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Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®)
Adolescent Literacy

Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® was found to have potentially positive effects on comprehension and general literacy achievement for adolescent learners.

Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) is a comprehensive reading and writing program for students in grades 2–8. It includes story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated reading and language arts activities. Pairs of students (grouped either by or across ability levels) read to each other, predict how stories will end, summarize stories, write responses, and practice spelling, decoding, and vocabulary. Within cooperative teams of four, students work to understand the main idea of a story and work through the writing process. The CIRC® process includes teacher instruction, team practice, peer assessment, and team/partner recognition. A Spanish version of the program was also designed for grades 2–5.


studies that met standards out of
eligible studies reviewed
Outcome Domain Effectiveness Rating Grades Evidence Tier
Comprehension Potentially positive effects 2-6
Literacy Achievement Potentially positive effects 2-6

Last Updated: August 2010

Delivery Method

whole class icon




Note: This summary only includes data from studies that reported sample information. The Intervention Report may include evidence from other studies that met standards, but did not report sample information.

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