Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training was found to have potentially negative effects on oral language, positive effects on print knowledge, potentially positive effects on phonological processing and early reading/writing, and no discernible effects on cognition.
A summary of the effectiveness of an intervention in an outcome domain, based on the quality of research, the statistical significance of findings, the magnitude of findings, and the consistency of findings across studies.
Positive: strong evidence that intervention had a positive effect on outcomes.
Potentially Positive: evidence that intervention had a positive effect on outcomes with no overriding contrary evidence.
Mixed: evidence that intervention’s effect on outcomes is inconsistent.
No Discernible: no evidence that intervention had an effect on outcomes.
Potentially Negative: evidence that intervention had a negative effect on outcomes with no overriding contrary evidence.
Negative: strong evidence that intervention had a negative effect on outcomes.
For more, please see the WWC Glossary entry for rating of effectiveness.
An indicator of the effect of the intervention, the improvement index can be interpreted as the expected change in percentile rank for an average comparison group student if that student had received the intervention.
For more, please see the WWC Glossary entry for improvement index.
The percent of each characteristic is based on the sample size of all studies meeting standards that reported data on the characteristic.
Percentages below may not add to 100 percent.
Last Updated: December 2006
This intervention report was prepared for the WWC by American Institutes for Research under contract ED-02-CO-0022.