Practice Guide iconPractice Guide
Released: November 2016
(Revised December 2019)

PDF (9.3 MB)
This practice guide presents three evidence-based recommendations for helping students in grades 6–12 develop effective writing skills. Each recommendation includes specific, actionable guidance for educators on implementing practices in their classrooms. The guide also summarizes and rates the evidence supporting each recommendation, describes examples to use in class, and offers the panel’s advice on how to overcome potential implementation obstacles. This guide is geared towards administrators and teachers in all disciplines who want to help improve their students’ writing.
Explicitly teach appropriate writing strategies using a Model-Practice-Reflect instructional cycle.
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Integrate writing and reading to emphasize key writing features.
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Use assessments of student writing to inform instruction and feedback.
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Related Resources:
Education Levels:
  • Middle Grades
  • High School
  • Administrators
  • Parent/Family
  • School Specialist
  • Teacher

This practice guide was prepared for the WWC by Mathematica under contract ED-IES-13-C-0010.

The following research staff contributed to the guide: Julie Bruch, Joshua Furgeson, Julia Lyskawa, and Claire Smither Wulsin.

  • Steve Graham (Chair)
    Arizona State University
  • Jill Fitzgerald
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill/MetaMetrics
  • Linda D. Friedrich
    The National Writing Project
  • Katie Greene
    Forsyth County Schools, Georgia
  • James S. Kim
    Harvard University
  • Carol Booth Olson
    University of California, Irvine

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