WWC Summary of Evidence for this Intervention
System of Least Prompts
System of Least Prompts (SLP) is a practice that involves defining and implementing a hierarchy of prompts to assist students in learning a skill. A prompt is an action by the teacher or other practitioner—such as a verbal instruction to complete a task—that helps a student respond correctly during a learning activity. To use the procedure, the teacher or other practitioner systematically delivers the prompts to students in order, starting with the prompt that provides the least amount of assistance, and providing additional prompts with increasing levels of assistance until the student can correctly perform the task independently. For example, if a student does not independently complete a task following the initial instruction, a teacher may help the student by providing the least-intrusive prompt, such as restating the instruction. If the response still does not occur, the teacher may present the next most intrusive prompt, such as rephrasing the instruction. The teacher continues with more intrusive prompts, such as modeling how to do the task, until the desired response occurs reliably or all the prompts in the sequence have been used. The last prompt, often called the controlling prompt, should result in the student responding correctly. SLP is also known as “least-to-most prompting” or “least intrusive prompts.” SLP does not have a single developer that provides guidance or materials.
As of January 2018, no group design studies of System of Least Prompts were found that fell within the
scope of the Children and Students with Intellectual Disability review protocol and met WWC evidence standards.
Additionally, the evidence from single-case design studies does not reach the threshold to include single-case design evidence in
the effectiveness ratings for any domains in the topic area. Therefore, the WWC is unable to draw any research based conclusions
about the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of System of Least Prompts to improve outcomes in this area.
A group of closely related outcomes.
The number of studies that met WWC design standards and provide evidence of effectiveness. Selecting an item below will display all studies that met WWC design studies in the domain. Selecting a study citation will take you to more information on that study and its findings.
For more, please see the WWC Glossary entry for study rating.
Grades of the students examined in the studies that met WWC design standards, which may not reflect the full range of grades for which the intervention may be used.
The number of students included in the studies that met WWC design standards.
The sample size for the studies that met WWC design standards.
An indicator of the effect of the intervention, the improvement index can be interpreted as the expected change in percentile rank for an average comparison group student if that student had received the intervention.
For more, please see the WWC Glossary entry for improvement index.
The indicator represents the highest level of similarity found between your students and each of the high-quality studies of the intervention. Three filled in ovals indicates that at least one study that met standards was conducted on students very similar to yours. Clicking on the indicator for a study will provide information on the similarity for each of the characteristics you selected.