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Reading First Impact Study Final Report

NCEE 2009-4034
October 2008

Exhibit ES.5.  Estimated Impacts of Reading First on Decoding Skill: Grade One, Spring 2007
  Actual Mean with Reading First Estimated Mean without Reading First Impact Effect Size of Impact Statistical Significance of Impact (p-value)
Decoding Skill     
Standard Score 96.9 94.4 2.5 * 0.17 * (0.025)
Corresponding Grade Equivalent 1.7 1.4
Corresponding Percentile 42 35
The Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (TOSWRF) sample includes first-graders in 248 schools from 18 sites (17 school districts and 1 state) located in 13 states. 125 schools are Reading First schools and 123 are non-Reading First schools.
The effect size of the impact is the impact divided by the actual standard deviation of the outcome for the non-Reading First Schools from spring 2007 TOSWRF test scores (1st grade).
The key metric for the TOSWRF analyses is the standard score, corresponding grade equivalents and percentiles are provided for reference. Although the publisher of the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency states that straight comparisons between standard scores and grade equivalents will likely yield discrepancies due to the unreliability of the grade equivalents, they are provided because program criteria are sometimes based on grade equivalents (TOSWRF, Mather et al., 2004).
Values in the "Actual Mean with Reading First" column are actual, unadjusted values for Reading First schools; values in the "Estimated Mean without Reading First" column represent the best estimates of what would have happened in RF schools absent RF funding and are calculated by subtracting the impact estimates from the RF schools' actual mean values.
A two-tailed test of significance was used; statistically significant findings at the p≤.05 level are indicated by *.
EXHIBIT READS: The observed mean silent word reading fluency standard score for first-graders with Reading First was 96.9 standard score points. The estimated mean without Reading First was 94.4 standard score points. The impact of Reading First was 2.5 standard score points (or 0.17 standard deviations), which was statistically significant (p=.025).
SOURCES: RFIS TOSWRF administration in spring 2007