This review-specific protocol guides the review of research that informs the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) intervention reports in the Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance topic area. The review-specific protocol is used in conjunction with the WWC Procedures and Standards Handbook (version 3.0).
This review focuses on interventions designed for use with K–12 students identified as having an emotional disturbance (ED) or at risk for classification of ED. This review will focus on the effect of interventions on the following types of outcomes: academic, problem behaviors, school engagement, self-determination, social-emotional competence, and transitional (i.e., the behavioral, social, functional skills that enable young adults with disabilities to obtain and hold meaningful employment, live independently, and obtain further training and education).
The following research questions guide this review:
- Which interventions are effective at improving outcomes of students identified with an ED, students at risk for classification of ED, students who have an emotional or behavior disorder consistent with ED, or students who are receiving an intervention to prevent classification? Are some interventions more effective than others for these students?
- Does the effectiveness of interventions for students with an ED vary by type of outcome?
- Are some interventions more effective for particular subgroups of students with an ED (for example, differences based on grade/age, English learner status, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, school level) or in particular settings?