Analysis and report preparation are underway
September 2011 – September 2021
Mathematica Policy Research
The Title I and Title II-A programs are part of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). These programs are intended to help provide all students with equal access to education by providing financial assistance to schools and districts which have a high percentage of students from low-income families (Title I) and improving teacher and principal quality (Title II-A). There have been significant policy changes related to Title I and Title II-A since 2001.
ESEA was most recently reauthorized as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) in December 2015. Under Title I, ESSA offers states and districts considerable autonomy while requiring them to adopt challenging academic standards, aligned assessments, and accountability systems that set state-specific accountability goals and identify and support low-performing schools. Under Title II-A, ESSA also provides funding for a broad array of permissible activities to improve the effectiveness of educators and achieve equitable distribution of effective educators. The previous reauthorization of ESEA, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, had similar requirements for the adoption of content standards and assessments. However, NCLB was more prescriptive in the areas of accountability and educator quality; NCLB required that all states set an accountability goal of 100% student proficiency by 2014, and it required that all teachers meet the definition of "highly qualified." Subsequently, a majority of states received ESEA flexibility beginning in 2012, which allowed particular NCLB requirements to be waived in exchange for a commitment to implement various reform principles such as identifying and supporting schools with achievement gaps among student subgroups and implementing educator evaluation systems based on student achievement and multiple observations.
This study is designed to provide relevant data on the implementation of programs and policies related to Title I and Title II-A at several points in time. It will provide implementation data from states, districts, schools, and teachers under NCLB and ESEA flexibility (during the 2013–14 school year). It will also provide implementation data under ESSA (during the 2017–18 and 2019–20 school years).
Data were collected from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, a nationally representative sample of districts and schools, and teachers within those schools through surveys in the 2013–14 school year. Data will be collected from all 50 states and the District of Columbia and a nationally representative sample of districts through surveys in the 2017–18 school year. An additional data collection will take place in the 2019–20 school year, and will include all 50 states and the District of Columbia, as well as a nationally representative sample of districts, schools, and teachers. The data collected from the surveys will inform the first four research questions. State-level math and reading achievement data from state standardized achievement tests and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) will be collected from extant data to inform the fifth research question.
From the first report based on data collected during the 2013–14 school year (prior to ESSA):
A subsequent report is anticipated. The key findings will be updated when that report is released.
The first report, titled Implementation of Title I and II-A Program Initiatives: Results from 2013–14, was released in January 2017.
The second report, which will be based on data collected during the 2017–18 school year (to inform early implementation of ESSA), is expected in 2020 and will be announced on http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/.
A restricted-use file containing de-identified data is available for the purposes of replicating study findings and secondary analysis.