Reference Resources iconReview Protocols

Research has shown that teacher effectiveness is the most important school-based factor that influences student outcomes, including student achievement. Studies have also shown that there is substantial variation in teacher effectiveness, such that some teachers improve student outcomes at a much faster rate than others. The strong influence of teachers on student outcomes, as well as the variation in teacher effectiveness, has led to the creation of numerous programs designed to help teachers improve student outcomes.

This review focuses on interventions aimed at making teachers more effective at improving the achievement of students in grades PK–12. These interventions are targeted at adults who are considering teaching; undergoing teacher preparation; or already employed in the teaching profession. The interventions may be delivered in a variety of educational and training settings. Although the interventions are delivered to teachers (or potential teachers), this review focuses on outcomes for both students and teachers. Student outcomes include measures of achievement, progression in school, social-emotional learning, and behavior. Teacher outcomes include those that research has shown are related to these student outcomes, including teacher retention and instructional practice.

The following research questions guide this review:

  • Which teacher-focused interventions improve achievement, progression in school, social-emotional learning, and behavior for students in grades PK–12?
  • Which teacher-focused interventions improve outcomes for teachers that are related to these student outcomes?



Protocol Details

  • Version: 4.0
  • Released: May 2019
  • Version: 3.2
  • Released: July 2016
  • Version: 3.1
  • Released: May 2015
  • Version: 3.0
  • Released: March 2014

What is a Protocol?

A review protocol defines the scope of a systematic review. Developed with substantive experts, the protocol defines the parameters for the review, including the research, populations, settings, and outcomes. The protocol also specifies details of the literature search and any topic-specific applications of the design standards.

Protocol versions reflect the version of WWC standards in effect when the protocol was released. Protocol versions that predate the current version of the WWC standards handbook can be used to identify acceptable outcome domains for review within a given topic. The current WWC standards are used to guide the review of studies with acceptable outcomes.

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