The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) review for beginning readers focuses on reading interventions for students in grades K–3 (or ages 5–8) that are intended to increase skills in alphabetics (phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, letter identification, print awareness, and phonics), reading fluency, comprehension (vocabulary development and reading comprehension), or general reading achievement. Systematic reviews of evidence in this topic area address the following questions:
• Among interventions intended to provide basic literacy instruction, which ones improve reading skills (including alphabetics, reading fluency, comprehension, or general reading achievement) among students in grades K–3 (or ages 5–8)?
• Are some interventions more effective than others for certain types of reading skills?
• Are some interventions more effective for certain types of students, particularly students who have historically lagged behind in reading achievement?