. Although both phenomena contribute to disparities in educational opportunities, experiences, and outcomes, this study posits that changing schools and missing school provide instructive examples of how inequality in society may be reproduced in districts and schools. Recommendations to address both phenomena and directions for future research are discussed.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Additional Organizations to Consult

National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth – http://naehcy.org/

From the website: “The National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth (NAEHCY) is a national membership association dedicated to educational equity and excellence for children and youth experiencing homelessness. NAEHCY’s vision is that every child and youth experiencing homelessness is successful in school, from early childhood through higher education.”

National Center for Homeless Education – https://nche.ed.gov/

From the website: “Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, the National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) operates the Department’s technical assistance center for the federal Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) Program. In this role, NCHE works with schools, service providers, parents, and other interested stakeholders to ensure that children and youth experiencing homelessness can enroll and succeed in school.”

Methods

Keywords and Search Strings

The following keywords and search strings were used to search the reference databases and other sources:

  • “College Assistance Migrant Program”

  • “highly mobile students”

  • “homeless student” AND “academic achievement”

  • “homeless student” AND “attendance”

  • “homeless student” AND “programs”

  • “migrant student” AND “program”

  • “mobile student” AND “attendance”

  • “student mobility” AND “attendance”

Databases and Search Engines

We searched ERIC for relevant resources. ERIC is a free online library of more than 1.6 million citations of education research sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES).

Reference Search and Selection Criteria

When we were searching and reviewing resources, we considered the following criteria:

  • Date of the publication: References and resources published over the last 15 years, from 2002 to present, were include in the search and review.

  • Search priorities of reference sources: Search priority is given to study reports, briefs, and other documents that are published or reviewed by IES and other federal or federally funded organizations.

  • Methodology: We used the following methodological priorities/considerations in the review and selection of the references: (a) study types—randomized control trials, quasi-experiments, surveys, descriptive data analyses, literature reviews, policy briefs, and so forth, generally in this order, (b) target population, samples (e.g., representativeness of the target population, sample size, volunteered or randomly selected), study duration, and so forth, and (c) limitations, generalizability of the findings and conclusions, and so forth.
This memorandum is one in a series of quick-turnaround responses to specific questions posed by educational stakeholders in the Midwest Region (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin), which is served by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL Region) at American Institutes for Research. This memorandum was prepared by REL Midwest under a contract with the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES), Contract ED-IES-17-C-0007, administered by American Institutes for Research. Its content does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of IES or the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.