Intervention Report iconIntervention > Evidence Snapshot
Download Intervention Report Icon Download Intervention Report 2.4 MB

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®)
Students with a Specific Learning Disability

LiPS® was found to have potentially positive effects on alphabetics, reading fluency, and math, no discernible effects on reading comprehension, and potentially negative effects on writing for students with learning disabilities.

The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.


study that met standards out of
eligible studies reviewed
Outcome Domain Effectiveness Rating Grades Evidence Tier
Alphabetics Potentially positive effects 4
Comprehension No discernible effects 4
General Mathematics Achievement Potentially positive effects 4
Reading Fluency Potentially positive effects 4
Writing achievement Potentially negative effects 4

Last Updated: March 2010




Male: 72%
Female: 28%

Delivery Method

whole class icon


Note: This summary only includes data from studies that reported sample information. The Intervention Report may include evidence from other studies that met standards, but did not report sample information.

Connect With the WWC

back to top