This review focuses on mathematics interventions that are typically used in kindergarten through grade 8 and are designed to affect students’ mathematics achievement. Whether an intervention falls under the scope of this review depends on both the grade level and content of the intervention. For example, the review can include students in grades 9–12 if they use a primary mathematics intervention such as pre-algebra.
The following research questions guide this review:
- Which interventions are effective at increasing the learning of primary mathematics content and skills?
- Are some primary mathematics interventions more effective for certain types of students, particularly students who are at risk of failure in mathematics?
In June 2015, the WWC restructured our reviews of research on math interventions into two areas instead of three. These two review areas are Primary Mathematics (which includes interventions in which math is presented through multi-topic materials and curricula, typically used in grades K–8), and Secondary Mathematics (which includes interventions that are organized by math content area (e.g., Algebra, Geometry, and Calculus), typically taught in grades 9–12). These two areas replace the prior Elementary School Math, Middle School Math, and High School Math areas, which were organized by student grade level.