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Fluency Formula
Beginning Reading

Fluency Formula™ was found to have potentially positive effects on fluency and potentially negative effects on comprehension.

Fluency Formula™ is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote reading fluency in grades 1–6. The program emphasizes automatic recognition of words, decoding accuracy, and oral expressiveness as the foundations for building reading fluency. A daily 10- to 15-minute lesson is delivered in the classroom. Students participate in whole-class, small-group, and individual practice activities using workbooks, read-aloud anthologies, library books, fluency activity cards, and audio CDs. The curriculum encourages at-home practice and includes a Fluency Formula™ Assessment System, which allows teachers to assess student fluency using 1-minute grade-level passages and a timer.


studies that met standards out of
eligible studies reviewed
Outcome Domain Effectiveness Rating Grades Improvement Index
Comprehension Potentially negative effects 2
Reading fluency Potentially positive effects 2

Last Updated: June 2007

Delivery Method

whole class icon
Small Group



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This intervention report was prepared for the WWC by American Institutes for Research under contract ED-02-CO-0022.

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