Reference Resources iconReview Protocols

Literacy skills are critical to understanding information presented in written or oral format and communicating effectively with others. These skills are important to students’ success in school and later in life, including improved individual health and economic outcomes, increased civic engagement, and enhanced community well-being.

This review focuses on literacy interventions designed for use with students in grades 4–12, with a primary focus on increasing English language reading or writing skills. The following research questions guide this review:

  • Among interventions intended to provide literacy instruction, which ones improve literacy skills (alphabetics, reading fluency, comprehension, writing, and general literacy achievement) among students in grades 4–12?
  • Are some interventions more effective than others for developing certain types of literacy skills?
  • Are some interventions more effective for certain types of students or when delivered in certain types of settings?

Protocol Details

  • Version: 4.0
  • Released: December 2018
  • Version: 3.0
  • Released: September 2014
  • Version: 2.1
  • Released: August 2012
  • Version: 2.0
  • Released: April 2010
  • Version: 1.0
  • Released: June 2009

What is a Protocol?

A review protocol defines the scope of a systematic review. Developed with substantive experts, the protocol defines the parameters for the review, including the research, populations, settings, and outcomes. The protocol also specifies details of the literature search and any topic-specific applications of the design standards.

Protocol versions reflect the version of WWC standards in effect when the protocol was released. Protocol versions that predate the current version of the WWC standards handbook can be used to identify acceptable outcome domains for review within a given topic. The current WWC standards are used to guide the review of studies with acceptable outcomes.

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