Literacy skills are critical to understanding information presented in written or oral format and communicating effectively with others. These skills are important to students’ success in school and later in life, including improved individual health and economic outcomes, increased civic engagement, and enhanced community well-being.
This review focuses on literacy interventions designed for use with students in grades 4–12, with a primary focus on increasing English language reading or writing skills. The following research questions guide this review:
Among interventions intended to provide literacy instruction, which ones improve literacy skills (alphabetics, reading fluency, comprehension, writing, and general literacy achievement) among students in grades 4–12?
- Are some interventions more effective than others for developing certain types of literacy skills?
- Are some interventions more effective for certain types of students or when delivered in certain types of settings?