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Product Type Grade Level Highest Evidence Tier Name (Release Date)
Practice Guide 4-9 1
Providing Reading Interventions for Students in Grades 4–9 (March 2022)
This practice guide provides four evidence-based recommendations that teachers can use to deliver reading interventions to meet the needs of their students.
Practice Guide K-6 1
Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Intervention in the Elementary Grades (March 2021)
This practice guide provides evidence-based practices that can help teachers tailor their instructional approaches and/or their mathematics intervention programs to meet the needs of their students.
Practice Guide 6-12 1
Preventing Dropout in Secondary Schools (September 2017)
This practice guide provides school educators and administrators with four evidence-based recommendations for reducing dropout rates in middle and high schools and improving high school graduation rates. Each recommendation provides specific, actionable strategies; examples of how to implement the recommended practices in schools; advice on how to overcome potential obstacles; and a description of the supporting evidence.
Practice Guide 5-12 1
Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively (November 2016)
This practice guide presents three evidence-based recommendations for helping students in grades 6–12 develop effective writing skills. Each recommendation includes specific, actionable guidance for educators on implementing practices in their classrooms. The guide also summarizes and rates the evidence supporting each recommendation, describes examples to use in class, and offers the panel’s advice on how to overcome potential implementation obstacles. This guide is geared towards administrators and teachers in all disciplines who want to help improve their students’ writing.
Practice Guide K-3 1
Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade (July 2016)
This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills, and is a companion to the practice guide, Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade.
Practice Guide K-8 1
Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School (April 2014)
This practice guide provides four recommendations that address what works for English learners during reading and content area instruction. Each recommendation includes extensive examples of activities that can be used to support students as they build the language and literacy skills needed to be successful in school. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve instruction in academic content and literacy for English learners in elementary and middle school.
Practice Guide 1-6 1
Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers (June 2012)
This practice guide provides four recommendations for improving elementary students’ writing. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, literacy coaches, and other educators who want to improve the writing of their elementary students.
Practice Guide 4-8 1
Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8 (May 2012)
This practice guide provides five recommendations for improving students’ mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8. This guide is geared toward teachers, math coaches, other educators, and curriculum developers who want to improve the mathematical problem solving of students.
Practice Guide 6-12 2
Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students (April 2015)
This practice guide provides three recommendations for teaching algebra to students in middle school and high school. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ algebra knowledge.
Practice Guide PK-K 2
Teaching Math to Young Children (November 2013)
This practice guide provides five recommendations for teaching math to children in preschool, prekindergarten, and kindergarten. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to build a strong foundation for later math learning.
Practice Guide K-8 3
Developing Effective Fractions Instruction for Kindergarten Through 8th Grade (September 2010)
This practice guide presents five recommendations intended to help educators improve students’ understanding of fractions. Recommendations include strategies to develop young children’s understanding of early fraction concepts and ideas for helping older children understand the meaning of fractions and the computations involved. The guide also highlights ways to build on students’ existing strategies to solve problems involving ratios, rates, and proportions.
Practice Guide K-3 3
Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade (September 2010)
Students who read with understanding at an early age gain access to a broader range of texts, knowledge, and educational opportunities, making early reading comprehension instruction particularly critical. This guide recommends five specific steps that teachers, reading coaches, and principals can take to successfully improve reading comprehension for young readers.
Practice Guide 8-12 3
Helping Students Navigate the Path to College: What High Schools Can Do (September 2009)
Access to higher education remains a challenge for many students who face academic and informational barriers to college entry.
Practice Guide K-12 3
Structuring Out-of-School Time to Improve Academic Achievement (July 2009)
Out-of-school time programs can enhance academic achievement by helping students learn outside the classroom.
Practice Guide 1-8 3
Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools (April 2009)
Taking early action may be key to helping students struggling with mathematics.
Practice Guide K-3 3
Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades (February 2009)
This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement.
Practice Guide K-6 3
Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom (September 2008)
Designed for elementary school educators and school- and district-level administrators, this guide offers prevention, implementation, and schoolwide strategies that can be used to reduce problematic behavior that interferes with the ability of students to attend to and engage fully in instructional activities.
Practice Guide 7-12 3
Dropout Prevention (August 2008)
Geared toward educators, administrators, and policymakers, this guide provides recommendations that focus on reducing high school dropout rates.
Practice Guide 5-12 3
Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices (August 2008)
This guide presents strategies that classroom teachers and specialists can use to increase the reading ability of adolescent students.
Practice Guide K-5 3
Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades (December 2007)
The target audience for this guide is a broad spectrum of school practitioners such as administrators, curriculum specialists, coaches, staff development specialists and teachers who face the challenge of providing effective literacy instruction for English language learners in the elementary grades.
Practice Guide K-PS 3
Encouraging Girls in Math and Science (September 2007)
The objective of this guide is to provide teachers with specific recommendations that can be carried out in the classroom without requiring systemic change.
Practice Guide K-PS 3
Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning (September 2007)
This guide includes a set of concrete actions relating to the use of instructional and study time that are applicable to subjects that demand a great deal of content learning, including social studies, science, and mathematics.
Practice Guide 2-12 4
Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making (September 2009)
This guide offers five recommendations to help educators effectively use data to monitor students’ academic progress and evaluate instructional practices.
Practice Guide K-12 4
Turning Around Chronically Low-Performing Schools (May 2008)
This guide identifies practices that can improve the performance of chronically low-performing schools—a process commonly referred to as creating "turnaround schools."
Intervention Report 4-7 1
Intelligent Tutoring for Structure Strategy (ITSS) (Adolescent Literacy) (April 2020)
Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring for the Structure Strategy (ITSS) is a supplemental web-based program for students in grades K-8. It is intended to develop literacy skills needed to understand factual texts encountered in classrooms and everyday life. The program teaches students how to follow the logical structure of factual text and to use text structure to improve understanding and recall. In particular, ITSS highlights five main text structures that are used to (1) make comparisons; (2) present problems and solutions; (3) link causes and effects; (4) present sequences; and (5) describe things, people, creatures, places, or events. The program helps students classify the structure of a passage by identifying certain key words, such as “solution” and “in contrast,” that clue readers in to the type of arguments the text is making.
Intervention Report 5-12 1
Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) (Charter Schools) (January 2018)
The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is a nonprofit network of more than 200 public charter schools educating early childhood, elementary, middle, and high school students. Every KIPP school obtains approval to operate from a charter school authorizer. Students, parents, and teachers must sign a commitment to abide by a set of responsibilities, including high behavioral and disciplinary expectations. KIPP also has an active alumni network and set of partnerships with scholarship organizations to help guide former students through college. KIPP schools have an extended school day and an extended school year compared with traditional public schools. When demand for enrollment exceeds enrollment capacity at a KIPP school, student admission is based upon a lottery. Funding for KIPP schools comes primarily through public federal, state, and local finances, along with supplemental funding through charitable donations from foundations and individuals.
Intervention Report K-2 1
Leveled Literacy (Beginning Reading) (September 2017)
Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) is a short-term, supplementary, small-group literacy intervention designed to help struggling readers achieve grade-level competency. The intervention provides explicit instruction in phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension, oral language skills, and writing. LLI helps teachers match students with texts of progressing difficulty and deliver systematic lessons targeted to a student’s reading ability.
Intervention Report K-4 1
Success for All® (Beginning Reading) (March 2017)
Success for All (SFA®) is a whole-school reform model (that is, a model that integrates curriculum, school culture, family, and community supports) for students in prekindergarten through grade 8. SFA® includes a literacy program, quarterly assessments of student learning, a social-emotional development program, computer-assisted tutoring tools, family support teams for students’ parents, a facilitator who works with school personnel, and extensive training for all intervention teachers. The literacy program emphasizes phonics for beginning readers and comprehension for all students. Teachers provide reading instruction to students grouped by reading ability for 90 minutes a day, 5 days a week. In addition, certified teachers or paraprofessionals provide daily tutoring to students who have difficulty reading at the same level as their classmates.
Intervention Report 9-12 1
Dual Enrollment Programs (Transition to College) (February 2017)
Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to take college courses and earn college credits while still attending high school. Such programs, also referred to as dual credit or early college programs, are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education. Dual enrollment programs support college credit accumulation and degree attainment via at least three mechanisms. First, allowing high school students to experience college-level courses helps them prepare for the social and academic requirements of college while having the additional supports available to high school students; this may reduce the need for developmental coursework. Second, students who accumulate college credits early and consistently are more likely to attain a college degree. Third, many dual enrollment programs offer discounted or free tuition, which reduces the overall cost of college and may increase the number of low socioeconomic status students who can attend and complete college.
Intervention Report 4-10 1
READ 180® (Adolescent Literacy) (November 2016)
READ 180® is a reading program designed for struggling readers who are reading 2 or more years below grade level. It combines online and direct instruction, student assessment, and teacher professional development. READ 180® is delivered in 90-minute sessions that include whole-group instruction, three small-group rotations, and whole-class wrap-up. Small-group rotations include individualized instruction using an adaptive computer application, small-group instruction, and independent reading. READ 180® is designed for students in elementary through high school.
Intervention Report 10-12 1
ACT/SAT Test Preparation and Coaching Programs (Transition to College) (October 2016)
Test preparation programs—sometimes referred to as test coaching programs—have been implemented with the goal of increasing student scores on college entrance tests. They generally (a) familiarize students with the format of the test; (b) introduce general test-taking strategies (e.g., get a good night’s sleep); (c) introduce specific testtaking strategies (e.g., whether the test penalizes incorrect answers, and what this means for whether or not one should guess an answer if it is not known); and (d) specific drills (e.g., practice factoring polynomial expressions). The programs can be delivered in person or online, and in whole class settings, in small groups, and individually.
Intervention Report K-12 1
Teach for America (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (August 2016)
Teach For America (TFA) is a highly selective route to teacher certification that aims to place non-traditionally trained teachers in high-need public schools. Many TFA teachers hold bachelors’ degrees from selective colleges and universities, in fields outside of education. TFA teachers commit to teach for at least 2 years. TFA teachers receive 5–7 weeks of in-person training over the summer before they begin teaching, then continue to receive professional development and one-on-one coaching from TFA while teaching, in addition to support provided by their schools and districts. As full-time employees of the public schools where they work, TFA teachers receive the same salary and benefits as other first- or second-year teachers in their school or district.
Intervention Report 8-PS 1
Cognitive Tutor® Algebra I (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor®, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.
Intervention Report 7-12 2
Reading Apprenticeship® (Study Review Protocol) (January 2023)
Reading Apprenticeship® is a professional development program that aims to help teachers improve their students’ literacy skills. The program also aims to improve student social-emotional learning outcomes such as belonging, social awareness, growth mindset, and self-efficacy. Reading Apprenticeship® trains teachers to model reading comprehension strategies and help students practice these strategies in their classrooms.
Intervention Report K-8 2
Dual Language Programs (Systematic Review Protocol for English Language Arts Interventions) (December 2022)
Dual language programs are long-term instructional programs that provide content and literacy instruction to all students through two languages—English and a partner language—with the goals of promoting academic achievement, bilingualism and biliteracy, and sociocultural competence. Dual language programs can be implemented with students from one language group (in one-way programs) or with students from two language groups (in two-way programs).
Intervention Report 6-12 2
Pathway to Academic Success (Pathway Project) (English Language Learners) (November 2021)
The Pathway to Academic Success Project trains teachers to improve the reading and writing abilities of English learners who have an intermediate level of English proficiency by incorporating cognitive strategies into reading and writing instruction. The cognitive strategies include goal setting, tapping prior knowledge, asking questions, making predictions, articulating and revising understanding of text, and evaluating writing.
Intervention Report 12-PS 2
Success Boston (Supporting Postsecondary Success) (October 2020)
Success Boston Coaching is a coaching intervention for students who are traditionally underrepresented in college to help them transition from high school to college and progress in college. Students are paired with a dedicated coach starting as early as the spring of their senior year of high school and receive coaching through their first two years in college. As Boston’s citywide college completion initiative, Success Boston partners with existing nonprofit organizations focused on coaching and mentoring to deliver these one-on-one coaching services. Nonprofit coaching partners may also provide students with other direct services such as tutoring and career readiness support, and financial support that includes scholarships, transportation subsidies, and funding for school-related materials and supplies.
Intervention Report 4-8 2
eMINTS Comprehensive Program (Teacher Excellence Review Protocol ) (April 2020)
The eMINTS Comprehensive Program aims to help teachers improve their practice and the outcomes of their students by offering structured professional development, coaching, and support for integrating technology into the classroom. The program’s goals include supporting teachers in using classroom technology to implement high-quality, inquiry-based learning, in which students develop understanding and knowledge of content matter by engaging in meaningful investigations that require reasoning, judgement, and decision making. The intervention can provide support to teachers in any subject area, including math, literacy, and science.
Intervention Report 2-9 2
Achieve3000 (Adolescent Literacy) (February 2018)
Achieve3000® is a supplemental online literacy program that provides nonfiction reading content to students in grades preK–12 and focuses on building phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, reading comprehension, vocabulary, and writing skills. Achieve3000® is designed to help students advance their nonfiction reading skills by providing differentiated online instruction. Teachers use the program with an entire class but the assignments are tailored to each student’s reading ability level. For example, teachers assign an article and related activities to an entire class; the program then tailors the version of the article to each student by automatically increasing the difficulty of text when a student is ready for more challenging text. Achieve3000® provides lessons that follow a five-step routine: (1) respond to a Before Reading Poll, (2) read an article, (3) answer activity questions, (4) respond to an After Reading Poll, and (5) answer a Thought Question. Progress reports and student usage data, provided by the online tool, enable teachers to track both whole-class and individual student progress. The program is designed for diverse student groups, including general education students, struggling readers in need of intensive tutoring, and English learners.
Intervention Report 4-8 2
Odyssey® Math (Primary Mathematics) (January 2017)
Odyssey® Math is a web-based program developed by Compass Learning® for mathematics instruction in grades K–8. The online program includes a mathematics curriculum and formative assessments designed to support differentiated and data-driven instruction. Based on assessment results, the program generates an individualized sequence of mathematics topics and skills—a “learning path.” Odyssey® Math is often used as a prescriptive tool, where students can start by taking a diagnostic assessment aligned with local or state standards. Teachers can modify learning paths to match their lesson plans or to align them with district scopes and sequences.
Intervention Report 2-6 2
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) (Beginning Reading) (June 2012)
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) is a comprehensive reading and writing program for students in grades 2–8. It includes story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated reading and language arts activities. Pairs of students (grouped either by or across ability levels) read to each other, predict how stories will end, summarize stories, write responses, and practice spelling, decoding, and vocabulary. Within cooperative teams of four, students work to understand the main idea of a story and work through the writing process. The CIRC® process includes teacher instruction, team practice, peer assessment, and team/partner recognition. A Spanish version of the program was also designed for grades 2–5.
Intervention Report K-2 2
Early Risers (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (June 2012)
Early Risers is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children’s emotional and behavioral self-regulation, positive peer relationships, and academic success. The Child School Support component aims to identify areas of difficulty in the classroom and creates individualized plans to address those difficulties during the course of normal school activities. The Parent Skills component is delivered in “family night” group sessions and is intended to promote parents’ abilities to support their children’s healthy development by teaching skills that address positive parent–child relations, effective discipline practices, and parent involvement in school. The Family Support component is delivered via home visits to identify basic needs and health concerns and then implement plans designed to assist families in achieving and maintaining healthy lifestyles.
Intervention Report K-6 2
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (Beginning Reading) (May 2012)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report 4-5 3
Science Teachers Learning through Lesson Analysis (STeLLA) Professional Development (Science) (May 2021)
Science Teachers Learning through Lesson Analysis (STeLLA®) is a professional development program, developed by BSCS Science Learning, that aims to improve students’ science achievement by improving teachers’ science content knowledge and their abilities to (a) explain science concepts to students, (b) clearly identify to students the science concepts used in student learning activities, and (c) engage students in thinking about science.
Intervention Report 11-PS 3
Bottom Line (Transition to College) (April 2021)
Bottom Line provides intensive advising for high school students from low-income households, most of whom are the first in their family to go to college. The advising is designed to help students apply for college and financial aid and select a high-quality affordable institution. For students who attend one of their target colleges, Bottom Line continues to provide regular support to students on campus for up to six years.
Intervention Report 4 3
Fraction Face-Off! (Primary Mathematics) (March 2020)
Fraction Face-Off! is a supplemental math program developed to support fourth-grade students who need assistance solving fraction problems. Teachers use program materials with individual students or small groups to promote understanding of the magnitude of fractions, to compare two fractions, to put three fractions in order, and to place fractions on a number line.
Intervention Report K-12 3
McREL Balanced Leadership (School Leadership Review Protocol ) (March 2020)
Balanced Leadership® is a professional development program for school principals and other current and aspiring school leaders in schools serving kindergarten through grade 12. School leaders participate in professional development sessions with trained facilitators over one or two years, practice what they learn between sessions, and can receive additional coaching and online support. McREL International, the company that developed the Balanced Leadership® program, based the framework and content of the professional development on research identifying key actions and behaviors of school leaders that are associated with improved student outcomes.
Intervention Report 7-11 3
Facilitating Long-term Improvements in Graduation and Higher Education for Tomorrow (FLIGHT) (Transition to College) (April 2019)
FLIGHT is a program based on partnership of a private non-profit (Taking Stock in Children) and local educational agencies with the goal of increasing the extent to which low-income students with academic promise are prepared for, enrolled in, and successful in college. Specifically, FLIGHT provides school-based mentoring, college prep, and wrap-around services for at-risk students who show potential to be successful in postsecondary education endeavors.
Intervention Report 12-PS 3
Summer Counseling (Transition to College) (March 2018)
The summer counseling intervention was intended to reduce what study authors call the summer “melt,” a phenomenon in which students have been accepted to college but fail to matriculate. These summer counseling services, delivered during the months between high school graduation and college enrollment, involve outreach by college counselors or peer mentors via text messaging campaigns, e-mail, phone, in-person meetings, instant messaging, or social media. These intervention services provide college-intending individuals with information about tasks required for college enrollment, such as taking placement tests, arranging for housing, acquiring medical insurance, obtaining financial aid, and registering for courses. Summer counseling was also provided to help students overcome unanticipated financial, informational, and socio-emotional barriers that prevent college enrollment.
Intervention Report 9-12 3
Green Dot Public Schools (Charter Schools) (January 2018)
Green Dot Public Schools is a nonprofit organization that operates more than 20 public charter middle and high schools in California, Tennessee, and Washington. The Green Dot Public Schools are regulated and monitored by the local school district, but operate outside of the district’s direct control. The Green Dot Public Schools model emphasizes high quality teaching, strong school leadership, a curriculum that prepares students for college, and partnerships with the community. Any student may enroll in a Green Dot Public School if there is space available. Many Green Dot Public Schools operate with unionized teachers and staff. Several of the Green Dot Public Schools were chartered in existing public schools which were performing below district or community expectations. Funding for Green Dot Public Schools operations comes through public federal, state, and local finances, while some transformations of existing district-run schools into charter schools have been funded partly by private foundations.
Intervention Report 2-10 3
Self-Regulated Strategy Development (Students with a Specific Learning Disability) (November 2017)
Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is an intervention designed to improve students’ academic skills through a six-step process that teaches students specific academic strategies and self-regulation skills. The practice is especially appropriate for students with learning disabilities. The intervention begins with teacher direction and ends with students independently applying the strategy, such as planning and organizing ideas before writing an essay. More specifically, the six steps involve the teacher providing background knowledge, discussing the strategy with the student, modeling the strategy, helping the student memorize the strategy, supporting the strategy, and then watching as the student independently performs the strategy. A key part of the process is teaching self-regulation skills, such as goal-setting and self-monitoring, which aim to help students apply the strategy without guidance. The steps can be combined, changed, reordered, or repeated, depending on the needs of the student. The SRSD model can be used with students in grades 2 through 12 in individual, small group, or whole classroom settings.
Intervention Report 8 3
I CAN Learn®(Primary Mathematics) (August 2017)
I CAN Learn® is a computer-based math curriculum for students in middle school, high school, and college. It provides math instruction through a series of interactive lessons that students work on individually at their own computers. Students move at their own pace and must demonstrate mastery of each concept before progressing to the next one. Classroom teachers may provide individual, small-group, or whole-class instruction based on students’ performance on the software program.
Intervention Report K-12 3
Functional Behavioral Assessment-based Interventions (December 2016)
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an individualized problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior. An assessment is conducted to identify the purpose or function of a student's problem behavior. This assessment process involves collecting information about the environmental conditions that precede the problem behavior and the subsequent rewards that reinforce the behavior. The information that is gathered is then used to identify and implement individualized interventions aimed at reducing problem behaviors and increasing positive behaviors. Accordingly, the studies evaluating FBA examine different FBA-based interventions identified for each student. FBA-based interventions can be used to address diverse problem behaviors, such as disruptive and off-task behaviors, noncompliance, and inappropriate social interactions.
Intervention Report 8 3
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra, designed to increase students’ skills in algebra, is appropriate for students in grades 7–10, depending on the students’ incoming knowledge. This 1-year course highlights applications, uses statistics and geometry to develop the algebra of linear equations and inequalities, and includes probability concepts in conjunction with algebraic fractions. The curriculum emphasizes graphing, delaying manipulation with rational algebraic expressions until later courses. This curriculum uses the UCSMP textbook.
Intervention Report 7-10 3
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Multiple Courses (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
UCSMP is a core mathematics curriculum that emphasizes problem solving, real-world applications, and the use of technology. The curriculum is based on a student-centered approach with a focus on active learning that incorporates reading and uses a flexible lesson organization.
Intervention Report 1-4 3
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Beginning Reading) (November 2015)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.
Intervention Report 3-5 3
Everyday Mathematics® (Primary Mathematics) (November 2015)
Everyday Mathematics® is a core curriculum for students in prekindergarten through grade 6. At each grade level, the Everyday Mathematics® curriculum provides students with multiple opportunities to learn concepts and practice skills. Across grade levels, concepts are reviewed and extended in varying instructional contexts. The distinguishing features of Everyday Mathematics® are its focus on real-life problem solving, student communication of mathematical thinking, and appropriate use of technology. This curriculum also emphasizes balancing different types of instruction (including collaborative learning), using various methods for skills practice, and fostering parent involvement in student learning.
Intervention Report 9-12 3
Career Academies (Dropout Prevention) (September 2015)
Career Academies are school-within-school programs operating in high schools. Students in Career Academies take both career-related and academic courses and acquire work experience through partnerships with local employers.
Intervention Report 6-12 3
MyTeachingPartner–Secondary (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (June 2015)
MyTeachingPartner–Secondary (MTP-S) is a professional development program that aims to increase student learning and development through improved teacher–student interactions. Through the program, middle and high school teachers access a video library featuring examples of high-quality interactions and receive individualized, web-based coaching approximately twice per month during the school year. MTP-S uses the secondary school version of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System®–Secondary (CLASS-S) to define and observe effective teaching practices.
Intervention Report 9-12 3
Check & Connect (Dropout Prevention) (May 2015)
Check & Connect is a dropout prevention strategy that relies on close monitoring of school performance, mentoring, case management, and other supports. The program has two main components: “Check” and “Connect.” The Check component is designed to continually assess student engagement through close monitoring of student performance and progress indicators. The Connect component involves program staff giving individualized attention to students, in partnership with school personnel, family members, and community service providers. Students enrolled in Check & Connect are assigned a “monitor” who regularly reviews their performance (in particular, whether students are having attendance, behavior, or academic problems) and intervenes when problems are identified. The monitor also advocates for students, coordinates services, provides ongoing feedback and encouragement, and emphasizes the importance of staying in school.
Intervention Report 1-5 3
Open Court Reading© (Beginning Reading) (October 2014)
Open Court Reading© is a reading program for grades K–6 that is designed to teach decoding, comprehension, inquiry, and writing in a three-part progression. Part One of each unit, Preparing to Read, focuses on phonemic awareness, sounds and letters, phonics, fluency, and word knowledge. Part Two, Reading and Responding, emphasizes reading literature for understanding, comprehension, inquiry, and practical reading applications. Part Three, Language Arts, focuses on writing, spelling, grammar, usage, mechanics, and basic computer skills.
Intervention Report K 3
Fast Track: Elementary School (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (October 2014)
Fast Track is a comprehensive intervention program designed to reduce conduct problems and promote academic, behavioral, and social improvement. Prior to grade 1, students are identified as being at risk for long-term antisocial behavior through teacher and parent reports of conduct problems. Delivery of the program begins in grade 1 and continues through grade 10. After the first year, the frequency of the supports is reduced based on the assessed functioning of the students and their families. Fast Track consists of seven integrated intervention components: the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum, parent groups, parent–child sharing time, child social skills training groups, home visiting, child peer-pairing, and academic tutoring.
Intervention Report 5-12 3
Repeated Reading (Students with Learning Disabilities) (May 2014)
Repeated reading is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. Repeated reading can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During repeated reading, a student sits in a quiet location with a teacher and reads a passage aloud at least three times. Typically, the teacher selects a passage of about 50 to 200 words in length. If the student misreads a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, the teacher reads the word aloud, and the student repeats the word correctly. If the student requests help with a word, the teacher reads the word aloud or provides the definition. The student rereads the passage until he or she achieves a satisfactory fluency level.
Intervention Report 2-4 3
Spelling Mastery (Students with Learning Disabilities) (January 2014)
Spelling Mastery is designed to explicitly teach spelling skills to students in grades 1–6. One of several Direct Instruction curricula from McGraw-Hill that precisely specify how to teach incremental content, Spelling Mastery includes phonemic, morphemic, and whole-word strategies.
Intervention Report K-1 3
DreamBox Learning (Elementary School Mathematics) (December 2013)
DreamBox Learning is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K–5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The program aims to individualize instruction for each student using unique paths through the curriculum ihat match each student’s level of comprehension and learning style.
Intervention Report 2-6 3
Read Naturally® (Beginning Reading) (July 2013)
Read Naturally® is an elementary and middle school supplemental reading program designed to improve reading fluency using a combination of books, audiotapes, and computer software. The program has three main strategies: repeated reading of text for developing oral reading fluency, teacher modeling of story reading, and systematic monitoring of student progress by teachers and the students themselves. Students work at a reading level appropriate for their achievement level, progress through the program at their own rate, and, for the most part, work on an independent basis. Read Naturally® can be used in a variety of settings, including classrooms, resource rooms, or computer or reading labs. Although the program was not originally developed for English language learners, additional materials for these students are currently available.
Intervention Report 1 3
Reading Recovery® (Beginning Reading) (July 2013)
Reading Recovery® is a short-term tutoring intervention that provides one-on-one tutoring to first-grade students who are struggling in reading and writing. The goals of Reading Recovery® include promoting literacy skills, reducing the number of students who are struggling to read, and preventing long-term reading difficulties. Reading Recovery® supplements classroom teaching with tutoring sessions, generally conducted as pull-out sessions during the school day. Tutoring is delivered by trained Reading Recovery teachers in daily 30-minute sessions over the course of 12–20 weeks.
Intervention Report 5-6 3
SpellRead (Adolescent Literacy) (January 2013)
SpellRead™ (formerly known as SpellRead Phonological Auditory Training®) is a literacy program for struggling readers in grade 2 or above, including special education students, English language learners, and students more than 2 years below grade level in reading. SpellRead integrates the auditory and visual aspects of the reading process and emphasizes specific skill mastery through systematic and explicit instruction. Students are taught to recognize and manipulate English sounds; to practice, apply, and transfer their skills using texts at their reading level; and to write about their reading.
Intervention Report 4-5 3
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) Space Science Sequence (Science) (June 2012)
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) Space Science Sequence is an instructional curriculum for grades 3–5 that covers fundamental concepts, including planetary sizes and distance, the earth’s shape and movement, gravity, and moon phases and eclipses. Part of the GEMS® core curriculum, GEMS® Space Science Sequence uses the solar system as the focal point for learning. The sequence uses models, hands-on investigations, peer-to-peer discussions, reflection, and informational student readings. Students complete four units, each lasting between four and nine sessions. Each unit builds upon knowledge from previous units and can be used independently or in conjunction with one another for an overall learning progression.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (Students with Learning Disabilities) (June 2012)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report 3-4 3
Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS) (Science) (May 2012)
Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS) is a physical science curriculum for grades 3–8 that uses computers, sensors, and interactive models to support investigations of real-world phenomena. Through 15 inquiry-based instructional units, students interact with computers, gather and analyze data, and formulate ideas for further exploration. This information is managed by software in a handheld computer and transmitted to other students and to the teacher. The program includes a web-based teacher-reporting tool that allows teachers to review student portfolios and gather student responses for assessment and class discussion.
Intervention Report K-3 3
First Step to Success (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (March 2012)

First Step to Success is an early intervention program designed to help children who are at risk for developing aggressive or antisocial behavioral patterns. The program uses a trained behavior coach who works with each student and his or her class peers, teacher, and parents for approximately 50–60 hours over a 3-month period. First Step to Success includes three interconnected modules: screening, classroom intervention, and parent training.

Intervention Report K-6 3
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (Adolescent Literacy) (January 2012)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report K-1 3
Sound Partners (Beginning Reading) (September 2010)
Sound Partners is a phonics-based tutoring program that provides supplemental reading instruction to elementary school students grades K–3 with below-average reading skills. The program is designed for use by tutors with minimal training and experience. Instruction emphasizes letter–sound correspondences, phoneme blending, decoding and encoding phonetically regular words, and reading irregular high-frequency words. It includes oral reading to practice applying phonics skills in text. The program consists of a set of scripted lessons in alphabetic and phonics skills and uses Bob Books beginning reading series as one of the primary texts for oral reading practice. The tutoring can be provided as a pull-out or after-school program or by parents who homeschool their children.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (English Language Learners) (September 2010)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report 11-12 3
National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program (Dropout Prevention) (September 2010)
The National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program is a residential education and training program designed for youth ages 16–18 who have dropped out of or been expelled from high school. During a 22-week residential period, participants are offered GED (General Educational Development) preparation classes and other program services intended to promote positive youth development, such as leadership, job skills, and service to the community. The residential period is quasi-military (youth live in barracks, wear uniforms, and experience military-style discipline), but there are no requirements for military service. After the residential period, trainees participate in a 1-year structured mentoring program. Trainees select their own mentors. After selection, mentors are screened and trained by the program.
Intervention Report 5-9 3
Reading Plus® (Adolescent Literacy) (September 2010)
Reading Plus® is a web-based reading intervention that uses technology to provide individualized scaffolded silent reading practice for students in grades 3 and higher. Reading Plus® aims to develop and improve students’ silent reading fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Reading Plus® is designed to adjust the difficulty of the content and duration of reading activities so that students proceed at a pace that corresponds to their reading skill level. The intervention includes differentiated reading activities, computer-based reading assessments, tools to monitor student progress, ongoing implementation support, and supplemental offline activities.
Intervention Report 9-10 3
Core-Plus Mathematics (High School Mathematics) (September 2010)
Core-Plus Mathematics is a 4-year curriculum that replaces the traditional sequence with courses that each feature interwoven strands of algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry and trigonometry, and discrete mathematics. The curriculum emphasizes mathematical modeling, using technology to emphasize reasoning with multiple representations (verbal, numerical, graphical, and symbolic) and to focus on goals in which mathematical thinking and problem solving are central. Instructional materials promote active learning and teaching centered around collaborative small-group investigations of problem situations, followed by teacher-led whole-class summarizing activities that lead to analysis, abstraction, and further application of underlying mathematical ideas.
Intervention Report 2-6 3
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) (Adolescent Literacy) (August 2010)
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition® (CIRC®) is a comprehensive reading and writing program for students in grades 2–8. It includes story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated reading and language arts activities. Pairs of students (grouped either by or across ability levels) read to each other, predict how stories will end, summarize stories, write responses, and practice spelling, decoding, and vocabulary. Within cooperative teams of four, students work to understand the main idea of a story and work through the writing process. The CIRC® process includes teacher instruction, team practice, peer assessment, and team/partner recognition. A Spanish version of the program was also designed for grades 2–5.
Intervention Report K-8 3
Accelerated Reader (Adolescent Literacy) (August 2010)
Accelerated Reader™ is a computerized supplementary reading program that provides guided reading instruction to students in grades K–12. It aims to improve students’ reading skills through reading practice and by providing frequent feedback on students’ progress to teachers. The Accelerated Reader™ program requires students to select and read a book based on their area of interest and reading level. Upon completion of a book, students take a computerized quiz based on the book’s content and vocabulary. Quiz performance allows teachers to monitor student progress and to identify students who may need additional reading assistance.
Intervention Report K-10 3
Fast ForWord® (Adolescent Literacy) (August 2010)
Fast ForWord® is a computer-based reading program intended to help students develop and strengthen the cognitive skills necessary for successful reading and learning. The program, which is designed to be used 30 to 100 minutes a day, five days a week, for 4 to 16 weeks, includes two components.
Intervention Report K-5 3
Reading Mastery (Adolescent Literacy) (August 2010)
Reading Mastery is designed to provide systematic reading instruction to students in grades K–6. Reading Mastery can be used as an intervention program for struggling readers, as a supplement to a school’s core reading program, or as a stand-alone reading program, and is available in three versions. During the implementation of Reading Mastery, students are grouped with other students at a similar reading level, based on program placement tests. The program includes a continuous monitoring component.
Intervention Report 2-6 3
Read Naturally® (Students with Learning Disabilities) (July 2010)
Read Naturally® is an elementary and middle school supplemental reading program designed to improve reading fluency using a combination of books, audiotapes, and computer software. The program has three main strategies: repeated reading of text for developing oral reading fluency, teacher modeling of story reading, and systematic monitoring of student progress by teachers and the students themselves. Students work at a reading level appropriate for their achievement level, progress through the program at their own rate, and, for the most part, work on an independent basis. Read Naturally® can be used in a variety of settings, including classrooms, resource rooms, or computer or reading labs. Although the program was not originally developed for English language learners, additional materials for these students are currently available.
Intervention Report 7-12 3
Reading Apprenticeship® (Adolescent Literacy) (July 2010)
Reading Apprenticeship® is a professional development program that aims to help teachers improve their students’ literacy skills. The program also aims to improve student social-emotional learning outcomes such as belonging, social awareness, growth mindset, and self-efficacy. Reading Apprenticeship® trains teachers to model reading comprehension strategies and help students practice these strategies in their classrooms.
Intervention Report 4-6 3
Project CRISS® (Adolescent Literacy) (June 2010)
Project CRISS® (CReating Independence through Student-owned Strategies) is a professional development program for teachers that aims to improve reading, writing, and learning for students in grades 3–12. The implementation of Project CRISS® does not require a change in the curriculum or materials being used in the classroom, but instead calls for a change in teaching style to focus on three primary concepts derived from cognitive psychology and brain research. These three concepts include students (1) monitoring their learning to assess when they have understood content, (2) integrating new information with prior knowledge, and (3) being actively involved in the learning process through discussing, writing, organizing information, and analyzing the structure of text to help improve comprehension.
Intervention Report 1 3
Read Well® (English Language Learners) (June 2010)
Read Well® is a reading curriculum to increase the literacy abilities of students in kindergarten and grade 1. The program provides instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students are given opportunities to discuss the vocabulary concepts that are presented in each story. The program is based on the tenets of scaffolded instruction, where teachers begin by presenting models, and gradually decrease their support by providing guided practice, before students are asked to complete the skill or strategy independently. For example, the student and teacher read new text aloud, with the teacher reading the difficult or irregular words. As student skills (and motivation) increase, the amount of teacher-read text decreases, and the student is given greater independence. The program combines daily whole class activities with small group lessons.
Intervention Report 1-4 3
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Students with Learning Disabilities) (March 2010)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.
Intervention Report K-1 3
Lexia Reading (Beginning Reading) (June 2009)
Lexia Reading is a computerized reading program that provides phonics instruction and gives students independent practice in basic reading skills. Lexia Reading is designed to supplement regular classroom instruction and to support skill development in the five areas of reading instruction identified by the National Reading Panel.
Intervention Report K-3 3
Earobics® (Beginning Reading) (January 2009)
Earobics® is an interactive software that provides students in prekindergarten through grade 3 with individual, systematic instruction in early literacy skills as students interact with animated characters. Earobics® Foundations is the version for prekindergaten, kindergarten, and grade 1. Earobics® Connections is for grades 2 and 3 and older struggling readers. The program builds students’ skills in phonemic awareness, auditory processing, and phonics, as well as the cognitive and language skills required for comprehension. Each level of instruction addresses recognizing and blending sounds, rhyming, and discriminating phonemes within words, adjusting to each student’s ability level. The software is supported by music, audiocassettes, and videotapes, and includes picture/word cards, letter–sound decks, big books, little books, and leveled readers for reading independently or in groups.
Intervention Report 1 3
Early Intervention in Reading (EIR)® (Beginning Reading) (November 2008)
Early Intervention in Reading (EIR)® is a program designed to provide extra instruction to groups of students at risk of failing to learn to read. The program uses picture books to stress instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, and contextual analysis, along with repeated reading and writing. In grades K–2, the program includes whole-class instruction followed by small-group instruction for students who score low on oral reading and literacy skills. In grades 3 and 4, the program consists of small group instruction for 20 minutes, 4 days a week. Teachers are trained for 9 months using workshops and an Internet-based professional development program.
Intervention Report 6-8 3
Accelerated Middle Schools (Dropout Prevention) (July 2008)
Accelerated middle schools are self-contained academic programs designed to help middle school students who are behind grade level catch up with their peers. The program aims to ensure students stay in school and graduate by encouraging them to begin high school with other students their age. The programs serve students who are one to two years behind grade level, giving students the opportunity to cover an additional year of curriculum over 1–2 years in the program. Accelerated middle schools can be structured as separate schools or as schools within a traditional middle school.
Intervention Report 11-12 3
Job Corps (Dropout Prevention) (April 2008)
Job Corps, a federally funded education and job training program for economically disadvantaged youth, offers remedial education, GED (General Educational Development) preparation, vocational training, job placement assistance, and other supports. Job Corps participants typically reside in a Job Corps center while enrolled in the program and can remain in the program for up to 2 years.
Intervention Report 11-12 3
JOBSTART (Dropout Prevention) (March 2008)
JOBSTART is an alternative education and training program designed to improve the economic prospects of young, disadvantaged high school dropouts by increasing educational attainment and developing occupational skills. The program has four main components: (1) basic academic skills instruction with a focus on GED (General Educational Development) preparation, (2) occupational skills training, (3) training-related support services (such as transportation assistance and child care), and (4) job placement assistance. Participants receive at least 200 hours of basic education and 500 hours of occupational training.
Intervention Report 10-PS 3
New Chance (Dropout Prevention) (January 2008)
New Chance, a program for young welfare mothers who have dropped out of school, aims to improve both their employment potential and their parenting skills. Participants take GED (General Educational Development) preparation classes and complete a parenting and life skills curriculum. Once they complete this first phase of the program, they can receive occupational training and job placement assistance from New Chance, which also offers case management and child care.
Intervention Report K 3
Voyager Universal Literacy System® (Beginning Reading) (August 2007)
The Voyager Universal Literacy System® is a core reading program designed to help students learn to read at or above grade level by the end of grade 3. This program uses strategies such as individual reading instruction, higher-level comprehension activities, problem solving, and writing. Students are also exposed to computer-based practice and reinforcement in phonological skills, comprehension, fluency, language development, and writing. The program uses whole classroom, small group, and independent group settings. Voyager Universal Literacy System® emphasizes regular assessments, with biweekly reviews for struggling students and quarterly assessments for all students.
Intervention Report PK-K 3
Ladders to Literacy (Beginning Reading) (August 2007)
Ladders to Literacy is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book. The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds. The activities are organized into three sections with about 20 activities each: print awareness, phonological awareness skills, and oral language skills.
Intervention Report K 3
Waterford Early Reading Program (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
Waterford Early Reading Program™ is a software-based curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 2. The curriculum is designed to promote reading, writing, and typing, incorporating literacy skills such as letter mastery, language stories, spelling, basic writing skills, reading and listening development, and comprehension strategies. It can be used as a supplement to the regular reading curriculum. Program materials include classroom lessons and take-home materials in addition to the Waterford software. Waterford Early Reading Program™ offers pretest placement and posttest assessments, in addition to ongoing assessments throughout the program.
Intervention Report 1-4 3
ClassWide Peer Tutoring (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) is a peer-assisted instructional strategy designed to be integrated with most existing reading curricula. This approach provides students with increased opportunities to practice reading skills by asking questions and receiving immediate feedback from a peer tutor. Pairs of students take turns tutoring each other to reinforce concepts and skills initially taught by the teacher. The teacher creates age-appropriate peer teaching materials for the peer tutors; these materials take into account tutees’ language skills and disabilities.
Intervention Report 1-6 3
Peer Tutoring and Response Groups (English Language Learners) (July 2007)
Peer Tutoring and Response Groups aims to improve the language and achievement of English learners by pairing or grouping students to work on a task. The students may be grouped by age or ability, or the groups may be mixed. Peer tutoring typically consists of two students assuming the roles of tutor and tutee, or “coach and player” roles. Peer response groups give four or five students shared responsibility for a task, such as editing a passage or reading and answering comprehension questions. Both peer tutoring pairs and peer response groups emphasize peer interaction and discussion to complete a task.
Intervention Report 3 3
Failure Free Reading (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
Failure Free Reading is a language development program designed to improve vocabulary, fluency, word recognition, and reading comprehension for students in kindergarten through grade 12 who score in the bottom 15% on standardized tests and who have not responded to conventional beginning reading instruction. The three key dimensions of the program are: 1) repeated exposure to text, 2) predictable sentence structures, and 3) story concepts that require minimal prior knowledge. The program combines systematic, scripted teacher instruction; talking software; workbook exercises; and independent reading activities.
Intervention Report 3 3
Wilson Reading System® (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
The Wilson Reading System® is a reading and writing program. It provides a curriculum for teaching reading and spelling to individuals of any age who have difficulty with written language. The Wilson Reading System® directly teaches the structure of words in the English language, aiming to help students learn the coding system for reading and spelling. The program provides interactive lesson plans and uses a sequential system with extensive controlled text. The Wilson Reading System® is structured to progress from phoneme segmentation to more challenging tasks, and seeks to improve sight word knowledge, fluency, vocabulary, oral expressive language development, and reading comprehension.
Intervention Report 3-5 3
Corrective Reading (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
Corrective Reading is designed to promote reading accuracy (decoding), fluency, and comprehension skills of students in grade 3 or higher who are reading below their grade level. The program has four levels that correspond to students’ decoding skills. All lessons in the program are sequenced and scripted. Corrective Reading can be implemented in small groups of 4–5 students or in a whole-class format. Corrective Reading is intended to be taught in 45-minute lessons 4–5 times a week.
Intervention Report 5-6 3
SpellRead (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
SpellRead™ (formerly known as SpellRead Phonological Auditory Training®) is a literacy program for struggling readers in grade 2 or above, including special education students, English language learners, and students more than 2 years below grade level in reading. SpellRead integrates the auditory and visual aspects of the reading process and emphasizes specific skill mastery through systematic and explicit instruction. Students are taught to recognize and manipulate English sounds; to practice, apply, and transfer their skills using texts at their reading level; and to write about their reading.
Intervention Report 2 3
Fluency Formula (Beginning Reading) (June 2007)
Fluency Formula™ is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote reading fluency in grades 1–6. The program emphasizes automatic recognition of words, decoding accuracy, and oral expressiveness as the foundations for building reading fluency. A daily 10- to 15-minute lesson is delivered in the classroom. Students participate in whole-class, small-group, and individual practice activities using workbooks, read-aloud anthologies, library books, fluency activity cards, and audio CDs. The curriculum encourages at-home practice and includes a Fluency Formula™ Assessment System, which allows teachers to assess student fluency using 1-minute grade-level passages and a timer.
Intervention Report 1-2 3
Start Making a Reader Today® (SMART®) (Beginning Reading) (June 2007)
Start Making a Reader Today® (SMART®) is a volunteer tutoring program for students in grades K–2 who are at risk of reading failure. The program is designed to be a low-cost, easy-to-implement intervention. Volunteer tutors go into schools where at least 40% of students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch and read one-on-one with students twice a week for 30 minutes. Typically, one volunteer works with two students on four types of activities: reading to the student, reading with the student, re-reading with the student, and asking the student questions about what has been read. The program also gives each student two new books a month to encourage families to read together.
Intervention Report K 3
Stepping Stones to Literacy (Beginning Reading) (June 2007)
Stepping Stones to Literacy (SSL) is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote listening, print conventions, phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, and serial processing/rapid naming (quickly naming familiar visual symbols and stimuli, such as letters or colors). The program targets older preschool and kindergarten students who are considered to be underachieving readers, based on teacher’s recommendations, assessments, and systematic screening. Students participate in 10- to 20-minute daily lessons in a small group or individually. The curriculum consists of 25 lessons, for a total of 9–15 hours of instructional time.
Intervention Report K 3
Little Books (Beginning Reading) (April 2007)
The Little Books are a set of books designed for interactive book reading between parents and children or between teachers and students. The books use thematic topics familiar to children. They are written with high-frequency words and use simple phrases and sentences. The books also have strong links between illustrations and text.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Caring School Community (CSC) (Character Education) (April 2007)
Caring School Community™ (CSC) is a modified version of a program formerly known as the Child Development Project. CSC is a multiyear school improvement program that involves all students in grades K–6. The program aims to promote core values, prosocial behavior, and a schoolwide feeling of community. The program consists of four elements originally developed for the Child Development Project: class meeting lessons, cross-age “buddies” programs, “homeside” activities, and schoolwide community. Class lessons provide teachers and students with a forum to get to know one another, discuss issues, identify and solve problems collaboratively, and make a range of decisions that affect classroom life. Cross-age buddies activities pair whole classes of older and younger students for academic and recreational activities that build caring cross-age relationships and create a schoolwide climate of trust. Homeside activities include short conversational activities that are sent home with students for them to do with parents or caregivers and then to discuss back in their classroom. The activities incorporate the families’ perspectives, cultures, and traditions, thereby promoting interpersonal understanding. Schoolwide community-building activities bring students, parents, and school staff together to create new school traditions.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Positive Action (Character Education) (April 2007)
Positive Action, at its core, teaches the philosophy that you feel good about yourself when you do positive actions and there is always a positive way to do everything. It is illustrated by the the Thoughts-Actions-Feelings about self Circle where positive thoughts lead to positive actions, which in turn lead to positive feelings about oneself. It also teaches the positive actions for physical, intellectual, social and emotional areas—the whole self. It is a Pre-K-12 school-based program that aims to promote good behavior while disrupting problem behaviors, improves academics, and develops social-emotional and character skills while improving mental and physical health and self-concept. Lessons are scripted and use a wide variety of strategies: classroom discussion, role-play, games, songs, journals, manipulatives and activity sheets and text booklets.
Intervention Report 12 3
Building Decision Skills (Character Education) (April 2007)
Building Decision Skills aims to raise middle and high school students’ awareness of ethics, help them gain experience developing core values, and give them strategies for dealing with ethical dilemmas. Building Decision Skills consists of 10 lessons that can fill 2 consecutive weeks of daily lessons or be drawn out over a longer period. Using readings, handouts, and overheads, the teacher covers key concepts. Students are encouraged to think about the key concepts through small-group activities, class discussions, and homework assignments. The program also includes schoolwide components such as group discussions, seminars, and assemblies, and can be combined with service learning.
Intervention Report 9-12 3
High School Redirection (Dropout Prevention) (April 2007)
High School Redirection is an alternative high school program for youth considered at risk of dropping out. The program emphasizes basic skills development (with a particular focus on reading skills) and offers limited extra-curricular activities. The schools operate in economically disadvantaged areas and serve students who have dropped out in the past, who are teen parents, who have poor test scores, or who are over-age for their grade. To foster a sense of community, the schools are small, and teachers are encouraged to act as mentors as well as instructors.
Intervention Report 8 3
Twelve Together (Dropout Prevention) (March 2007)
Twelve Together is a 1-year peer support and mentoring program for middle and early high school students that offers weekly after-school discussion groups led by trained volunteer adult facilitators. Each peer discussion group consists of about 12 participants who are a mix of students at high- and low-risk of academic failure. Group discussions are based on topics of student interest, usually focusing on personal, family, and social issues. The program also offers homework assistance, trips to college campuses, and an annual weekend retreat.
Intervention Report 2-3 3
Bilingual Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (BCIRC) (English Language Learners) (February 2007)
The Bilingual Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (BCIRC) program, an adaptation of the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) program, was designed to help Spanish-speaking students succeed in reading Spanish and then making a successful transition to English reading. In the adaptation, students complete tasks that focus on reading, writing, and language activities in Spanish and English, while working in small cooperative learning groups. The intervention focuses on students in grades 2–5.
Intervention Report 11-12 3
Talent Search (Dropout Prevention) (December 2006)
Talent Search aims to help low-income and first-generation college students (those whose parents do not have 4-year college degrees) complete high school and gain access to college through a combination of services designed to improve academic achievement and increase access to financial aid. Services include test taking and study skills assistance, academic advising, tutoring, career development, college campus visits, and financial aid application assistance.
Intervention Report 11-12 3
Financial Incentives for Teen Parents to Stay in School (Dropout Prevention) (December 2006)
Financial incentives for teen parents are components of state welfare programs intended to encourage enrollment, attendance, and completion of high school as a means of increasing employment and earnings and reducing welfare dependence. The incentives take the form of bonuses and sanctions to the welfare grant related to school enrollment, performance, and completion. The programs typically provide case management and social services to supplement financial incentives.
Intervention Report 2-5 3
Instructional Conversations and Literature Logs (English Language Learners) (October 2006)
The goal of Instructional Conversations is to help English learners develop reading comprehension ability along with English language proficiency. Acting as facilitators, teachers engage students in discussions about stories, key concepts, and related personal experiences, allowing students to appreciate and build on each others’ experiences, knowledge, and understanding. Literature Logs require students to respond in writing to prompts or questions related to sections of stories. These responses are then shared in small groups or with a partner.
Intervention Report 8 3
The Expert Mathematician (Middle School Mathematics) (October 2006)
The Expert Mathematician is designed to help middle school students develop the thinking processes for mathematical applications and communication. A 3-year program of instruction, The Expert Mathematician uses a software and print materials package with 196 lessons that teach the Logo programming language. Each lesson ranges from 40–120 minutes. A test of unit concepts is administered at the end of each instructional unit. The curriculum covers general mathematics, pre-algebra, and algebra I.
Intervention Report 7-9 3
ALAS (Dropout Prevention) (October 2006)
ALAS (Spanish for “wings”) is an intervention for middle and high school students that is designed to address student, school, family, and community factors that affect dropping out. Each student is assigned a counselor/mentor who monitors attendance, behavior, and academic achievement. The counselor/mentor provides feedback and coordinates interventions and resources to students, families, and teachers. Counselors/mentors also serve as advocates for students and intervene when problems are identified. Students are trained in problem-solving, self-control, and assertiveness skills. Parents are trained in parent-child problem solving, how to participate in school activities, and how to contact teachers and school administrators to address issues.
Intervention Report 5 3
Vocabulary Improvement Program for English Language Learners and Their Classmates (VIP) (English Language Learners) (October 2006)
The Vocabulary Improvement Program for English Language Learners and Their Classmates (VIP) is a vocabulary development curriculum for English language learners and native English speakers in grades 4–6. The 15-week program includes 30–45 minute whole class and small group activities that aim to increase students’ understanding of target vocabulary words included in a weekly reading assignment.
Intervention Report 4-5 3
Lessons in Character (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lessons in Character is designed to promote elementary and middle school students’ knowledge about core character education values and, through that knowledge, shape children’s positive behaviors and support academic success. It consists of 24 lessons organized around weekly themes, writing activities, and class projects. Teachers introduce the theme with a story that shows a value in action; students then engage that topic with a variety of activities. The program also includes daily oral language development and weekly writing assignments, optional parts of the program’s implementation.
Intervention Report 8 3
Facing History and Ourselves (Character Education) (September 2006)
Facing History and Ourselves aims to promote core character education values and to help middle and high school students develop moral reasoning skills. Students examine historical events; in particular, the events that led to World War II and the Holocaust. Teachers participate in professional development seminars and apply the content and approaches to their own teaching or school program. Facing History and Ourselves also includes optional schoolwide components (such as guest speakers and videos).
Intervention Report 9-12 3
Too Good for Drugs and Violence (TGFD & V) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Drugs and Violence is designed to promote high school students’ pro-social skills, positive character traits, and violence- and drug-free norms. The curriculum consists of 14 core lessons, as well as an additional 12 lessons that can be infused into other subject areas (such as English, science, and social studies). Teachers participate in 10 staff development lessons. The program includes optional elements of family and community involvement.
Intervention Report K 3
Arthur (English Language Learners) (September 2006)
Arthur, is a book-based educational television program designed for children ages 4–8. The program is based on the storybooks by Marc Brown about Arthur, an 8-year-old aardvark. Each show is 30 minutes in length and includes two stories involving characters dealing with moral issues. The show has been used as a listening comprehension and language development intervention for English language learning students.
Intervention Report 3 3
Too Good For Violence (TGFV) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Violence promotes character values, social-emotional skills, and healthy beliefs in elementary and middle school students. The program includes seven lessons per grade level for elementary school (K–5) and nine lessons per grade level for middle school (6–8). All lessons are scripted and engage students through role-playing and cooperative learning games, small group activities, and classroom discussions. Students are encouraged to apply these skills to different contexts. Too Good for Violence also includes optional parental and community involvement elements.
Intervention Report 3-12 3
Connect with Kids (Character Education) (September 2006)
Connect with Kids aims to promote prosocial attitudes and positive behavior of elementary (grades 3–5) and secondary (grades 6–12) school students by teaching core character values. Lesson plans include videos, story summaries, discussion questions, student games, and activities for both core and supplemental character traits. The classroom curriculum is reinforced by a website component and schoolwide and community outreach components. The program can be incorporated into an existing curriculum or used as a standalone program. The school or teacher decides on the number of character traits covered in each session, so the program duration may vary from one semester to an entire academic year.
Intervention Report 3-6 3
Too Good for Drugs (TGFD) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Drugs™ is designed to promote elementary and middle school students’ life skills, character values, resistance skills to negative peer influence, and resistance to the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. The program is based on classroom discussions and structured activities that center on interactive learning and skill-building exercises. Students engage in role-play and cooperative learning games and are encouraged to apply the skills to different contexts. Too Good for Drugs™ also includes the optional elements of parental and community involvement.
Intervention Report 1 3
Enhanced Proactive Reading (English Language Learners) (September 2006)
Enhanced Proactive Reading, a comprehensive, integrated reading, language arts, and English language development curriculum, is targeted to first-grade English learners experiencing problems with learning to read through conventional instruction. The curriculum is implemented as small group daily reading instruction, during which instructors provide opportunities for participation from all students and give feedback on student responses.
Intervention Report K-5 3
Reading Mastery (English Language Learners) (September 2006)
Reading Mastery is designed to provide systematic reading instruction to students in grades K–6. Reading Mastery can be used as an intervention program for struggling readers, as a supplement to a school’s core reading program, or as a stand-alone reading program, and is available in three versions. During the implementation of Reading Mastery, students are grouped with other students at a similar reading level, based on program placement tests. The program includes a continuous monitoring component.
Intervention Report K-10 3
Fast ForWord® (English Language Learners) (September 2006)
Fast ForWord® is a computer-based reading program intended to help students develop and strengthen the cognitive skills necessary for successful reading and learning. The program, which is designed to be used 30 to 100 minutes a day, five days a week, for 4 to 16 weeks, includes two components.
Intervention Report PK-1 3
DaisyQuest (Beginning Reading) (September 2006)
DaisyQuest is a software bundle that offers computer-assisted instruction in phonological awareness, targeting children 3–7 years old (or preschool to grade 2). The instructional activities, framed in a fairy tale involving a search for a friendly dragon named Daisy, teach children how to recognize words that rhyme; words that have the same beginning, middle, and ending sounds; and words that can be formed from a series of phonemes presented separately. Activities also teach children how to count the number of sounds in words.
Intervention Report PK-1 3
DaisyQuest (Early Childhood Education) (September 2006)
DaisyQuest is a software bundle that offers computer-assisted instruction in phonological awareness, targeting children 3–7 years old (or preschool to grade 2). The instructional activities, framed in a fairy tale involving a search for a friendly dragon named Daisy, teach children how to recognize words that rhyme; words that have the same beginning, middle, and ending sounds; and words that can be formed from a series of phonemes presented separately. Activities also teach children how to count the number of sounds in words.
Intervention Report 3-8 -1
Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER) (Science) (September 2021)
The Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER) program is intended to build capacity for implementing inquiry-based science curricula in schools and districts. When participating in LASER, school or district teams attend leadership development institutes to plan the implementation of inquiry-based science curricula. These school or district teams receive support for key aspects of implementation such as professional development for teachers, access to instructional materials, and support for selecting appropriate assessments. LASER also helps schools and districts partner with scientists, science educators, and local business and community leaders who can promote and further support the implementation of inquiry-based science instruction.
Intervention Report 1-2 -1
Math Expressions (Primary Mathematics) (May 2021)
Math Expressions is a curriculum for students in prekindergarten through sixth grade that aims to build students’ conceptual understanding of mathematics and to develop fluency in mathematical problem solving and computation. The curriculum encourages student learning of mathematics through real-world situations, visual supports such as drawings and manipulatives, multiple approaches to solving problems, and opportunities for students to explain their mathematical thinking.
Intervention Report 6-9 -1
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Transitions/Pre-transitions Math (Primary Mathematics) (May 2021)
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) is a core mathematics curriculum that includes materials and a routinized instructional approach with an option for teacher training. The curriculum uses an inquiry-based approach with a focus on active learning where students frequently engage in hands-on activities and small-group activities. Pre-Transition Mathematics teaches arithmetic, algebra, geometry, probability, and statistics. Transition Mathematics teaches more advanced arithmetic, algebra, and geometry, and connects these areas to measurement, probability, and statistics.
Intervention Report 4-8 -1
Literacy Design Collaborative (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (March 2021)
Literacy Design Collaborative aims to help teachers improve their effectiveness in the classroom with a focus on supporting their literacy instruction. Literacy Design Collaborative provides professional development, coaching, and resources to support teachers to work collaboratively in their schools to create and use high-quality literacy instruction materials aimed at improving students’ reading, research, and writing skills. Teachers across content areas—including English language arts, social studies, and science—can use the Literacy Design Collaborative program.
Intervention Report 9 -1
Xtreme Reading (Adolescent Literacy) (March 2021)
Xtreme Reading is a supplemental literacy curriculum designed to improve the literacy skills of struggling students in grades 6 to 12. The curriculum is primarily designed to help students improve their vocabulary, decoding, fluency, and reading comprehension skills. To ensure a productive learning environment, students initially learn social skills associated with creating a supportive learning community, including how to participate in certain class activities (for example, whole-group discussion, small-group work, partner work, transitions). They also participate in a motivational program whereby they discuss their hopes and dreams for the future and set personal goals related to reading and other life areas. The Xtreme Reading program includes teacher-led whole-group instruction, cooperative group work, paired practice, and independent practice.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) (Supportive Learning Environment Interventions Review Protocol ) (March 2021)
The Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) program is a curriculum that aims to promote emotional and social competencies and to reduce aggression and behavior problems in elementary school children. PATHS® is delivered through short lessons given two to three times a week over the school year. The program is based on the principle that understanding and regulating emotions are central to effective problem solving. The lessons focus on (1) self-control, (2) emotional literacy, (3) social competence, (4) positive peer relations, and (5) interpersonal problem-solving skills. There is a separate curriculum for each grade.
Intervention Report 4-7 -1
Word Generation (English Learner (EL)) (April 2020)
Word Generation is a supplemental program that aims to improve students’ reading comprehension by building students’ vocabulary, academic language, and perspective-taking skills through classroom discussion and debate. Word Generation was developed for all students; however, English learners in particular could benefit from its focus on academic language. Word Generation consists of a series of interdisciplinary units with daily lessons focused on a high-interest issue to increase student engagement. Each unit targets a small number of academic vocabulary words that are integrated into texts, activities, writing tasks, debates, and discussions across content areas. Several Word Generation programs exist. In the Word Generation Weekly (WordGen Weekly) and Word Generation Elementary (WordGen Elementary) programs, units are intended to be used across English language arts, math, science, and social studies in grades 6–8 and grades 4 and 5, respectively. In the Science Generation (SciGen) and Social Studies Generation (SoGen) programs, units can supplement or be used in place of regular science and social studies curriculum units in grades 6–8. The different Word Generation programs can be implemented separately or together.
Intervention Report 6-9 -1
Passport Reading Journeys (Adolescent Literacy) (November 2019)
Passport Reading Journeys is a supplemental literacy curriculum designed to help improve reading comprehension, vocabulary, word study, and writing skills of struggling readers in grades 6–12. Lessons incorporate both teacher-led instruction and technology, including whole-class and small-group instruction, independent reading, video segments, and independent computer-based practice. The curriculum includes a series of two-week, ten-lesson instructional sequences on topics in science, math, fine art, literature, and social studies. Each sequence is themed as an expedition or journey for students.
Intervention Report 3-8 -1
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) Certification (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (February 2018)
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) establishes standards for accomplished teachers and awards professional certification to teachers who can demonstrate that their teaching practices meet those standards. Educators and experts in child development and related fields established the organization, and these experts work to develop and refine the standards for accomplished teaching based on the knowledge and skills that effective teachers demonstrate. The standards reflect five core propositions: (1) effective teachers are committed to students and their learning, (2) effective teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students, (3) effective teachers manage and monitor student learning, (4) effective teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience, and (5) effective teachers are members of learning communities. Those seeking certification from the NBPTS must complete a computer-based assessment and three portfolio entries. The certification process can take 1 to 5 years.
Intervention Report 2-9 -1
Achieve3000 (Beginning Reading) (February 2018)
Achieve3000® is a supplemental online literacy program that provides nonfiction reading content to students in grades preK–12 and focuses on building phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, reading comprehension, vocabulary, and writing skills. Achieve3000® is designed to help students advance their nonfiction reading skills by providing differentiated online instruction. Teachers use the program with an entire class but the assignments are tailored to each student’s reading ability level. For example, teachers assign an article and related activities to an entire class; the program then tailors the version of the article to each student by automatically increasing the difficulty of text when a student is ready for more challenging text. Achieve3000® provides lessons that follow a five-step routine: (1) respond to a Before Reading Poll, (2) read an article, (3) answer activity questions, (4) respond to an After Reading Poll, and (5) answer a Thought Question. Progress reports and student usage data, provided by the online tool, enable teachers to track both whole-class and individual student progress. The program is designed for diverse student groups, including general education students, struggling readers in need of intensive tutoring, and English learners.
Intervention Report 4 -1
System of Least Prompts (Children and Students with Intellectual Disability) (January 2018)
System of Least Prompts (SLP) is a practice that involves defining and implementing a hierarchy of prompts to assist students in learning a skill. A prompt is an action by the teacher or other practitioner—such as a verbal instruction to complete a task—that helps a student respond correctly during a learning activity. To use the procedure, the teacher or other practitioner systematically delivers the prompts to students in order, starting with the prompt that provides the least amount of assistance, and providing additional prompts with increasing levels of assistance until the student can correctly perform the task independently. For example, if a student does not independently complete a task following the initial instruction, a teacher may help the student by providing the least-intrusive prompt, such as restating the instruction. If the response still does not occur, the teacher may present the next most intrusive prompt, such as rephrasing the instruction. The teacher continues with more intrusive prompts, such as modeling how to do the task, until the desired response occurs reliably or all the prompts in the sequence have been used. The last prompt, often called the controlling prompt, should result in the student responding correctly. SLP is also known as “least-to-most prompting” or “least intrusive prompts.” SLP does not have a single developer that provides guidance or materials.
Intervention Report 2-9 -1
Accelerated Math® (Primary Mathematics) (December 2017)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progress-monitoring data.
Intervention Report 2-9 -1
Accelerated Math® (Secondary Mathematics) (December 2017)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progress-monitoring data.
Intervention Report 7-10 -1
Prentice Hall/Pearson Literature (c)2007, 2010, 2012, 2015 (Adolescent Literacy) (November 2017)
Prentice Hall/Pearson Literature© (2007–15) is an English language arts curriculum designed for students in grades 6–12 that focuses on building reading, vocabulary, literary analysis, and writing skills. It uses passages from fiction and nonfiction texts, poetry, and contemporary digital media. The curriculum is based on a textbook. The publisher also provides online components and other materials that enable teachers to provide personalized assignments, monitor students’ progress, and score writing assignments, enrich instruction, or provide additional practice to supplement the textbook.
Intervention Report 8 -1
I CAN Learn® Algebra (Secondary Mathematics) (August 2017)
I CAN Learn® is a computer-based math curriculum for students in middle school, high school, and college. It provides math instruction through a series of interactive lessons that students work on individually at their own computers. Students move at their own pace and must demonstrate mastery of each concept before progressing to the next one. Classroom teachers may provide individual, small-group, or whole-class instruction based on students’ performance on the software program.
Intervention Report 6-12 -1
TNTP Teaching Fellows (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (June 2017)
TNTP Teaching Fellows is a highly selective route to teacher certification that aims to prepare people to teach in high-need public schools. The program recruits professionals seeking to change careers and recent college graduates who are not certified teachers. TNTP Teaching Fellows expects its participants to teach for many years, but does not require them to make a minimum time commitment to teaching. Program participants complete online coursework and receive 5–7 weeks of in-person training focused on foundational teaching skills during the summer before they begin teaching. They must demonstrate mastery of these core skills to be eligible to teach. They receive continued professional development and coaching from TNTP Teaching Fellows during their first year of teaching, and additional support provided by their schools and districts. As full-time employees of the public schools in which they work, new TNTP Teaching Fellows teachers receive the same salary and benefits as other beginning teachers in their school district.
Intervention Report 1-8 -1
Saxon Math (Primary Mathematics) (May 2017)
Saxon Math is a curriculum for students in grades K–12. The amount of new math content students receive each day is limited and students practice concepts every day. New concepts are developed, reviewed, and practiced cumulatively rather than in discrete chapters or units.
Intervention Report 6-8 -1
Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) (Primary Mathematics) (February 2017)
Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) is a math curriculum for students in grades 6–8. It uses interactive problems and everyday situations to explore mathematical ideas, with a goal of fostering a problem-centered, inquiry-based learning environment. At each grade level, the curriculum covers numbers, algebra, geometry/measurement, probability, and statistics.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Cognitive Tutor® Geometry (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor®, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.
Intervention Report K-8 -1
Accelerated Reader (Beginning Reading) (June 2016)
Accelerated Reader™ is a computerized supplementary reading program that provides guided reading instruction to students in grades K–12. It aims to improve students’ reading skills through reading practice and by providing frequent feedback on students’ progress to teachers. The Accelerated Reader™ program requires students to select and read a book based on their area of interest and reading level. Upon completion of a book, students take a computerized quiz based on the book’s content and vocabulary. Quiz performance allows teachers to monitor student progress and to identify students who may need additional reading assistance.
Intervention Report 6-9 -1
Saxon Algebra I (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
Saxon Math is a textbook series covering grades K–12 based on incremental development and continual review of mathematical concepts to give students time to learn and practice concepts throughout the year. The program is built on the premise that students learn best when instruction is incremental and explicit, previously learned concepts are continually reviewed, and assessment is frequent and cumulative. At each grade level, math concepts are introduced, reviewed, and practiced over time in order to move students from understanding to fluency.
Intervention Report 5-7 -1
SuccessMaker® (Adolescent Literacy) (November 2015)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.
Intervention Report PK-12 -1
TAP: The System for Teacher and Student Advancement (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (July 2015)
TAP™ (formerly known as the Teacher Advancement Program) is a comprehensive educator effectiveness program that aims to improve student achievement through supports and incentives that attract, retain, develop, and motivate effective teachers. The program provides teachers with leadership opportunities and associated salary increases; ongoing, school-based professional development; rigorous evaluations; and annual performance bonuses based on a combination of teacher value added to student achievement and observations of their classroom teaching.
Intervention Report K-6 -1
New Teacher Center Induction Model (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (July 2015)
The New Teacher Center (NTC) Induction Model is a comprehensive and systemic approach to support beginning teachers (i.e., teachers new to the profession). The induction model aims to accelerate the effectiveness of beginning teachers at increasing student learning by providing one-on-one mentoring and professional development in a supportive school environment. The NTC works with school districts and state departments of education to design, develop, and implement induction programs that are aligned with both district priorities and NTC standards.
Intervention Report K-5 -1
Reading Mastery (Beginning Reading) (November 2013)
Reading Mastery is designed to provide systematic reading instruction to students in grades K–6. Reading Mastery can be used as an intervention program for struggling readers, as a supplement to a school’s core reading program, or as a stand-alone reading program, and is available in three versions. During the implementation of Reading Mastery, students are grouped with other students at a similar reading level, based on program placement tests. The program includes a continuous monitoring component.
Intervention Report 4-12 -1
Reciprocal Teaching (Students with Learning Disabilities) (November 2013)
Reciprocal teaching is an interactive instructional practice that aims to improve students’ reading comprehension by teaching strategies to obtain meaning from a text. The teacher and students take turns leading a dialogue regarding segments of the text. Students discuss with their teacher how to apply four comprehension strategies—generating questions, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting—to passages of text. During the early stages of reciprocal teaching, the teacher assumes primary responsibility for modeling how to use these strategies. As students become more familiar with the strategies, there is a gradual shift toward student responsibility for talking through the application of the strategies to the text.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics (Elementary School Mathematics) (May 2013)
Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics is a core curriculum for students at all ability levels in kindergarten through grade 6. The program supports students’ understanding of key math concepts and skills, and it covers a range of mathematical content across grades. The curriculum focuses on questioning strategies, problem-solving skills, embedded assessment, and exercises tailored to students of different ability levels. The program provides explicit problem-solving instruction, hands-on activities, and opportunities to extend students’ mathematical understanding through reading and writing connections.
Intervention Report 2-6 -1
Read Naturally® (Adolescent Literacy) (March 2013)
Read Naturally® is an elementary and middle school supplemental reading program designed to improve reading fluency using a combination of books, audiotapes, and computer software. The program has three main strategies: repeated reading of text for developing oral reading fluency, teacher modeling of story reading, and systematic monitoring of student progress by teachers and the students themselves. Students work at a reading level appropriate for their achievement level, progress through the program at their own rate, and, for the most part, work on an independent basis. Read Naturally® can be used in a variety of settings, including classrooms, resource rooms, or computer or reading labs. Although the program was not originally developed for English language learners, additional materials for these students are currently available.
Intervention Report K-10 -1
Fast ForWord® (Beginning Reading) (March 2013)
Fast ForWord® is a computer-based reading program intended to help students develop and strengthen the cognitive skills necessary for successful reading and learning. The program, which is designed to be used 30 to 100 minutes a day, five days a week, for 4 to 16 weeks, includes two components.
Intervention Report PK-K -1
Ladders to Literacy (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
Ladders to Literacy is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book. The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds. The activities are organized into three sections with about 20 activities each: print awareness, phonological awareness skills, and oral language skills.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Investigations in Number, Data, and Space® (Elementary School Mathematics) (February 2013)
Investigations in Number, Data, and Space is an activity-based, K–5 mathematics curriculum designed to help students understand number and operations, geometry, data, measurement, and early algebra. Each instructional unit focuses on a particular content area and lasts for 2–5.5 weeks. The curriculum encourages students to develop their own strategies for solving problems and engage in discussion about their reasoning and ideas. The lessons are activity-based in order to facilitate increased comprehension of basic math fundamentals. The curriculum is presented through a series of resource books called ”curriculum units” that provide teachers with guidance on implementation. One or more of the units for each year has a software program associated with it. Other materials include manipulatives, flash cards, overheads, and textbooks.
Intervention Report 9-10 -1
LANGUAGE!® (Adolescent Literacy) (February 2013)
LANGUAGE!® is a language arts intervention designed for struggling learners in grades 3–12 who score below the 40th percentile on standardized literacy tests. The curriculum integrates English literacy acquisition skills into a six-step lesson format. During a daily lesson, students work on phonemic awareness and phonics (word decoding), word recognition and spelling (word encoding), vocabulary and morphology (word meaning), grammar and usage (understanding the form and function of words in context), listening and reading comprehension, and speaking and writing.
Intervention Report 7-8 -1
Talent Development Middle Grades Program (Adolescent Literacy) (January 2013)
Talent Development Middle Grades Program (TDMG) is a whole school reform approach for large middle schools that face serious problems with student attendance, discipline, and academic achievement. The program includes both structural and curriculum reforms. It calls for schools to reorganize into small ”learning communities” of 200–300 students who attend classes in distinct areas of the school and stay together throughout their time in middle school. In addition to structural changes, schools adopting the program purchase one or more curricula that are intended to be developmentally appropriate and to engage students with culturally relevant content. For students who are behind in reading and math, the program provides additional periods devoted to these subjects that include group activities and computer-based lessons. To improve implementation, each school is assigned a team of “curriculum coaches” trained by the developer to work with school staff on a weekly basis to implement the program. In addition, teachers are offered professional development training, including monthly sessions designed to familiarize them with the program and demonstrate effective instructional approaches.
Intervention Report 7 -1
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) The Real Reasons for Seasons (Science) (January 2013)
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) The Real Reasons for Seasons is a curriculum unit for grades 6–8 that focuses on the connections between the Sun and the Earth to teach students the scientific concepts behind the seasons. The unit utilizes models, hands-on investigations, peer-to-peer discussions, reflection, and informational student readings to help students understand science content and develop scientific investigation skills.
Intervention Report K-6 -1
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (Elementary School Mathematics) (January 2013)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report K-4 -1
Success for All® (English Language Learners) (October 2012)
Success for All (SFA®) is a whole-school reform model (that is, a model that integrates curriculum, school culture, family, and community supports) for students in prekindergarten through grade 8. SFA® includes a literacy program, quarterly assessments of student learning, a social-emotional development program, computer-assisted tutoring tools, family support teams for students’ parents, a facilitator who works with school personnel, and extensive training for all intervention teachers. The literacy program emphasizes phonics for beginning readers and comprehension for all students. Teachers provide reading instruction to students grouped by reading ability for 90 minutes a day, 5 days a week. In addition, certified teachers or paraprofessionals provide daily tutoring to students who have difficulty reading at the same level as their classmates.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Open Court Reading© (Adolescent Literacy) (August 2012)
Open Court Reading© is a reading program for grades K–6 that is designed to teach decoding, comprehension, inquiry, and writing in a three-part progression. Part One of each unit, Preparing to Read, focuses on phonemic awareness, sounds and letters, phonics, fluency, and word knowledge. Part Two, Reading and Responding, emphasizes reading literature for understanding, comprehension, inquiry, and practical reading applications. Part Three, Language Arts, focuses on writing, spelling, grammar, usage, mechanics, and basic computer skills.
Intervention Report K-5 -1
Reading Mastery (Students with Learning Disabilities) (July 2012)
Reading Mastery is designed to provide systematic reading instruction to students in grades K–6. Reading Mastery can be used as an intervention program for struggling readers, as a supplement to a school’s core reading program, or as a stand-alone reading program, and is available in three versions. During the implementation of Reading Mastery, students are grouped with other students at a similar reading level, based on program placement tests. The program includes a continuous monitoring component.
Intervention Report 6 -1
Astronomy Resources for Intercurricular Elementary Science (ARIES): Exploring Motion and Forces (Science) (May 2012)
ARIES: Exploring Motion and Forces is a physical science curriculum for students in grades 5–8 that employs 18 inquiry-centered, hands-on lessons called “explorations.” The curriculum draws upon students’ curiosity to explore phenomena, allowing for a discovery-based learning process. Group-centered lab work is designed to help students build an understanding of inertia, friction, gravity, speed, and acceleration. Students examine their prior ideas about the phenomena, formulate questions, build and use an apparatus to observe natural phenomena, make predictions, and gather data through structured experiments. Exploring Motion and Forces is part of the ARIES sequence of eight physical science units. The ARIES sequences can be used together for an overall curriculum or independently.
Intervention Report 8 -1
Chemistry That Applies (Science) (February 2012)
Chemistry That Applies is an instructional unit designed to help students in grades 8–10 understand the law of conservation of matter. It consists of 24 lessons organized in four clusters. Working in groups, students explore four chemical reactions: burning, rusting, the decomposition of water, and the reaction of baking soda and vinegar. As part of the unit, students conduct experiments in which they cause these reactions to happen, obtain and record data in individual notebooks, analyze the data, and use evidence-based arguments to explain the data. The instructional unit engages the students in a structured sequence of hands-on laboratory investigations interwoven with other forms of instruction.
Intervention Report PK-2 -1
The Incredible Years (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (February 2012)
The Incredible Years is composed of training programs for children, parents, and teachers. The child program is designed for children (ages 0–12) with challenging behaviors and focuses on building social and emotional skills. Lessons can be delivered to children referred for difficult behavior or to an entire classroom as a preventative measure. The program consists of 20- to 30-minute lessons 2–3 times a week; these lessons are reinforced by small-group activities, practicing skills throughout the day, and communicating with parents. Lessons cover recognizing and understanding feelings, getting along with friends, anger management, problem solving, and behavior at school. Parent training programs focus on positive discipline, promoting learning and development, and involvement in children’s life at school.
Intervention Report PK-2 -1
The Incredible Years (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (November 2011)
The Incredible Years is composed of training programs for children, parents, and teachers. The child program is designed for children (ages 0–12) with challenging behaviors and focuses on building social and emotional skills. Lessons can be delivered to children referred for difficult behavior or to an entire classroom as a preventative measure. The program consists of 20- to 30-minute lessons 2–3 times a week; these lessons are reinforced by small-group activities, practicing skills throughout the day, and communicating with parents. Lessons cover recognizing and understanding feelings, getting along with friends, anger management, problem solving, and behavior at school. Parent training programs focus on positive discipline, promoting learning and development, and involvement in children’s life at school.
Intervention Report 6-8 -1
Student team reading and writing (Adolescent Literacy) (November 2011)
Student team reading and writing refers to two cooperative learning programs for secondary students: (1) Student Team Reading and Writing and (2) Student Team Reading. The Student Team Reading and Writing program is an integrated approach to reading and language arts for early adolescents. Student Team Reading comprises the reading part of Student Team Reading and Writing and consists of two principal elements: (1) literature-related activities (including partner reading, treasure hunts, word mastery, story retelling, story-related writing, and quizzes) and (2) direct instruction in reading comprehension strategies (such as identifying main ideas and themes, drawing conclusions, making predictions, and understanding figurative language).
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Check & Connect (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (October 2011)
Check & Connect is a dropout prevention strategy that relies on close monitoring of school performance, mentoring, case management, and other supports. The program has two main components: “Check” and “Connect.” The Check component is designed to continually assess student engagement through close monitoring of student performance and progress indicators. The Connect component involves program staff giving individualized attention to students, in partnership with school personnel, family members, and community service providers. Students enrolled in Check & Connect are assigned a “monitor” who regularly reviews their performance (in particular, whether students are having attendance, behavior, or academic problems) and intervenes when problems are identified. The monitor also advocates for students, coordinates services, provides ongoing feedback and encouragement, and emphasizes the importance of staying in school.
Intervention Report 4-5 -1
Coping Power (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (October 2011)
Coping Power is based on the earlier Anger Coping Power program. It emphasizes social and emotional skills that are needed during the transition to middle school. The program incorporates child and parent components. The child component consists of thirty-four 50-minute group sessions and periodic individual sessions over the course of 15–18 months, although the program can be shortened to fit into a single school year. Lessons focus on goal setting, problem solving, anger management, and peer relationships. The parent component is composed of 16 group sessions and periodic individual meetings. Lessons support the child component of the program and address setting expectations, praise, discipline, managing stress, communication, and child study skills.
Intervention Report 5-12 -1
Repeated Reading (Middle School Mathematics) (April 2011)
Repeated reading is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. Repeated reading can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During repeated reading, a student sits in a quiet location with a teacher and reads a passage aloud at least three times. Typically, the teacher selects a passage of about 50 to 200 words in length. If the student misreads a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, the teacher reads the word aloud, and the student repeats the word correctly. If the student requests help with a word, the teacher reads the word aloud or provides the definition. The student rereads the passage until he or she achieves a satisfactory fluency level.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) (Adolescent Literacy) (September 2010)
AVID is a college-readiness program whose primary goal is to prepare middle and high school students for enrollment in 4-year colleges through increased access to and support in advanced courses. The program, which focuses on underserved, middle-achieving students (defined as students earning B, C, and even D grades), places students in college preparatory classes (e.g., honors and Advancement Placement classes) while providing academic support through a daily elective period and ongoing tutorials.
Intervention Report 4-12 -1
Reciprocal Teaching (Adolescent Literacy) (September 2010)
Reciprocal teaching is an interactive instructional practice that aims to improve students’ reading comprehension by teaching strategies to obtain meaning from a text. The teacher and students take turns leading a dialogue regarding segments of the text. Students discuss with their teacher how to apply four comprehension strategies—generating questions, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting—to passages of text. During the early stages of reciprocal teaching, the teacher assumes primary responsibility for modeling how to use these strategies. As students become more familiar with the strategies, there is a gradual shift toward student responsibility for talking through the application of the strategies to the text.
Intervention Report 3-5 -1
Corrective Reading (Adolescent Literacy) (September 2010)
Corrective Reading is designed to promote reading accuracy (decoding), fluency, and comprehension skills of students in grade 3 or higher who are reading below their grade level. The program has four levels that correspond to students’ decoding skills. All lessons in the program are sequenced and scripted. Corrective Reading can be implemented in small groups of 4–5 students or in a whole-class format. Corrective Reading is intended to be taught in 45-minute lessons 4–5 times a week.
Intervention Report 1-4 -1
ClassWide Peer Tutoring (English Language Learners) (September 2010)
ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) is a peer-assisted instructional strategy designed to be integrated with most existing reading curricula. This approach provides students with increased opportunities to practice reading skills by asking questions and receiving immediate feedback from a peer tutor. Pairs of students take turns tutoring each other to reinforce concepts and skills initially taught by the teacher. The teacher creates age-appropriate peer teaching materials for the peer tutors; these materials take into account tutees’ language skills and disabilities.
Intervention Report 11-12 -1
Service and Conservation Corps (Dropout Prevention) (September 2010)
Service and Conservation Corps engages young adults in full-time community service, job training, and educational activities. The program serves youth who are typically between the ages of 17 and 26 and who have dropped out of school, been involved with the criminal justice system, or face other barriers to success. Participants are organized into small crews that carry out environmental and energy conservation, urban infrastructure improvement, and other service projects intended to benefit local communities. These crews are guided by adult leaders who serve as mentors and role models. All participants receive educational training, in addition to a variety of job training and support services. Youth who have dropped out of school receive classroom training to secure a GED (General Educational Development) or high school diploma. Participants receive a living allowance while in the program. Those who complete the program are usually eligible for post-program educational stipends or small cash awards.
Intervention Report 4-10 -1
Read 180® (Students with Learning Disabilities) (July 2010)
READ 180® is a reading program designed for struggling readers who are reading 2 or more years below grade level. It combines online and direct instruction, student assessment, and teacher professional development. READ 180® is delivered in 90-minute sessions that include whole-group instruction, three small-group rotations, and whole-class wrap-up. Small-group rotations include individualized instruction using an adaptive computer application, small-group instruction, and independent reading. READ 180® is designed for students in elementary through high school.
Intervention Report 2-6 -1
Read Naturally® (English Language Learners) (July 2010)
Read Naturally® is an elementary and middle school supplemental reading program designed to improve reading fluency using a combination of books, audiotapes, and computer software. The program has three main strategies: repeated reading of text for developing oral reading fluency, teacher modeling of story reading, and systematic monitoring of student progress by teachers and the students themselves. Students work at a reading level appropriate for their achievement level, progress through the program at their own rate, and, for the most part, work on an independent basis. Read Naturally® can be used in a variety of settings, including classrooms, resource rooms, or computer or reading labs. Although the program was not originally developed for English language learners, additional materials for these students are currently available.
Intervention Report 3 -1
Wilson Reading System® (Students with Learning Disabilities) (July 2010)
The Wilson Reading System® is a reading and writing program. It provides a curriculum for teaching reading and spelling to individuals of any age who have difficulty with written language. The Wilson Reading System® directly teaches the structure of words in the English language, aiming to help students learn the coding system for reading and spelling. The program provides interactive lesson plans and uses a sequential system with extensive controlled text. The Wilson Reading System® is structured to progress from phoneme segmentation to more challenging tasks, and seeks to improve sight word knowledge, fluency, vocabulary, oral expressive language development, and reading comprehension.
Intervention Report K-5 -1
Project Read® Phonology (Students with Learning Disabilities) (July 2010)
Project Read® is a multisensory language arts curriculum designed for use in a classroom or group setting. Two main objectives of the program are to use language in all its forms, and to use responsive instruction rather than preplanned textbook lessons. The program emphasizes direct instruction, and lessons move from letter-sounds to words, sentences, and stories. Project Read® has three strands: Phonics/Linguistics, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression, which are integrated at all grade levels, though the emphasis of the specific strands differs by grade.
Intervention Report 6 -1
PLATO (Middle School Mathematics) (March 2010)
PLATO® Achieve Now is a software-based curriculum for the elementary and middle school grades that focuses on pre-algebraic concepts and includes content pertaining to rational numbers in related organizational patterns, proportion and percent, integers, probability, statistics, problem solving, geometry, measurement, and the foundational concepts of algebra I. Instructional content is delivered via the PlayStation Portable (PSP®) system, allowing students to access learning materials in various settings. Software-based assessments are used to customize individual instruction, allowing students to learn at their own pace with content appropriate for their skill level.
Intervention Report 1 -1
Reading Recovery® (English Language Learners) (December 2009)
Reading Recovery® is a short-term tutoring intervention that provides one-on-one tutoring to first-grade students who are struggling in reading and writing. The goals of Reading Recovery® include promoting literacy skills, reducing the number of students who are struggling to read, and preventing long-term reading difficulties. Reading Recovery® supplements classroom teaching with tutoring sessions, generally conducted as pull-out sessions during the school day. Tutoring is delivered by trained Reading Recovery teachers in daily 30-minute sessions over the course of 12–20 weeks.
Intervention Report K-8 -1
Accelerated Reader (English Language Learners) (December 2009)
Accelerated Reader™ is a computerized supplementary reading program that provides guided reading instruction to students in grades K–12. It aims to improve students’ reading skills through reading practice and by providing frequent feedback on students’ progress to teachers. The Accelerated Reader™ program requires students to select and read a book based on their area of interest and reading level. Upon completion of a book, students take a computerized quiz based on the book’s content and vocabulary. Quiz performance allows teachers to monitor student progress and to identify students who may need additional reading assistance.
Intervention Report 8-9 -1
Summer Training and Education Program (STEP) (Dropout Prevention) (May 2009)
Summer Training and Education Program (STEP) is a summer employment, academic remediation, and life skills program intended to reduce school dropout rates by addressing summer learning loss and preventing teen parenthood. The program serves low-income 14- and 15-year-olds who have tested below grade level in either reading or math. The program is integrated into the federal summer jobs program and is offered as sessions of 6–8 weeks in two consecutive summers. It includes part-time summer work at minimum wage, a daily reading and math curriculum, and “life skills and opportunities” classes that focus on topics such as sexual behavior, drug use, careers, and community involvement.
Intervention Report 7-8 -1
Talent Development Middle Grades Program (Dropout Prevention) (March 2009)
Talent Development Middle Grades Program (TDMG) is a whole school reform approach for large middle schools that face serious problems with student attendance, discipline, and academic achievement. The program includes both structural and curriculum reforms. It calls for schools to reorganize into small ”learning communities” of 200–300 students who attend classes in distinct areas of the school and stay together throughout their time in middle school. In addition to structural changes, schools adopting the program purchase one or more curricula that are intended to be developmentally appropriate and to engage students with culturally relevant content. For students who are behind in reading and math, the program provides additional periods devoted to these subjects that include group activities and computer-based lessons. To improve implementation, each school is assigned a team of “curriculum coaches” trained by the developer to work with school staff on a weekly basis to implement the program. In addition, teachers are offered professional development training, including monthly sessions designed to familiarize them with the program and demonstrate effective instructional approaches.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Middle College High School (Dropout Prevention) (March 2009)
Middle College High Schools are alternative high schools located on college campuses that aim to help at-risk students complete high school and encourage them to attend college. The schools offer a project-centered, interdisciplinary curriculum with an emphasis on team teaching, individualized attention, and development of critical thinking skills. Students are also offered support services, including specialized counseling, peer support, and career experience opportunities.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
First Things First (Dropout Prevention) (January 2008)
First Things First is a reform model intended to transform elementary, middle, and high schools serving significant proportions of economically disadvantaged students. Its three main components are: (1) “small learning communities” of students and teachers; (2) a family and student advocate system that pairs staff members and students to monitor and support progress, and that serves as a bridge between the school and family; and (3) instructional improvements to make classroom teaching more rigorous and engaging and more closely aligned with state standards and assessments.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Project GRAD (Dropout Prevention) (July 2007)
Project “Graduation Really Achieves Dreams” (GRAD) is an initiative for students in economically disadvantaged communities that aims to reduce dropping out and increase rates of college enrollment and graduation by increasing reading and math skills, improving behavior in school, and providing a service safety net. At the high school level, Project GRAD provides 4-year college scholarships and summer institutes to promote attending and completing high school. Project GRAD also provides services in the elementary and middle schools that feed into the participating high schools.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Quantum Opportunity Program (Dropout Prevention) (July 2007)
The Quantum Opportunity Program (QOP) is an intensive and comprehensive program for high school-aged youth that offers case management, mentoring, tutoring, and other education and support services. The program also offers financial incentives for participation in program activities. Participants enter QOP in grade 9 and can receive services for 4–5 years, even if they drop out of school or move to another district.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Talent Development High Schools (Dropout Prevention) (July 2007)
Talent Development High Schools is a school reform model for restructuring large high schools with persistent attendance and discipline problems, poor student achievement, and high dropout rates. The model includes both structural and curriculum reforms. It calls for schools to reorganize into small “learning communities”—including ninth-grade academies for first-year students and career academies for students in upper grades—to reduce student isolation and anonymity. It also emphasizes high academic standards and provides all students with a college preparatory academic sequence.
Intervention Report 9-10 -1
Core-Plus Mathematics (Middle School Mathematics) (July 2007)
Core-Plus Mathematics is a 4-year curriculum that replaces the traditional sequence with courses that each feature interwoven strands of algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry and trigonometry, and discrete mathematics. The curriculum emphasizes mathematical modeling, using technology to emphasize reasoning with multiple representations (verbal, numerical, graphical, and symbolic) and to focus on goals in which mathematical thinking and problem solving are central. Instructional materials promote active learning and teaching centered around collaborative small-group investigations of problem situations, followed by teacher-led whole-class summarizing activities that lead to analysis, abstraction, and further application of underlying mathematical ideas.
Intervention Report 5-7 -1
SuccessMaker® (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.
Intervention Report 5-7 -1
SuccessMaker® (Elementary School Mathematics) (July 2007)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.
Intervention Report 1 -1
Read Well® (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
Read Well® is a reading curriculum to increase the literacy abilities of students in kindergarten and grade 1. The program provides instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students are given opportunities to discuss the vocabulary concepts that are presented in each story. The program is based on the tenets of scaffolded instruction, where teachers begin by presenting models, and gradually decrease their support by providing guided practice, before students are asked to complete the skill or strategy independently. For example, the student and teacher read new text aloud, with the teacher reading the difficult or irregular words. As student skills (and motivation) increase, the amount of teacher-read text decreases, and the student is given greater independence. The program combines daily whole class activities with small group lessons.
Intervention Report K-5 -1
Project Read® Phonology (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
Project Read® is a multisensory language arts curriculum designed for use in a classroom or group setting. Two main objectives of the program are to use language in all its forms, and to use responsive instruction rather than preplanned textbook lessons. The program emphasizes direct instruction, and lessons move from letter-sounds to words, sentences, and stories. Project Read® has three strands: Phonics/Linguistics, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression, which are integrated at all grade levels, though the emphasis of the specific strands differs by grade.
Intervention Report PK-K -1
Direct Instruction (Early Childhood Education) (May 2007)
Direct Instruction refers to a family of interventions that includes all Direct Instruction products (DISTAR and Language for Learning), as well as to all versions past and present. Direct Instruction includes teaching techniques that are fast-paced, teacher-directed, and explicit with opportunities for student response and teacher reinforcement or correction.
Intervention Report 1 -1
Progress in Mathematics © 2006 (Elementary School Mathematics) (April 2007)
Progress in Mathematics © 2006 is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 6. Progress in Mathematics © 2006 uses a sequence of systematic lesson plans to teach mathematical concepts and skills. It incorporates the following features at each grade level: explicit instruction of mathematics content; development of conceptual understanding through a three-step process that begins with hands-on activities (concrete thinking to visual thinking to symbol use); fluency in numerical computation; problem solving; development of mathematical vocabulary; practice and review; and different types of assessment. Student textbooks, student workbooks, and teacher’s editions are available for each grade level, as well as manipulatives and online practice exercises.
Intervention Report 2-5 -1
Houghton Mifflin Mathematics (Elementary School Mathematics) (April 2007)
Houghton Mifflin Mathematics is a core mathematics curriculum for students at all ability levels in kindergarten through grade 6. At each grade level, the program focuses on basic skills development, problem solving, and vocabulary expansion to help students master key math concepts. Students practice daily math lessons through instructional software, enrichment worksheets, manipulatives, and workbooks, in addition to student textbooks. The program incorporates assessments—including lesson-level interventions to meet the needs of all learners—to monitor students’ progress.
Intervention Report 7-9 -1
Transition Mathematics (Middle School Mathematics) (March 2007)
Transition Mathematics aims to increase applied arithmetic, pre-algebra, and pre-geometry skills in students in grades 7–12 . This 1-year curriculum also addresses general application to different wordings of problems, types of numbers, and contexts for problems and aims to promote mathematical reading skills. The curriculum uses the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) textbook. The sequence of the topics intends to assist the transition from arithmetic to algebra and geometry.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Lions Quest -- Skills for Action (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lions Quest Skills for Action, a program to build positive character values and life and citizenship skills for students in grades 9–12, includes classroom lessons and service learning. The program includes more than 100 lessons focused around 26 personal, social, and thinking skills. Program length ranges from one semester to 4 years. Students explore personal stories highlighting values and behavior through teachers’ questions, group discussion, and resource pages in the curricular materials. For service learning, students perform school-based or community-based projects and reflect on their experiences. Optional components include a student magazine, an Advisory Team, and supplemental units on drug use prevention.
Intervention Report 6-7 -1
Voices Literature and Character Education (Voices LACE) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Voices Literature and Character Education Program (Voices LACE; formerly known as Voices of Love and Freedom and Literacy and Values) is a K–12 program that aims to promote positive character and citizenship values, literacy skills, and social skills. The program curriculum can be used over any length of time. During classroom lessons, students read books about issues such as ethnic discrimination, fighting, or bullying, and elaborate on central themes through role-playing and discussions practiced in school and at home. Emphasis is given to promoting caring relationships between teachers and students and among students, and to connecting the values taught to students’ personal stories. Voices LACE may also be implemented as a schoolwide improvement program. Optional components of the program include schoolwide events and restructuring of school organization and practices (establishing student assemblies and creating small learning communities), parental involvement (home visits and family nights), and community support (joint campaigns with supporting organizations and business).
Intervention Report 6-8 -1
Lions Quest -- Skills for Adolescence (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence is a schoolwide program for middle school students (grades 6–8). The program is designed to promote good citizenship skills, core character values, social-emotional skills, and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol, and violence. The program includes a classroom curriculum, schoolwide practices to create a positive school climate, parent and family involvement, and community involvement. The curriculum may vary in scope and intensity, lasting from 9 weeks to 3 years. The lessons use cooperative group learning exercises and classroom management techniques to improve classroom climate.
Intervention Report 1-6 -1
Heartwood Ethics Curriculum/An Ethics Curriculum for Children (Character Education) (September 2006)
An Ethics Curriculum for Children, a read-aloud literature-based curriculum, aims to teach elementary school students seven universal attributes of good character. Lessons and home assignments are organized around multicultural stories. The program activities are designed to connect the experiences of characters in the stories to students’ own lives. Optional parts of the Heartwood Ethics Curriculum for Children also include integration of character education themes across curricular topics and parental notification and involvement.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Open Court Reading© (Early Childhood Education) (December 2005)
Open Court Reading© is a reading program for grades K–6 that is designed to teach decoding, comprehension, inquiry, and writing in a three-part progression. Part One of each unit, Preparing to Read, focuses on phonemic awareness, sounds and letters, phonics, fluency, and word knowledge. Part Two, Reading and Responding, emphasizes reading literature for understanding, comprehension, inquiry, and practical reading applications. Part Three, Language Arts, focuses on writing, spelling, grammar, usage, mechanics, and basic computer skills.
Intervention Report 1-4 -1
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Early Childhood Education) (December 2005)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.
Intervention Report K -1
Stepping Stones to Literacy (Early Childhood Education) (December 2005)
Stepping Stones to Literacy (SSL) is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote listening, print conventions, phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, and serial processing/rapid naming (quickly naming familiar visual symbols and stimuli, such as letters or colors). The program targets older preschool and kindergarten students who are considered to be underachieving readers, based on teacher’s recommendations, assessments, and systematic screening. Students participate in 10- to 20-minute daily lessons in a small group or individually. The curriculum consists of 25 lessons, for a total of 9–15 hours of instructional time.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Testing the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention: A Conceptual Replication Study (October 2016)
The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the counterfactual. Similar to the original investigation, however, the current study tested the same intervention, used the same outcome measures and statistical analyses, and involved the same population of learners. A total of 319 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 36 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Students who were randomly assigned to the treatment condition received the intervention in small-group formats, with 2 or 5 students per group. Control students participated in a no-treatment control condition. Significant effects on proximal and distal measures of mathematics achievement were found. Effect sizes obtained for all measures fell within or exceeded the upper bound of the effects reported in the initial study. Implications for systematically situating replication studies in larger frameworks of intervention research and reporting rates of treatment response across replication studies are discussed. [This paper was published in "Exceptional Children" (EJ1116305).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 12 1
Customized nudging to improve FAFSA completion and income verification (May, 2018)
For most students from low- or moderate-income families, successfully completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is a crucial gateway on the path to college access. However, FAFSA filing and income verification tasks pose substantial barriers to college access for low-income students. In this paper, the authors report on a pair of interventions that utilize automated, text-based outreach to: (1) provide students and families with customized information about the importance of and their status on completing the FAFSA; (2) simplify information for students and families about how to complete the FAFSA; and (3) connect students and families to personalized counseling assistance to complete the FAFSA as well as the subsequent verification process, if selected. Data from the study points to the benefit of text-based outreach as a low-cost and readily scalable strategy for improving student completion of important college-going milestones, such as timely FAFSA filing. Tables and figures are appended.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Integrating Literacy and Science Instruction in Kindergarten: Results from the Efficacy "Study of Zoology One" (2022)
This study examines the efficacy, cost, and implementation of an integrated science and literacy curriculum for kindergarten. The study was conducted in a large urban district and included 1,589 students in 71 classrooms in 21 schools. The research includes a multi-site cluster-randomized controlled trial and mixed-methods cost and implementation studies. Analysis revealed significant impacts on comprehension, letter-naming fluency, and motivation to read. No main impacts were observed on decoding, word identification, or writing; however, exploratory analysis revealed that students whose teachers implemented the treatment with fidelity performed statistically significantly better in writing and decoding. The cost to produce the observed effects was estimated at $480 per student, two-thirds of which was borne by the school. Despite this cost, treatment classrooms achieved savings by using an average of three fewer instructional programs than control classrooms. Teachers reported positive effects from the integrated curriculum on student engagement, learning, and behavior.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-9 1
Evaluation of the College, Career, and Community Writers Program: Findings from the i3 Scale-up Grant. Technical Report. (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 1
Aiming Higher: Assessing Higher Achievement's Out-of-School Expansion Efforts (2020)
Many talented students in under-resourced schools do not reach their full potential. Research shows that by sixth grade, children born into poverty have likely spent 6,000 fewer hours learning than their middle-class counterparts. Higher Achievement, an intensive summer and after-school program, aims to close that learning gap. It offers participants more than 500 hours of academic enrichment activities a year to help them meet the high academic standards expected of college-bound students. Known as "scholars"; Higher Achievement students enter the program during the summer before either fifth or sixth grade and commit to attending through eighth grade. The summer program consists of six weeks of morning classes in English Language Arts (ELA), math, science, and, in some centers, social studies, followed by enrichment activities in the afternoon, including chess, cooking, art, and soccer. During the school year, in addition to the program's regular study hall and enrichment activities, a cadre of mostly young professionals volunteer one day a week, delivering 75-minute ELA or math lessons to small groups of scholars. These volunteers receive detailed lesson plans and training so they can successfully execute the program's rigorous curricula. Part of what makes Higher Achievement affordable is its use of volunteers in this way. An earlier experimental evaluation of Metro DC, Higher Achievement's flagship affiliate in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that the program was effective in improving academic performance two years after students applied. Since then, Higher Achievement has expanded to three new cities: Baltimore, Maryland; Richmond, Virginia; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Keenly aware that many effective flagship programs fail to be effective in new locations, the federal government funded an experimental validation study to examine the impacts at these expansion sites. Eligible students were randomly assigned either to a program group that could participate in Higher Achievement, or to a control group that could not enroll in the program. Comparing the two groups' outcomes provided an estimate of the program's impacts. The study found that the expansion sites experienced many of the implementation challenges common to school-based, out-of-school-time programs (for example, staff turnover, coordination with the host school, and lower-than-hoped-for attendance by middle school students), as well as those often seen in new programs (such as a lack of strong relationships with key partners and difficulty recruiting volunteers). Even so, Higher Achievement was found to be at least adequately implemented in all three cities. The study found that the program's detailed lesson plans, with scripted questions and student instructions, enabled the volunteers to deliver rigorous academic lessons. This report addresses the following questions: (1) How did the Higher Achievement centers operate during the study and what lessons are there for similar programs?; (2) Did scholars receive more academic enrichment over the two-year study period than they would have received without Higher Achievement?; and (3) How did Higher Achievement impact scholars' grades and test scores over the two years since they applied?
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 1
Distance Learning through Game-Based 3D Virtual Learning Environments: Mission Hydro Science. Evaluation Report for Mission HydroSci (2020)
Mission HydroSci (MHS) is a 3D game-based learning environment and curriculum that supports middle school student learning of water systems science and scientific argumentation. MHS is a rigorous, coherent and engaging 6 to 8-day curriculum with all learning activities and social interactions taking place in the virtual world and with teachers observing and supporting students through an online support system enhanced by analytics. MHS was evaluated in comparison to a high- quality alternative intervention developed by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) using a stratified randomized block experimental design where 'classroom' was the unit of random assignment, stratified by teacher. The comparison curriculum is called Earth's Water Systems (EWS) and is provided online using the Canvas learning management platform. Three measurable outcomes: (1) content knowledge, (2) competency in scientific argumentation, and (3) affect for science and technology were used in the pre- post-comparison of MHS with EWS. The findings of this randomized experiment showed that MHS achieved roughly equivalent water systems learning outcomes and significantly higher development of argumentation competencies when compared to the EWS curriculum. The impacts of both MHS and the EWS curriculum on affect for science and technology were equivalent and slightly negative. A secondary exploratory quasi-experimental design (QED) analysis was conducted that found significant positive effects for MHS in comparison to EWS on water systems understandings and stronger detected effects for students' argumentation.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 1
What Happens When You Combine High School and College? The Impact of the Early College Model on Postsecondary Performance and Completion. (2020)
Early colleges are a new model of schooling in which the high school and college experiences are merged, shortening the total amount of time a student spends in school. This study uses a lottery-based experimental design to examine the impact of the model on longer term outcomes, including attainment of a postsecondary credential and academic performance in 4-year institutions. Results show that a significantly higher proportion of early college students were attaining postsecondary credentials. The results also show that early college students were completing their degrees more rapidly but that their performance in 4-year institutions was still comparable with the control students.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-11 1
Bridging the School-to-Work Divide: Interim Implementation and Impact Findings from New York City’s P-TECH 9-14 Schools. (2020)
This study offers initial impact and implementation findings from the first rigorous evaluation of the model, evaluating the first seven P-TECH 9-14 schools that opened in New York City. The study leverages the random lottery process created by the New York City High School Admissions System to identify impacts. The majority of the students in the sample who participated in the admissions lotteries were academically below proficiency in both math and English language arts (ELA) prior to entering high school.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
What Happens When You Combine High School and College? The Impact of the Early College Model on Postsecondary Performance and Completion (2020)
Early colleges are a new model of schooling in which the high school and college experiences are merged, shortening the total amount of time a student spends in school. This study uses a lottery-based experimental design to examine the impact of the model on longer term outcomes, including attainment of a postsecondary credential and academic performance in 4-year institutions. Results show that a significantly higher proportion of early college students were attaining postsecondary credentials. The results also show that early college students were completing their degrees more rapidly but that their performance in 4-year institutions was still comparable with the control students. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED604350.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 1
Bridging the School-to-Work Divide: Interim Implementation and Impact Findings from New York City's P-TECH 9-14 Schools. (2020)
The New York City P-TECH Grades 9-14 schools represent an education model that ties together the secondary, higher education, and workforce systems as a way to improve outcomes in both domains. The distinguishing feature of the P-TECH 9-14 model, as it is referred to in this report, is a partnership between a high school, a local community college, and one or more employer partners that focuses on preparing students for both college and careers -- not one or the other -- within a six-year timeframe. Education and workforce development are traditionally seen as separate spheres of influence with multiple transition points that students have been left to navigate largely on their own (for example, high school to postsecondary, and postsecondary to the workforce). P-TECH 9-14 is designed to seamlessly assist student navigation of those points -- supporting student success and mitigating the potential for students to fall through the cracks. P-TECH 9-14 schools collaborate with local colleges to provide students with an opportunity to earn a high school diploma (within four years) followed by a cost-free, industry-recognized associate's degree. During the six-year program, employer partners support P-TECH 9-14 schools by providing students with work-based learning experiences such as internships, mentoring, and job shadowing. By design, the P-TECH 9-14 model offers students the opportunity to participate in focused and accelerated high school pathways, early college, and career-focused activities. This study offers initial impact and implementation findings from the first rigorous evaluation of the model, evaluating the first seven P-TECH 9-14 schools that opened in New York City. The study leverages the random lottery process created by the New York City High School Admissions System to identify impacts. The majority of the students in the sample who participated in the admissions lotteries were academically below proficiency in both math and English language arts (ELA) prior to entering high school. [This report was written with Fernando Medina. For the executive summary, see ED605313.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 1
Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Teacher Training Program on Elementary Children with Aggressive Behaviors (2020)
The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM), a universal classroom management intervention, on the outcomes of children with aggressive behavior in elementary school. Classroom management has been demonstrated as a factor in either escalating children's aggressive behavior or decreasing those problematic behaviors. Participants included 1,817 students (Grade K to 3) and 105 teachers from nine elementary schools in a large urban Midwestern school district. Teachers were randomly assigned to receive IY TCM or to a wait-list comparison group. The hypotheses were that baseline levels of aggression would moderate the relationship between intervention status and outcomes. Findings indicated the hypothesized moderation effect on several outcome variables; specifically, children with baseline aggression problems who were in IY TCM classrooms had significantly improved math achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviors, and observed aggression in comparison to similar peers in the control classrooms. Implications for practice and future research based on the findings are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
Employing Evidence-Based Practices for Children with Autism in Elementary Schools (2020)
The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a comprehensive program model originally developed by the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorder (NPDC). Sixty elementary schools with 486 participants were randomly assigned to an NPDC and services as usual condition (SAU). Significantly greater changes in program quality occurred in the inclusive NPDC programs as compared with the SAU schools. Teachers in NPDC schools reported using more evidence-based practices (EBPs) and implemented EBPs with significantly greater fidelity than teachers in SAU schools. Autistic students in NPDC schools had significantly higher total attainment of educational goals than students in SAU schools, and the two groups made equivalent progress on standardized assessment outcomes across the school year. [This is the online first version of an article published in "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 11-PS 1
Virtual advising for high-achieving high school students. (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 1
Investigating Causal Effects of Arts Education Experiences: Experimental Evidence from Houston's Arts Access Initiative (2019)
The recent wave of test-based accountability reforms has negatively impacted the provision of K-12 arts educational experiences. Advocates contend that, in addition to providing intrinsic benefits, the arts can positively influence academic and social development. However, the empirical evidence to support such claims is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 10,548 3rd-8th grade students who were enrolled in 42 schools that were assigned by lottery to receive substantial influxes of arts education experiences provided through school-community partnerships with local arts organizations, cultural institutions, and teaching-artists. We find that these increases in arts educational experiences significantly reduce the proportion of students receiving disciplinary infractions by 3.6 percentage points, improve STAAR writing achievement by 0.13 of a standard deviation, and increase students' compassion for others by 0.08 of a standard deviation. For students in elementary schools, which comprise 86 percent of the sample, we find that these arts educational experiences also significantly improve school engagement, college aspirations, and arts-facilitated empathy. These findings provide strong evidence that arts educational experiences can produce significant positive impacts on student academic and social development. Policymakers should consider these multifaceted educational benefits when assessing the role and value of the arts in K-12 schools.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Does an integrated focus on fractions and decimals improve at-risk students’ rational number magnitude performance? (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Does an integrated focus on fractions and decimals improve at-risk students’ rational number magnitude performance? (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Schema-based word-problem intervention with and without embedded language comprehension instruction (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Schema-based word-problem intervention with and without embedded language comprehension instruction (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Building bridges to life after high school: Contemporary career academies and student outcomes. (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Early College, Continued Success: Longer-Term Impact of Early College High Schools. (2019)
Building on a previous randomized experiment of the impact of Early Colleges (ECs) (Berger et al., 2013), this follow-up study assessed longer-term impacts of ECs on students' postsecondary outcomes 6 years after expected high school graduation. It also explored the extent to which students' high school experiences mediate EC impacts. Specifically, this study addressed three research questions: (1) Did EC students have better postsecondary outcomes (i.e., college enrollment and degree attainment) than control students? (2) Did the impacts of ECs vary by student background characteristics (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, low-income status, and prior mathematics and English language arts [ELA] achievement)? and (3) Were the impacts of ECs mediated by students' high school experiences (i.e., college credit accrual during high school, instructional rigor, college-going culture, and student supports)? To answer these questions for the follow-up study, the authors analyzed 4 more years of postsecondary outcome data from the StudentTracker Service at the National Student Clearinghouse for students participating in the EC admission lotteries that were the basis of the previous impact study. They also analyzed data on student background characteristics from administrative records and data on high school experiences from a student survey administered in the previous impact study 5 or 6 years after students entered the ninth grade. [To view the earlier report, "Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study," see ED577243.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Building number sense among English learners: A multisite randomized controlled trial of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
Reappraising academic and social adversity improves middle school students' academic achievement, behavior, and well-being (2019)
The period of early adolescence is characterized by dramatic changes, simultaneously affecting physiological, psychological, social, and cognitive development. The physical transition from elementary to middle school can exacerbate the stress and adversity experienced during this critical life stage. Middle school students often struggle to find social and emotional support, and many students experience a decreased sense of belonging in school, diverting students from promising academic and career trajectories. Drawing on psychological insights for promoting belonging, we fielded a brief intervention designed to help students reappraise concerns about fitting in at the start ofmiddle school as both temporary and normal. We conducted a district-wide double-blind experimental study of this approach with middle school students (n = 1,304). Compared with the control condition activities, the intervention reduced sixth-grade disciplinary incidents across the district by 34%, increased attendance by 12%, and reduced the number of failing grades by 18%. Differences in benefits across demographic groups were not statistically significant, but some impactswere descriptively larger for historically underservedminority students and boys. A mediational analysis suggested 80% of longterm intervention effects on students’ grade point averages were accounted for by changes in students’ attitudes and behaviors. These results demonstrate the long-term benefits of psychologically reappraising stressful experiences during critical transitions and the psychological and behavioral mechanisms that support them. Furthermore, this brief intervention is a highly cost-effective and scalable approach that schools may use to help address the troubling decline in positive attitudes and academic outcomes typically accompanying adolescence and the middle school transition.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interleaved Mathematics Practice (2019)
We report the results of a preregistered, cluster randomized controlled trial of a mathematics learning intervention known as interleaved practice. Whereas most mathematics assignments consist of a block of problems devoted to the same skill or concept, an interleaved assignment is arranged so that no 2 consecutive problems require the same strategy. Previous small-scale studies found that practice assignments with a greater proportion of interleaved practice produced higher test scores. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy and feasibility of interleaved practice in a naturalistic setting with a large, diverse sample. Each of 54 7th-grade mathematics classes periodically completed interleaved or blocked assignments over a period of 4 months, and then both groups completed an interleaved review assignment. One month later, students took an unannounced test, and the interleaved group outscored the blocked group, 61% versus 38%, d 0.83. Teachers were able to implement the intervention without training, and they later expressed support for interleaved practice in an anonymous survey they completed before they knew the results of the study. Although important caveats remain, the results suggest that interleaved mathematics practice is effective and feasible.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
Improving Student Learning of Ratio, Proportion, and Percent: A Replication Study of Schema-Based Instruction (2019)
The purpose of this replication study was to provide replication evidence not currently available of the effects of a research-based mathematics program, schema-based instruction, on the mathematical problem-solving performance of 7th-grade students. The replication was implemented in 36 schools in 5 districts; 59 mathematics teachers and their students (N = 1,492) participated in the study. Multilevel hierarchical linear analyses revealed statistically significant differences between conditions on proximal and distal measures of mathematics problem solving, with effects sizes similar to those reported in Jitendra et al. (2015).
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
A national experiment reveals where a growth mindset improves achievement. (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
Building Assets and Reducing Risks (BARR) Validation Study Final Report (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
A Fraction Sense Intervention for Sixth Graders with or at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties (2018)
The efficacy of a research-based fraction sense intervention for sixth graders with or at risk for mathematics difficulties (N = 52) was examined. The intervention aimed to build understanding of fraction magnitudes on the number line. Key concepts were taught with a narrow range of denominators to develop deep understanding. The intervention was centered on a visual number line in the meaningful context of a color run race. Students were randomly assigned to the fraction sense intervention (n = 25) or a business-as-usual control group (n = 27). Students in the intervention condition received 21 lessons in small groups (45 min each) during their regular mathematics intervention period. Students in the intervention group performed significantly better than those in the control group on a measure of fraction number line estimation and a more general measure of fraction concepts, both at immediate posttest and delayed posttest, with large effect sizes; lesser effects were shown for fraction arithmetic. [This paper will be published in "Remedial and Special Education."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 1
Impact of a tier 2 fractions intervention on 5th grade students’ fractions achievement: A technical report. (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Racing Against the Vocabulary Gap: Matthew Effects in Early Vocabulary Instruction and Intervention (2018)
We investigated whether individual differences in overall receptive vocabulary knowledge measured at the beginning of the year moderated the effects of a kindergarten vocabulary intervention that supplemented classroom vocabulary instruction. We also examined whether moderation would offset the benefits of providing Tier-2 vocabulary intervention within a multitiered-system-of-support (MTSS) or response-to-intervention framework. Participants included students from two previous studies identified as at risk for language and learning difficulties who were randomly assigned in clusters to receive small-group vocabulary intervention in addition to classroom vocabulary instruction (n = 825) or to receive classroom vocabulary instruction only (n = 781). A group of not-at-risk students (n = 741) who received classroom vocabulary instruction served as a reference group. Initial vocabulary knowledge measured at pretest moderated the impact of intervention on experimenter-developed measures of expressive vocabulary learning and listening comprehension favoring students with higher initial vocabulary knowledge. Tier-2 intervention substantially counteracted the Matthew effect for target word learning. Intervention effects on listening comprehension depended on students' initial vocabulary knowledge. Implications present benefits and challenges of supporting vocabulary learning within an MTSS framework.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 1
SPARK Early Literacy: Testing the Impact of a Family-School-Community Partnership Literacy Intervention (2018)
This report presents the SPARK literacy model, an innovative approach developed by Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Milwaukee, for addressing the literacy needs of low-income and minority schools in Milwaukee. It also presents the results of a two-year randomized control trial evaluation of the SPARK literacy program's impact on reading achievement. Through a family-school-community partnership model, SPARK attempts to both build student literacy skills and develop natural supports in the student's family and community that promote a sustained programmatic impact. SPARK was awarded an Investing in Innovation (i3) Department of Education grant to develop the program and test its impact in six Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS). While SPARK was still being developed, 251 students were randomly assigned to receive SPARK for two years and 245 were assigned to the "business as usual" control condition. The study found that SPARK had a small but statistically significant positive impact on student reading achievement, but no impact was found on regular school day attendance. Although the results of the study were somewhat mixed, the family-school-community partnership approach employed by SPARK holds great promise for having a sustained impact on student literacy.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
A randomized waitlist controlled analysis of Team-Initiated Problem Solving professional development and use (2018)
Data-based problem solving is a hallmark of research-supported practices such as positive behavioral interventions and supports. In this study, we provided members of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) teams from 38 elementary schools with professional development focused on a research-supported problem-solving model (Team-Initiated Problem Solving). We used direct observations to document procedures, practices, and outcomes before and after participating in the professional development workshop. Within the context of a randomized waitlist controlled trial, team members in the Immediate Group demonstrated greater improvement in (a) problem-solving procedures, (b) decision-making practices, and (c) meeting outcomes than did members of PBIS teams in the Waitlist Group. Our findings extend what is known about team-based problem solving and provide a framework for future research and improved practice related to decision making by school teams.
Reviews of Individual Studies 12 1
Study of enhanced college advising in Upward Bound: Impacts on steps toward college. NCEE 2019-4002. (2018)
The U.S. Department of Education tested a set of promising, low-cost advising strategies, called "Find the Fit," designed to help low-income and "first generation" students enrolled in the Department's Upward Bound program choose more selective colleges and stay in until they complete a degree. About 200 Upward Bound projects with 4,500 seniors agreed to participate. The projects were randomly assigned to receive "Find the Fit" to supplement their regular college advising (treatment group) or to offer their regular advising (control group). This first of three reports looks at "Find the Fit's" effects on students' steps toward enrolling in a more selective college. The study found that the enhanced advising increased the number and selectivity of colleges to which students applied. [For the study snapshot, "Study of Enhanced College Advising in Upward Bound: Impacts on Steps toward College. Study Snapshot. NCEE 2019-4002," see ED588785. For the study highlights, "Study of Enhanced College Advising in Upward Bound: Impacts on Steps toward College. Study Highlights. NCEE 2019-4002," see ED588786.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 11-PS 1
The bottom line on college counseling (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-4 1
The Effects of Dialect Awareness Instruction on Non-Mainstream American English Speakers (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-4 1
The Effects of Dialect Awareness Instruction on Non-Mainstream American English Speakers (2017)
The achievement gaps between poor and more affluent students are persistent and chronic, as many students living in poverty are also members of more isolated communities where dialects such as African American English and Southern Vernacular English are often spoken. Non-mainstream dialect use is associated with weaker literacy achievement. The principal aims of the two experiments described in this paper were to examine whether second through fourth graders, who use home English in contexts where more formal school English is expected, can be taught to dialect shift between home and school English depending on context; and whether this leads to stronger writing and literacy outcomes. The results of two randomized controlled trials with students within classrooms randomly assigned to DAWS (Dialect Awareness, a program to explicitly teach dialect shifting), editing instruction, or a business as usual group revealed (1) that DAWS was more effective in promoting dialect shifting than instruction that did not explicitly contrast home and school English; and (2) that students in both studies who participated in DAWS were significantly more likely to use school English in contexts where it was expected on proximal and distal outcomes including narrative writing, morphosyntactic awareness, and reading comprehension. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 1
The effect of an analysis-of-practice, video case-based, teacher professional development program on elementary students' science and achievement. (2017)
This article describes the effects of an analysis-of-practice professional development (PD) program on elementary school students' (Grades 4-6) science outcomes. The study design was a cluster-randomized trial with an analysis sample of 77 schools, 144 teachers and 2,823 students. Forty-two schools were randomly assigned to treatment, (88.5 hours) of integrated analysis-of-practice and content deepening PD (over the course of one year) while 35 schools were randomly assigned to receive an equal number of PD hours in science content deepening alone. Students' content knowledge, as measured by a project-specific test, was compared across treatment groups. The effect size for this comparison was 0.52 standard deviations in favor of students whose teachers participated in the PD that included analysis-of-practice. This effect compares favorably to that of other elementary school interventions whose effectiveness was studied with a narrowly focused outcome measure. Analysis of the demographics of the study schools suggests that the treatment effect could be relevant outside the local study context. Implications for future research include tests of mediation for teacher-level outcomes and efficacy tests of specific teaching strategies (intervention subcomponents).
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 1
Effects of dual-language immersion programs on student achievement: Evidence from lottery data. (2017)
Effectively educating the large English learner population requires policymakers to ensure developmentally appropriate settings and services throughout the time students are learning English, as well as during their transition to fluent English proficient status--a process termed "reclassification." Using longitudinal student-level data from two U.S. states (N = 107,549), the authors implemented recent advances in multi-site regression discontinuity designs to assess the effects of reclassification policies across districts. They found that reclassification decisions are heavily influenced by state criteria; however, there is considerable variability across districts in the extent of state-level influence. The authors also found robust evidence of between-district heterogeneity in the effects of reclassification on subsequent achievement and graduation. They discuss the implications of these findings for reclassification policies and future research on the topic. Looking toward the next century of education research, the authors discuss ways that multi-site regression discontinuity designs can be combined with qualitative research to enable policymakers and practitioners to better understand variation in effects of policies across contexts as well as the mechanisms underlying those effects.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 1
Acquiring science and social studies knowledge in kindergarten through fourth grade: Conceptualization, design, implementation, and efficacy testing of content-area literacy instruction (CALI) (2017)
With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized) instructional program for kindergarteners through 4th graders to build science and social studies knowledge. We developed CALI to be implemented in general education classrooms, over multiple iterations (n = 230 students), using principles of design-based implementation research. The aims were to develop CALI as a usable and feasible instructional program that would, potentially, improve science and social studies knowledge, and could be implemented during the literacy block without negatively affecting students' reading gains (i.e., no opportunity cost). We then evaluated the efficacy of CALI in a randomized controlled field trial with 418 students in kindergarten through 4th grade. Results reveal that CALI demonstrates promise as a usable and feasible instructional individualized general education program, and is efficacious in improving social studies (d = 2.2) and science (d = 2.1) knowledge, with some evidence of improving oral and reading comprehension skills (d = 0.125).
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 1
Smoothing the Transition to Postsecondary Education: The Impact of the Early College Model (2017)
Developed in response to concerns that too few students were enrolling and succeeding in postsecondary education, early college high schools are small schools that blur the line between high school and college. This article presents results from a longitudinal experimental study comparing outcomes for students accepted to an early college through a lottery process with outcomes for students who were not accepted through the lottery and enrolled in high school elsewhere. Results show that treatment students attained significantly more college credits while in high school, and graduated from high school, enrolled in postsecondary education, and received postsecondary credentials at higher rates. Results for subgroups are included.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 1
Smoothing the Transition to Postsecondary Education: The Impact of the Early College Model (2017)
Developed in response to concerns that too few students were enrolling and succeeding in postsecondary education, early college high schools are small schools that blur the line between high school and college. This article presents results from a longitudinal experimental study comparing outcomes for students accepted to an early college through a lottery process with outcomes for students who were not accepted through the lottery and enrolled in high school elsewhere. Results show that treatment students attained significantly more college credits while in high school, and graduated from high school, enrolled in postsecondary education, and received postsecondary credentials at higher rates. Results for subgroups are included. [This paper was published in the "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness" (EJ1135800)]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 1
Engaging struggling adolescent readers to improve reading skills. (2017)
This study examined the efficacy of a supplemental, multicomponent adolescent reading intervention for middle school students who scored below proficient on a state literacy assessment. Using a within-school experimental design, the authors randomly assigned 483 students in grades 6-8 to a business-as-usual control condition or to the Strategic Adolescent Reading Intervention (STARI), a supplemental reading program involving instruction to support word-reading skills, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, and peer talk to promote reading engagement and comprehension. The authors assessed behavioral engagement by measuring how much of the STARI curricular activities students completed during an academic school year, and collected intervention teachers' ratings of their students' reading engagement. STARI students outperformed control students on measures of word recognition (Cohen's d = 0.20), efficiency of basic reading comprehension (Cohen's d = 0.21), and morphological awareness (Cohen's d = 0.18). Reading engagement in its behavioral form, as measured by students' participation and involvement in the STARI curriculum, mediated the treatment effects on each of these three posttest outcomes. Intervention teachers' ratings of their students' emotional and cognitive engagement explained unique variance on reading posttests. Findings from this study support the hypothesis that (a) behavioral engagement fosters struggling adolescents' reading growth, and (b) teachers' perceptions of their students' emotional and cognitive engagement further contribute to reading competence.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
I3 BARR Validation Study (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-12 1
UC Irvine Writing Project’s Pathway to Academic Success program: An Investing in Innovation (i3) validation grant evaluation. Technical report. (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Examining the Efficacy of a Multitiered Intervention for At-risk Readers in Grade 1 (2016 (May 5))
This study reports the results of a cluster RCT evaluating the impact of Enhanced Core Reading Instruction on reading achievement of grade 1 at-risk readers. Forty-four elementary schools, blocked by district, were randomly assigned to condition. In both conditions, at-risk readers received 90 minutes of whole-group instruction (Tier 1) plus an additional 30 minutes of daily, small-group intervention (Tier 2). In the treatment condition, Tier 1 instruction included enhancements to the core program and Tier 2 intervention was highly aligned with the core program. In the comparison condition, Tier 1 instruction used the same core program as treatment schools in the district and Tier 2 intervention followed standard district protocol. Significant treatment effects were found on measures of phonemic decoding and oral reading fluency from fall to winter and word reading from fall to spring. Student- and classroom-level variables predicted student response to instruction differentially by condition.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Reading Recovery: An evaluation of the four-year i3 scale-up (2016)
This report presents the final results of a four-year independent external evaluation of the impacts and implementation of the scale-up of Reading Recovery, a literacy intervention targeting struggling 1st-grade students. The evaluation of Reading Recovery includes parallel rigorous experimental and quasi-experimental designs for estimating program impacts, coupled with a large-scale, mixed-methods study of program implementation under the Investing in Innovation (i3) scale-up. The primary goals of the evaluation are to: (1) Provide experimental evidence of the short- and long-term impacts of Reading Recovery on student learning in schools that are part of the i3 scale-up; and (2) Assess the implementation of Reading Recovery under the i3 grant, including fidelity to the program model and progress toward the scale-up goals. The impact evaluation includes a multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) for estimating immediate impacts, a regression discontinuity study (RD) for estimating longterm impacts, and an implementation study for assessing fidelity of implementation and exploring program implementation in depth. The RCT includes nearly 7,000 randomized students in more than 1,200 schools over four years. The RD study measures Reading Recovery's impacts at the end of first grade and in third grade, and replicates the RCT's immediate post-treatment findings in a separate sample of students. The implementation study involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative research executed on a large scale over the same four-year timeframe. The evaluation's key findings pertain to the following topics: (1) Scale-Up Processes, Challenges, and Outcomes; (2) Immediate Impacts of Reading Recovery; (3) Sustained Impacts of Reading Recovery; and (4) Implementation Fidelity. The authors' analysis revealed strong fidelity to the program model in all of these areas and all years of the scale-up. This suggests that the intervention was delivered as designed to the students in the scale-up, and that teachers delivering Reading Recovery lessons were properly trained. In total, the results of the fidelity analysis support the validity of their impact findings. Three appendices are included. [To view the brief for this report, "Evidence for Early Literacy Intervention: The Impacts of Reading Recovery," see ED586802.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Effects of intervention to improve at-risk fourth graders' understanding, calculations, and word problems with fractions (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Effects of Intervention to Improve At-Risk Fourth Graders' Understanding, Calculations, and Word Problems with Fractions (2016)
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction word-problem (WP) intervention. At-risk fourth graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned to the school's business-as-usual program, or one of two variants of the core fraction intervention (each 12 weeks, 36 sessions). In each session of the two variants, 28 minutes were identical, focused mainly on the measurement interpretation of fractions. The other 7 minutes addressed multiplicative WPs versus additive WPs. Children were pre-/posttested on fraction understanding, calculations, and WPs. On understanding and calculations, both intervention conditions outperformed the control group. The effect of intervention versus control on released fraction items from the National Assessment of Education Progress was mediated by children's improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions. On multiplicative WPs, multiplicative WP intervention was superior to the other conditions, but additive WP intervention and the control group performed comparably. On additive WPs, additive WP intervention was superior to multiplicative WP intervention, which was superior to control.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Supported self-explaining during fraction intervention (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Supported self-explaining during fraction intervention (2016)
The main purposes of this study were to test the effects of teaching at-risk 4th graders to provide explanations for their mathematics work and examine whether those effects occur by compensating for limitations in cognitive processes. We randomly assigned 212 children to 3 conditions: a control group and 2 variants of a multicomponent fraction intervention. Both intervention conditions included 36 sessions, each lasting 35 min. All but 7 min of each session were identical. In the 7-min component, students were taught to provide high quality explanations when comparing fraction magnitudes or to solve fraction word problems. Children were pretested on cognitive variables and pre/posttested on fraction knowledge. On accuracy of magnitude comparisons and quality of explanations, children who received the explaining intervention outperformed those in the word-problem condition. On word problems, children who received the word-problem intervention outperformed those in the explaining condition. Moderator analyses indicated that the explaining intervention was more effective for students with weaker working memory, while the word-problem intervention was more effective for students with stronger reasoning ability. © 2015 American Psychological Association.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
Online mathematics homework increases student achievement (2016)
In a randomized field trial with 2,850 seventh-grade mathematics students, we evaluated whether an educational technology intervention increased mathematics learning. Assigning homework is common yet sometimes controversial. Building on prior research on formative assessment and adaptive teaching, we predicted that combining an online homework tool with teacher training could increase learning. The online tool ASSISTments (a) provides timely feedback and hints to students as they do homework and (b) gives teachers timely, organized information about students' work. To test this prediction, we analyzed data from 43 schools that participated in a random assignment experiment in Maine, a state that provides every seventh-grade student with a laptop to take home. Results showed that the intervention significantly increased student scores on an end-of-the-year standardized mathematics assessment as compared with a control group that continued with existing homework practices. Students with low prior mathematics achievement benefited most. The intervention has potential for wider adoption. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED575159.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
i3 BARR validation study impact findings: Cohort 1. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-11 1
Texting Parents: Evaluation report and executive summary. (2016)
This report presents the findings from an efficacy trial and process evaluation of the Parent Engagement Programme (PEP). The PEP was a school-level intervention designed to improve pupil outcomes by engaging parents in their children's learning. The programme was developed collaboratively by research teams from the University of Bristol and Harvard University and was delivered between September 2014 and July 2015. The study was conducted by the Centre for Effective Education, Queen's University Belfast between February 2014 and February 2016. The trial involved 15,697 students in Years 7, 9, and 11 from 36 English secondary schools, with schools sending an average of 30 texts to each parent over the period of the trial. The developers of the intervention managed its delivery to ensure optimal implementation. It was a cluster randomised controlled trial with randomisation at the Key Stage level, designed to determine the impact of the intervention on the academic outcomes of students in English, maths, and science, and the impact on absenteeism. A process evaluation used focus groups, telephone surveys, interviews, and an online survey to provide data on implementation and to capture the perceptions and experiences of participating parents, pupils, and teachers. Key conclusions include: (1) Children who had the intervention experienced about one month of additional progress in maths compared to other children. This positive result is unlikely to have occurred by chance; (2) Children who had the intervention had reduced absenteeism compared to other children. This positive result is unlikely to have occurred by chance; (3) Children who had the intervention appeared to experience about one month of additional progress in English compared to other children. However, analysis suggests that this finding might have been affected by bias introduced by missing data, so evaluators cannot reliably draw this conclusion. There is no evidence to suggest that the intervention had an impact on science attainment; (4) Schools embraced the programme and liked its immediacy and low cost. Many respondents felt that the presence of a dedicated coordinator would be valuable to monitor the accuracy and frequency of texts. Schools should consider whether they would be able to provide this additional resource; and (5) The vast majority of parents were accepting of the programme, including the content, frequency, and timing of texts. [Note: The post-reporting appendix was added in June 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-6 1
Student and teacher outcomes of the Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Team efficacy trial. (2016)
Schools continue to strive for the use of evidenced-based interventions and policies to foster well-managed classrooms that promote improved student outcomes. The present study examined the effects of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT), a group contingency intervention, on the on-task and disruptive behavior of elementary school students with or at risk for emotional behavior disorders (EBD). Seventeen elementary schools, 159 general education teachers, and 313 students participated in the randomized-control group design study. Fidelity of implementation was strong for intervention group teachers and was measured across groups and throughout baseline conditions. Results suggest that CW-FIT can be used to increase on-task behavior and reduce the disruptive behavior of students with or at risk for EBD. In addition, teachers in intervention classes increased praise and reduced reprimands to individual students and along with their students, reported high levels of consumer satisfaction.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
Class-wide function-related intervention teams “CW-FIT” efficacy trial outcomes. (2015)
The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of the Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program for improving students' on-task behavior, and increasing teacher recognition of appropriate behavior. The intervention is a group contingency classroom management program consisting of teaching and reinforcing appropriate behaviors (i.e., getting the teacher's attention, following directions, and ignoring inappropriate behaviors of peers). Seventeen elementary schools, the majority in urban and culturally diverse communities, participated in a randomized trial with 86 teachers (classrooms) assigned to CW-FIT, and 73 teachers (classrooms) assigned to the comparison group. Class-wide student on-task behavior improved over baseline levels in the intervention classes. Teachers were able to implement the intervention with high fidelity overall, as observed in adherence to 96% of the fidelity criteria on average. Teacher praise and attention to appropriate behaviors increased, and reprimands decreased. These effects were replicated in new classrooms each of the 4 years of the study, and for all years combined.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 1
New Mexico StartSmart K-3 Plus validation study. Evaluator's report. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 1
Scaling up the Success for All model of school reform: Final report from the Investing in Innovation (i3) evaluation. (2015)
Success for All (SFA), one of the best-known school reform models, aims to improve the reading skills of all children but is especially directed at schools that serve large numbers of students from low-income families. First implemented in 1987, SFA combines a challenging reading program, whole-school reform elements, and an emphasis on continuous improvement, with the goal of ensuring that every child learns to read well in the elementary grades. This is the third and final report from an independent evaluation of the scale-up demonstration of the SFA elementary school reading program. Both the demonstration and the evaluation have been funded under the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) competition. Conducted by MDRC--a nonprofit, nonpartisan education and social policy research organization--the evaluation examines SFA's implementation and impacts in five school districts over a three-year period (the 2011-2012 school year through the 2013-2014 school year). It also includes an analysis of program costs. Finally, it considers the scale-up process itself--the methods employed and the extent to which the Success for All Foundation (SFAF), the organization that developed and provides technical assistance to schools operating the program, achieved its scale-up goals. [This report was written with Emma Alterman, Herbert Collado, and Emily Pramik. For the executive summary of this report, see ED579090. For the Early Findings report, see ED545452. For the Interim Report, see ED546642.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 1
The results of a randomized control trial evaluation of the SPARK literacy program. (2015)
The purpose of this report is to present the results of a two-year randomized control trial evaluation of the SPARK literacy program. SPARK is an early grade literacy program developed by Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Milwaukee. In 2010, SPARK was awarded an Investing in Innovation (i3) Department of Education grant to further develop the program and test its impact in seven Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS). The evaluation used a randomized control trial selection to test the impact of SPARK across three domains: reading achievement, literacy, and school attendance. Informed consent was obtained from 576 parents for their students to participate in the study. A random sample of kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grade students in seven MPS schools was selected in October and November of 2013 to participate. 286 students were randomly selected as SPARK participants and 290 students were randomly selected as control students. Stratification was done by school and grade level within school. The specific number of students selected to receive SPARK within each strata was determined both by the number of consented students and the capacity to serve students within each site. Students with a reading-related IEP or who were English Language Learners were not eligible to participate in the evaluation but were eligible to receive tutoring. All other students were eligible to participate. The results suggest that SPARK had statistically significant, positive impacts on reading achievement, literacy, and regular school day attendance. Tables are appended. [SREE documents are structured abstracts of SREE conference symposium, panel, and paper or poster submissions.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
A Kindergarten Number-Sense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for Low-Achieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a research-based number-sense intervention for low-achieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a number-sense intervention followed by a number-fact practice session, an identical number-sense intervention followed by a number-list practice session, or a business-as-usual control group. The number-fact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the number-list practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
A Kindergarten Number-Sense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for Low-Achieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a research-based number-sense intervention for low-achieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a number-sense intervention followed by a number-fact practice session, an identical number-sense intervention followed by a number-list practice session, or a business-as-usual control group. The number-fact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the number-list practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 1
Smoothing the transition to postsecondary education: The impact of the Early College Model (2015)
Developed in response to concerns that too few students were enrolling and succeeding in postsecondary education, early college high schools are small schools that blur the line between high school and college. This article presents results from a longitudinal experimental study comparing outcomes for students accepted to an early college through a lottery process with outcomes for students who were not accepted through the lottery and enrolled in high school elsewhere. Results show that treatment students attained significantly more college credits while in high school, and graduated from high school, enrolled in postsecondary education, and received postsecondary credentials at higher rates. Results for subgroups are included. [This paper was published in the "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness" (EJ1135800)]
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Effectiveness of Supplemental Kindergarten Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners: A Randomized Study of Immediate and Longer-Term Effects of Two Approaches (2015)
A two-cohort cluster randomized trial was conducted to estimate effects of small-group supplemental vocabulary instruction for at-risk kindergarten English learners (ELs). "Connections" students received explicit instruction in high-frequency decodable root words, and interactive book reading (IBR) students were taught the same words in a storybook reading context. A total of 324 EL students representing 24 home languages and averaging in the 10th percentile in receptive vocabulary completed the study ("Connections" n = 163 in 75 small groups; IBR n = 161 in 72 IBR small groups). Although small groups in both conditions made significant immediate gains across all measures, "Connections" students made significantly greater gains in reading vocabulary and decoding (d = 0.64 and 0.45, respectively). At first-grade follow-up, longer-term gains were again greater for Connections students, but with smaller effect sizes (d = 0.29 and 0.27, respectively). Results indicate that explicit "Connections" instruction features designed to build semantic, orthographic and phonological connections for word learning were effective for improving proximal reading vocabulary and general decoding; however, increases in root word reading vocabulary did not transfer to general vocabulary knowledge. Additional tables are presented in two appendices. [At time of submission to ERIC this article was in press with the "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
The Building Assets-Reducing Risks Program: Replication and expansion of an effective strategy to turn around low-achieving schools. Final report. (2015)
The Building Assets Reducing Risks (BARR) Model BARR is a comprehensive model that addresses the challenges that are part of the 9th grade transition year. BARR employs eight different school-wide and individual strategies that are built on positive relationships and ongoing monitoring of student data. In 2010, BARR received an Investing in Innovation (i3) Development grant from the US Department of Education to replicate BARR and conduct a randomized controlled trial to test its effectiveness. This report details the final results of the i3 Development grant. A large suburban high school in southern California participated in a within-school Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of the BARR Model. A total of 555 9th grade students were randomly assigned to BARR and non-BARR conditions. At the end of the RCT year, BARR students had earned significantly more core course credits, higher grade point averages, and had a lower course failure rate than non-BARR students. BARR students also earned significantly higher standardized test scores on the Northwest Education Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores in mathematics and reading than did non-BARR students after one year of implementation; specifically an average of two years of growth in mathematics, compared to one year of decline in the non-BARR condition. In the second and third years of the grant, BARR was implemented in the entire 9th grade, and the core course failure rate continued to decline. In addition, the achievement gap between Hispanic and non-Hispanic students closed by year two of implementation and remained closed in year three. Implementation fidelity of the BARR model was achieved in year one, and continued to improve over the second and third years of the study. BARR was also implemented in two smaller rural high schools in Maine. Decreases in core course failure rate, increases in grade point averages, and increases in standardized test scores in reading, language, and mathematics were achieved if the BARR model was implemented with fidelity. BARR teachers reported improved relationships with students, increased ability to perceive student strengths, use of data to improve student performance, better communication with administration, less isolation, and better problem solving of problematic student issues. Results were seen for both new and veteran teachers. The following are appended: (1) Attrition for credits earned, NWEA Reading, NWEA Mathematics; (2) Baseline Measurement--Group Data; (3) Mean number of core credits and NWEA scores by study group, gender and Hispanic origin; (4) Regression models predicting core credits earned, spring NWEA Mathematics scores, and spring NWEA Reading scores; (5) Reported findings--group data and estimates; (6) OLS Regressions for proficiency groups; (7) Core credits by gender and Hispanic origin over 3 years; (8) Fidelity ratings for key components of the BARR program; and (9) Teacher survey results.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-10 1
Not too late: Improving academic outcomes for disadvantaged youth (Working paper WP-15-01) (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Professional development in self-regulated strategy development: Effects on the writing performance of eighth grade Portuguese students. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 1
Understanding the effect of KIPP as it scales: Volume I, Impacts on achievement and other outcomes. Final report of KIPP’s Investing in Innovation grant evaluation [Middle School; RCT]. (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first high-quality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other non-KIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Matched-Student Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-Student Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-School Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 1
The impact of eMINTS professional development on teacher instruction and student achievement. Year 3 report. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 1
Mobilizing volunteer tutors to improve student literacy: Implementation, impacts, and costs of the Reading Partners program. (2015)
This study reports on an evaluation of the "Reading Partners" program, which uses community volunteers to provide one-on-one tutoring to struggling readers in underresourced elementary schools. Established in 1999 in East Menlo Park, California, the mission of "Reading Partners" is to help children become lifelong readers by empowering communities to provide individualized instruction with measurable results. This report builds on those initial findings by describing the "Reading Partners" program and its implementation in greater detail, exploring whether the program is more or less effective for particular subgroups of students, and assessing some of the potential explanations for the program's success to date. In addition, this report includes an analysis of the cost of implementing the Reading Partners program in 6 of the 19 sites. The following are appended: (1) Implementation Study Methods; (2) Impact Study Methods and Teacher Survey; (3) Tutor Background Characteristics and Additional Impact Findings; (4) Cost Study Methods; and (5) Additional Cost Findings. [This report was written with A. Brooks Bowden and Yilin Pan.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 1
Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) Primary Version (2015)
A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured via the SSIS rating scale for all participants, and direct observations were completed for a subsample of participants within each classroom. Results indicated that the SSIS-CIP demonstrated positive effects on teacher ratings of participants' social skills and internalizing behaviors, with the greatest changes occurring in classrooms with students who exhibited lower skill proficiency prior to implementation. Statistically significant differences were not observed between treatment and control participants on teacher ratings of externalizing problem behaviors or direct observation.
Reviews of Individual Studies 12-PS 1
The forgotten summer: Does the offer of college counseling after high school mitigate summer melt among college-intending, low-income high school graduates? (2014)
Despite decades of policy intervention to increase college entry and success among low-income students, considerable gaps by socioeconomic status remain. To date, policymakers have overlooked the summer after high school as an important time period in students' transition to college, yet recent research documents high rates of summer attrition from the college pipeline among college-intending high school graduates, a phenomenon we refer to as "summer melt." We report on two randomized trials investigating efforts to mitigate summer melt. Offering college-intending graduates two to three hours of summer support increased enrollment by 3 percentage points overall, and by 8 to 12 percentage points among low-income students, at a cost of $100 to $200 per student. Further, summer support has lasting impacts on persistence several semesters into college.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Does Working Memory Moderate the Effects of Fraction Intervention? An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (2014)
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a business-as-usual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects. At-risk students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to control and 2 intervention conditions. The interventions each lasted 12 weeks, with three 30-min sessions per week. The major focus of both intervention conditions was the measurement interpretation of fractions. Across the 2 conditions, only 5 min of each 30-min session differed. One condition completed activities to build fluency with 4 measurement interpretation topics; in the other, activities were completed to consolidate understanding on the same 4 topics. Results revealed a significant aptitude-treatment interaction, in which students with very weak WM learned better with conceptual activities but children with more adequate (but still low) WM learned better with fluency activities. Both intervention conditions outperformed the control group on all outcomes, and improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-12 1
School engagement mediates long-term prevention effects for Mexican American adolescents. (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
The benefit of interleaved mathematics practice is not limited to superficially similar kinds of problems. (2014)
Most mathematics assignments consist of a group of problems requiring the same strategy. For example, a lesson on the quadratic formula is typically followed by a block of problems requiring students to use the quadratic formula, which means that students know the appropriate strategy before they read each problem. In an alternative approach, different kinds of problems appear in an interleaved order, which requires students to choose the strategy on the basis of the problem itself. In the classroom-based experiment reported here, grade seven students (n = 140) received blocked or interleaved practice over a nine-week period, followed two weeks later by an unannounced test. Mean test scores were greater for material learned by interleaved practice rather than by blocked practice (72% vs. 38%, d = 1.05). This interleaving effect was observed even though the different kinds of problems were superficially dissimilar from each other, whereas previous interleaved mathematics studies required students to learn nearly identical kinds of problems. We conclude that interleaving improves mathematics learning not only by improving discrimination between different kinds of problems but also by strengthening the association between each kind of problem and its corresponding strategy. [This article was published in: "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review" v21 n5 p1323-1330 Oct 2014; http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3758/s13423-014-0588-3.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
The effects of math video games on learning: A randomized evaluation study with innovative impact estimation techniques. (2014)
A large-scale randomized controlled trial tested the effects of researcher-developed learning games on a transfer measure of fractions knowledge. The measure contained items similar to standardized assessments. Thirty treatment and 29 control classrooms (~1500 students, 9 districts, 26 schools) participated in the study. Students in treatment classrooms played fractions games and students in the control classrooms played solving equations games. Multilevel multidimensional item response theory modeling of the outcome measure produced scaled scores that were more sensitive to the instructional treatment than standard measurement approaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of the scaled scores showed that the treatment condition performed significantly higher on the outcome measure than the control condition. The effect (d = 0.58) was medium to large (Cohen, 1992). Two appendices are included: (1) Descriptive Statistics of Pretest and Posttest Scores by Schools and Conditions; and (2) Summary of Efficacy Trial Procedures.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-12 1
Stand and deliver: Effects of Boston’s charter high schools on college preparation, entry, and choice. (2014)
One of the most important questions in education research is whether the gains from interventions for which perceived short-term success can be sustained. The possibility of short-lived impacts is especially relevant for research on charter schools, where charter operators who face high-stakes assessments have an incentive to "teach to the test." The fact that charters are subject to intense scrutiny and evaluation may even create incentives for cheating (Jacob and Levitt, 2003), strategic instruction (Jacob, 2007), and a focus on small groups of students that are pivotal for official accountability measures (Neal and Schanzenbach, 2010). The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of attendance at Boston's charter high schools on outcomes where the link with human capital and future earnings seems likely to be sustained and strong. Specifically, the authors focus on outcomes that are either essential to or facilitate post-secondary schooling: high school graduation, the attainment of state competency thresholds, scholarship qualification, Advanced Placement (AP) and SAT scores, college enrollment, and college persistence. Importantly, most of these outcomes are less subject to strategic manipulation than are the state's test-based assessments. As in earlier work, the research design implemented here exploits randomized enrollment lotteries at oversubscribed charter schools. The resulting estimates are likely to provide reliable measures of average causal effects for charter applicants. Six tables are appended.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 1
The Success for All model of school reform: Interim findings from the Investing in Innovation (i3) Scale-Up. (2014)
This is the second of three reports from MDRC's evaluation of the Success for All (SFA) scale-up demonstration, funded under the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) competition. The report presents updated findings on SFA's implementation and impacts in the scale-up sites participating in the evaluation. The i3 evaluation of SFA employs an experimental design, in which 37 schools in five school districts that are participating in the scale-up effort were assigned at random to a program group or to a control group. The two groups of schools were similar on all school-level characteristics at baseline, although they were not fully representative of all schools participating in SFA's i3 scale-up. The 19 program group schools received SFA. The 18 control group schools did not get the intervention and, instead, either continued with the same reading program that they had used previously or, in the case of some schools, adopted a new one. The study compares the experiences of adults and the performance of students in the two groups of schools. This second report tracks the literacy growth of the initial group of kindergartners as they advanced through first grade, and it also measures the reading skills of students in grades 3 through 5. Like the first report, this report uses quantitative and qualitative data from a variety of sources. Through teacher and principal surveys, implementation summaries completed by SFA staff, logs completed by teachers to describe the instruction that they provided to individual students, interviews and focus groups with school personnel conducted in the course of site visits, school district databases, and individual and group assessments of students' reading skills, it addresses three main questions: (1) To what extent were SFA's features implemented during the program's second year? (2) How distinct were the program group schools and the control group schools in various aspects of school functioning? (3) Did SFA continue to produce impacts on students' reading skills as the students progressed through first grade? In brief, the report finds that, during the second year, schools strengthened their implementation of SFA, and teachers were more at ease with it. Reading instruction in SFA schools continued to differ from instruction in control group schools in a number of respects, although in other ways the two groups of schools were similar. Finally, first-graders who had been enrolled in SFA schools since kindergarten significantly outperformed their counterparts who had been continuously enrolled in control group schools on two measures of phonetic and decoding skills, although not on measures of higher-order reading skills. At this point, the impact findings about the students' academic trajectories are consistent with those reported in the major previous experimental study of SFA. Four appendices include: (1) Data Sources and Response Rates; (2) Subgroup Impacts; (3) Full-Sample Impacts; and (4) Auxiliary-Sample Impacts. [This report was written with Emma Alterman and Emily Pramik.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Early college, continued success: Early college high school initiative impact study. (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 1
Evaluation of the Milwaukee Community Literacy Project/SPARK Program: Findings from the first cohort. (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 1
The iterative development and initial evaluation of We Have Skills!, an innovative approach to teaching social skills to elementary students. (2014)
We describe the development and initial evaluation of the efficacy of "We Have Skills!" (WHS), a video-based social skills instructional program for early elementary school students. The components of WHS were designed to be scientifically sound, maximally useful to elementary school teachers, and effective in increasing students' social skills. Results from feasibility and social validity testing showed that teachers felt the program was easy to implement and highly recommended its use. The initial efficacy evaluation of WHS conducted with 70 classrooms randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions showed that teachers in the intervention group scored significantly higher on self-efficacy than teachers in the control group. Students in the intervention classrooms were rated significantly higher on key social skills by their teachers at posttest compared to students in the control group. Implications for further testing of WHS are discussed, along with study limitations and recommendations for future research and practice.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
Building assets and reducing risks whole ninth-grade strategy reduces coursework failure for students of color. (2013, April/May)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
Early college, early success: Early College High School Initiative impact study. (2013)
In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) with the primary goal of increasing the opportunity for underserved students to earn a postsecondary credential. To achieve this goal, Early Colleges provide underserved students with exposure to, and support in, college while they are in high school. Early Colleges partner with colleges and universities to offer all students an opportunity to earn an associate's degree or up to two years of college credits toward a bachelor's degree during high school at no or low cost to the students. The underlying assumption is that engaging underrepresented students in a rigorous high school curriculum tied to the incentive of earning college credit will motivate them and increase their access to additional postsecondary education and credentials after high school. Since 2002, more than 240 Early Colleges have opened nationwide. This study focused on the impact of Early Colleges. It addressed two questions: (1) Do Early College students have better outcomes than they would have had at other high schools?; and (2) Does the impact of Early Colleges vary by student background characteristics (e.g., gender and family income)? To answer these questions, the authors conducted a lottery-based randomized experiment, taking advantage of the fact that some Early Colleges used lotteries in their admissions processes. By comparing the outcomes for students who participated in admissions lotteries and were offered enrollment with the outcomes for students who participated in the lotteries but were not offered enrollment, they can draw causal conclusions about the impact of Early Colleges. The primary student outcomes for this study were high school graduation, college enrollment, and college degree attainment. The authors also examined students' high school and college experiences. Data on student background characteristics and high school outcomes came from administrative records from schools, districts, and states; data on college outcomes came from the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC); and data on high school and college experiences and intermediate outcomes such as college credit accrual came from a student survey. The authors assessed the impact of Early Colleges on these outcomes for a sample of 10 Early Colleges that did the following: (1) Enrolled students in grades 9-12 and had high school graduates in the study years (2005-2011); (2) Used lotteries as part of the admission processes in at least one of the study cohorts (students who entered ninth grade in 2005-06, 2006-07, or 2007-08); and (3) Retained the lottery records. Eight of the 10 Early Colleges in the study were included in the student survey. The overall study sample included 2,458 students and the survey sample included 1,294 students. The study extended through three years past high school.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-6 1
KIPP middle schools: Impacts on achievement and other outcomes, final report. (2013)
The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is a rapidly expanding network of public charter schools whose mission is to improve the education of low-income children. As of the 2012-2013 school year, 125 KIPP schools are in operation in 20 different states and the District of Columbia (DC). Ultimately, KIPP's goal is to prepare students to enroll and succeed in college. Prior research has suggested that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, but most of the studies have included only a few KIPP schools or have had methodological limitations. This is the second report of a national evaluation of KIPP middle schools being conducted by Mathematica Policy Research. The evaluation uses experimental and quasi-experimental methods to produce rigorous and comprehensive evidence on the effects of KIPP middle schools across the country. The study's first report, released in 2010, described strong positive achievement impacts in math and reading for the 22 KIPP middle schools for which data were available at the time. For this phase of the study, the authors nearly doubled the size of the sample, to 43 KIPP middle schools, including all KIPP middle schools that were open at the start of the study in 2010 for which they were able to acquire relevant data from local districts or states. The average impact of KIPP on student achievement is positive, statistically significant, and educationally substantial. KIPP impact estimates are consistently positive across the four academic subjects examined, in each of the first four years after enrollment in a KIPP school, and for all measurable student subgroups. A large majority of the individual KIPP schools in the study show positive impacts on student achievement as measured by scores on state-mandated assessments. KIPP produces similar positive impacts on the norm-referenced test, which includes items assessing higher-order thinking. Estimated impacts on measures of student attitudes and behavior are less frequently positive, but the authors found evidence that KIPP leads students to spend significantly more time on homework, and that KIPP increases levels of student and parent satisfaction with school. On the negative side, the findings suggest that enrollment in a KIPP school leads to an increase in the likelihood that students report engaging in undesirable behavior such as lying to or arguing with parents. These findings are described in this report. The following appendixes are included: (1) Sample selection and baseline characteristics; (2) Constructing survey outcomes; (3) Schools attended by lottery winners and lottery non-winners; (4) Analytic methods for the matched comparison group analysis; (5) Analytic methods for lottery-based analysis; and (6) Validation of matching methods using lottery-based impact estimates. (Contains 46 tables, 78 footnotes, and 16 figures.) [For "What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: 'KIPP Middle Schools: Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes, Final Report,'" see ED540896.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 1
Staying on track: Testing Higher Achievement’s long-term impact on academic outcomes and high school choice. (2013)
One crucial decision that middle schoolers (and their families) make is where they will attend high school. Many districts employ school choice systems designed to allow students to pick a high school that will meet their needs and interests. Yet most students prefer high schools that are close to home, and for youth in low-income neighborhoods, this often means attending a more disadvantaged, lower performing school (Nathanson et al. 2013). Youth who defy these odds and choose a competitive high school instead have much to gain. Cullen et al. (2005), for instance, found that Chicago public middle school students who chose to attend a higher-achieving high school were substantially more likely to graduate. However, even as eighth graders, these students already differed in many ways from their peers who chose a neighborhood school--they had better self-reported grades and higher expectations for the future, felt more prepared for high school, and were more likely to have spoken with their parents about what school to attend. These findings raise the question of how we can prepare more disadvantaged students to take the many steps necessary-throughout the middle school years-to successfully transition to a competitive, high-quality high school that can ultimately launch them toward college and careers. The Washington, DC-based Higher Achievement program is taking on this challenge. Higher Achievement targets rising fifth and sixth graders from "at-risk communities" and serves them throughout the middle school years. Its goal is to strengthen participants' academic skills, attitudes and behaviors, reinforce high aspirations and help students and their families navigate the process of applying to and selecting a high-quality high school. In 2006, the authors began a comprehensive multi-year evaluation of Higher Achievement to test its impact on participants' academic performance, attitudes and behaviors and on their high school enrollment. The evaluation used random assignment-the most rigorous design available to researchers-to assess program impacts. This brief summarizes the study's findings. Findings suggest that the program does appear to expand the options available to its students by making them more likely to apply to and attend private schools and less likely to apply to and attend weaker public magnet and charter schools. This, in turn, may position youth for better outcomes in high school and beyond. [This research was made possible by grants from The Atlantic Philanthropies, Bank of America, the Smith Richardson Foundation, the Spencer Foundation, The Wallace Foundation and the William T. Grant Foundation.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-12 1
The effectiveness of secondary math teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows programs (NCEE 2013-4015). (2013)
Teach For America (TFA) and the Teaching Fellows programs are an important and growing source of teachers of hard-to-staff subjects in high-poverty schools, but comprehensive evidence of their effectiveness has been limited. This report presents findings from the first large-scale random assignment study of secondary math teachers from these programs. The study separately examined the effectiveness of TFA and Teaching Fellows teachers, comparing secondary math teachers from each program with other secondary math teachers teaching the same math courses in the same schools. The study focused on secondary math because this is a subject in which schools face particular staffing difficulties.The study had two main findings, one for each program studied: (1) TFA teachers were more effective than the teachers with whom they were compared. On average, students assigned to TFA teachers scored 0.07 standard deviations higher on end-of-year math assessments than students assigned to comparison teachers, a statistically significant difference. This impact is equivalent to an additional 2.6 months of school for the average student nationwide; and (2) Teaching Fellows were neither more nor less effective than the teachers with whom they were compared. On average, students of Teaching Fellows and students of comparison teachers had similar scores on end-of-year math assessments. By providing rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of secondary math teachers from TFA and the Teaching Fellows programs, the study can shed light on potential approaches for improving teacher effectiveness in hard-to-staff schools and subjects. The study findings can provide guidance to school principals faced with the choice of hiring teachers who have entered the profession via different routes to certification. The findings can also aid policymakers and funders of teacher preparation programs by providing information on the effectiveness of teachers from various routes to certification that use different methods to identify, attract, train, and support their teachers. Seven appendixes present: (1) Supplementary Technical Information on Study Design and Data Collection; (2) Supplementary Information on Analytic Methods; (3) Supplementary Information on Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Programs; (4) Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers Compared with Comparison Teachers by Entry Route (Alternative or Traditional); (5) Supplementary Information on Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers Compared with Comparison Teachers; (6) Supplementary Analyses of the Impacts of Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers; and (7) Supplementary Findings on Factors Associated with Teacher Effectiveness. (Contains 96 tables, 21 figures, and 30 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 1
Efficacy of the Leveled Literacy Intervention System for K–2 urban students: An empirical evaluation of LLI in Denver Public Schools. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K 1
Cluster (School) RCT of ParentCorps: Impact on kindergarten academic achievement. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Early college, early success: Early college high school initiative impact study. (2013)
In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) with the primary goal of increasing the opportunity for underserved students to earn a postsecondary credential. To achieve this goal, Early Colleges provide underserved students with exposure to, and support in, college while they are in high school. Early Colleges partner with colleges and universities to offer all students an opportunity to earn an associate's degree or up to two years of college credits toward a bachelor's degree during high school at no or low cost to the students. The underlying assumption is that engaging underrepresented students in a rigorous high school curriculum tied to the incentive of earning college credit will motivate them and increase their access to additional postsecondary education and credentials after high school. Since 2002, more than 240 Early Colleges have opened nationwide. This study focused on the impact of Early Colleges. It addressed two questions: (1) Do Early College students have better outcomes than they would have had at other high schools?; and (2) Does the impact of Early Colleges vary by student background characteristics (e.g., gender and family income)? To answer these questions, the authors conducted a lottery-based randomized experiment, taking advantage of the fact that some Early Colleges used lotteries in their admissions processes. By comparing the outcomes for students who participated in admissions lotteries and were offered enrollment with the outcomes for students who participated in the lotteries but were not offered enrollment, they can draw causal conclusions about the impact of Early Colleges. The primary student outcomes for this study were high school graduation, college enrollment, and college degree attainment. The authors also examined students' high school and college experiences. Data on student background characteristics and high school outcomes came from administrative records from schools, districts, and states; data on college outcomes came from the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC); and data on high school and college experiences and intermediate outcomes such as college credit accrual came from a student survey. The authors assessed the impact of Early Colleges on these outcomes for a sample of 10 Early Colleges that did the following: (1) Enrolled students in grades 9-12 and had high school graduates in the study years (2005-2011); (2) Used lotteries as part of the admission processes in at least one of the study cohorts (students who entered ninth grade in 2005-06, 2006-07, or 2007-08); and (3) Retained the lottery records. Eight of the 10 Early Colleges in the study were included in the student survey. The overall study sample included 2,458 students and the survey sample included 1,294 students. The study extended through three years past high school.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Sustained progress: New findings about the effectiveness and operation of small public high schools of choice in New York City. (2013)
In 2002, New York City embarked on an ambitious and wide-ranging series of education reforms. At the heart of its high school reforms were three interrelated changes: the institution of a district wide high school choice process for all rising ninth-graders, the closure of 31 large, failing high schools with an average graduation rate of 40 percent, and the opening of more than 200 new small high schools. Over half of the new small schools created between the fall of 2002 and the fall of 2008 were intended to serve students in some of the district's most disadvantaged communities and are located mainly in neighborhoods where large, failing high schools had been closed. MDRC has previously released two reports on these "small schools of choice," or SSCs (so called because they are small, are academically nonselective, and were created to provide a realistic choice for students with widely varying academic backgrounds). Those reports found marked increases in progress toward graduation and in graduation rates for the cohorts of students who entered SSCs in the falls of 2005 and 2006. The second report also found that the increase in graduation rates applied to every student subgroup examined, and that SSC graduation effects were sustained even after five years from the time sample members entered high school. This report updates those previous findings with results from a third cohort of students, those who entered ninth grade in the fall of 2007. In addition, for the first time it includes a look inside these schools through the eyes of principals and teachers, as reported in interviews and focus groups held at the 25 SSCs with the strongest evidence of effectiveness. In brief, the report's findings are: (1) SSCs in New York City continue to markedly increase high school graduation rates for large numbers of disadvantaged students of color, even as graduation rates are rising at the schools with which SSCs are compared; (2) The best evidence that exists indicates that SSCs may increase graduation rates for two new subgroups for which findings were not previously available: special education students and English language learners. However, given the still-limited sample sizes for these subgroups, the evidence will not be definitive until more student cohorts can be added to the analysis; and (3) Principals and teachers at the 25 SSCs with the strongest evidence of effectiveness strongly believe that academic rigor and personal relationships with students contribute to the effectiveness of their schools. They also believe that these attributes derive from their schools' small organizational structures and from their committed, knowledgeable, hardworking, and adaptable teachers. Appended are: (1) Sample, Data, and Analysis; (2) Estimated Effects of Winning a Student's First SSC Lottery; (3) 2008 Requirements for Proposals to Create New SSCs Specified by the New York City Department of Education; and (4) Documentation for Interviews and Focus Groups.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Does working memory moderate the effects of fraction intervention? An aptitude-treatment interaction. (2013)
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a business-as-usual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects. At-risk students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to control and 2 intervention conditions. The interventions each lasted 12 weeks, with three 30-min sessions per week. The major focus of both intervention conditions was the measurement interpretation of fractions. Across the 2 conditions, only 5 min of each 30-min session differed. One condition completed activities to build fluency with 4 measurement interpretation topics; in the other, activities were completed to consolidate understanding on the same 4 topics. Results revealed a significant aptitude-treatment interaction, in which students with very weak WM learned better with conceptual activities but children with more adequate (but still low) WM learned better with fluency activities. Both intervention conditions outperformed the control group on all outcomes, and improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Improving At-Risk Learners' Understanding of Fractions (2013)
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of an intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' understanding of fractions and to examine the processes by which effects occurred. The intervention focused more on the measurement interpretation of fractions; the control condition focused more on the part-whole interpretation of fractions and on procedures. Intervention was also designed to compensate for at-risk students' limitations in the domain-general abilities associated with fraction learning. At-risk students (n = 259) were randomly assigned to intervention and control. Whole-number calculation skill, domain-general abilities (working memory, attentive behavior, processing speed, listening comprehension), and fraction proficiency were pretested. Intervention occurred for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session, and then fraction performance was reassessed. On each conceptual and procedural fraction outcome, effects favored intervention over control (effect sizes = 0.29 to 2.50), and the gap between at-risk and low-risk students narrowed for the intervention group but not the control group. Improvement in the accuracy of children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated intervention effects. Also, intervention effects were moderated by domain-general abilities, but not whole-number calculation skill.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Improving at-risk learners' understanding of fractions (2013)
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of an intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' understanding of fractions and to examine the processes by which effects occurred. The intervention focused more on the measurement interpretation of fractions; the control condition focused more on the part-whole interpretation of fractions and on procedures. Intervention was also designed to compensate for at-risk students' limitations in the domain-general abilities associated with fraction learning. At-risk students (n = 259) were randomly assigned to intervention and control. Whole-number calculation skill, domaingeneral abilities (working memory, attentive behavior, processing speed, listening comprehension), and fraction proficiency were pretested. Intervention occurred for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session, and then fraction performance was reassessed. On each conceptual and procedural fraction outcome, effects favored intervention over control (effect sizes = 0.29 to 2.50), and the gap between at-risk and low-risk students narrowed for the intervention group but not the control group. Improvement in the accuracy of children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated intervention effects. Also, intervention effects were moderated by domain-general abilities, but not whole-number calculation skill.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 1
Transfer incentives for high-performing teachers: Final results from a multisite randomized experiment (NCEE 2014-4003). (2013)
One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highest-performing teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention can improve student test scores and other outcomes in low-achieving schools. The intervention, known to participants as the Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI), was implemented in 10 school districts in seven states. The highest-performing teachers in each district--those who ranked in roughly the top 20 percent within their subject and grade span in terms of raising student achievement year after year (an approach known as value added)--were identified. These teachers were offered $20,000, paid in installments over a two-year period, if they transferred into and remained in designated schools that had low average test scores. The main findings from the study include: (1) The transfer incentive successfully attracted high value-added teachers to fill targeted vacancies; (2) The transfer incentive had a positive impact on test scores (math and reading) in targeted elementary classrooms; and (3) The transfer incentive had a positive impact on teacher-retention rates during the payout period; retention of the high-performing teachers who transferred was similar to their counterparts in the fall immediately after the last payout. Seven appendixes are included: (1) Supplemental Materials for Chapters I and II; (2) Value-Added Analysis to Identify Highest-Performing Teachers; (3) Supplemental Materials for Chapter III; (4) Identification of Focal Teachers; (5) Supplemental Materials for Chapter IV; (6) Supplemental Materials for Chapter V; and (7) Supplemental Materials for Chapter VI. (Contains 114 footnotes, 61 figures, and 92 tables.) [For the executive summary, see ED544268.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 1
A longitudinal cluster-randomized controlled study on the accumulating effects of individualized literacy instruction on students’ reading from first through third grade (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Evaluation of the i3 scale-up of Reading Recovery year one report, 2011–12. (2013)
Reading Recovery (RR) is a short-term early intervention designed to help the lowest-achieving readers in first grade reach average levels of classroom performance in literacy. Students identified to receive Reading Recovery meet individually with a specially trained Reading Recovery (RR) teacher every school day for 30-minute lessons over a period of 12 to 20 weeks. The purpose of these lessons is to support rapid acceleration of each child's literacy learning. In 2010, The Ohio State University received a Scaling Up What Works grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund to expand the use of Reading Recovery across the country. The award was intended to fund the scale-up of Reading Recovery by training 3,675 new RR Teachers in U.S. schools, thereby expanding capacity to allow service to an additional 88,200 students. The Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) was contracted to conduct an independent evaluation of the i3 scale up of Reading Recovery over the course of five years. The evaluation includes parallel rigorous experimental and quasi-experimental designs for estimating program impacts, coupled with a large-scale mixed-methods study of program implementation under the i3 scale-up. This report presents findings through the second year of the evaluation. The primary goals of this evaluation were: (1) to assess the success of the scale-up in meeting the i3 grant's expansion goals; (2) to document the implementation of scale-up and fidelity to program standards; and (3) to provide experimental evidence of the impacts of Reading Recovery on student learning under this scale-up effort. This document is the first in a series of three annual reports produced based on our external evaluation of the Reading Recovery i3 Scale-Up. This report presents early results from the experimental impact and implementation studies conducted over the 2010-11 and 2011-12 school years. An appendix includes: Statistical Model for Impacts of Reading Scores. [For "WWC Review of the Report 'Evaluation of the i3 Scale-up of Reading Recovery Year One Report, 2011-12.' What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review," see ED547670.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Effects of First-Grade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Effects of First-Grade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Effects of First-Grade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Differential effects of three professional development models on teacher knowledge and student achievement in elementary science. (2012)
To identify links among professional development, teacher knowledge, practice, and student achievement, researchers have called for study designs that allow causal inferences and that examine relationships among features of interventions and multiple outcomes. In a randomized experiment implemented in six states with over 270 elementary teachers and 7,000 students, this project compared three related but systematically varied teacher interventions--"Teaching Cases, Looking at Student Work, and Metacognitive Analysis"--along with no-treatment controls. The three courses contained identical science content components, but differed in the ways they incorporated analysis of learner thinking and of teaching, making it possible to measure effects of these features on teacher and student outcomes. Interventions were delivered by staff developers trained to lead the teacher courses in their regions. Each course improved teachers' and students' scores on selected-response science tests well beyond those of controls, and effects were maintained a year later. Student achievement also improved significantly for English language learners in both the study year and follow-up, and treatment effects did not differ based on sex or race/ethnicity. However, only Teaching Cases and Looking at Student Work courses improved the accuracy and completeness of students' written justifications of test answers in the follow-up, and only Teaching Cases had sustained effects on teachers' written justifications. Thus, the content component in common across the three courses had powerful effects on teachers' and students' ability to choose correct test answers, but their ability to explain why answers were correct only improved when the professional development incorporated analysis of student conceptual understandings and implications for instruction; metacognitive analysis of teachers' own learning did not improve student justifications either year. Findings suggest investing in professional development that integrates content learning with analysis of student learning and teaching rather than advanced content or teacher metacognition alone. (Contains 1 figure and 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 1
Large-scale randomized controlled trial with 4th graders using intelligent tutoring of the structure strategy to improve nonfiction reading comprehension. (2012)
Reading comprehension is a challenge for K-12 learners and adults. Nonfiction texts, such as expository texts that inform and explain, are particularly challenging and vital for students' understanding because of their frequent use in formal schooling (e.g., textbooks) as well as everyday life (e.g., newspapers, magazines, and medical information). The structure strategy is explicit instruction about how to strategically use knowledge about text structures for encoding and retrieval of information from nonfiction and has consistently shown significant improvements in reading comprehension. We present the delivery of the structure strategy using a web-based intelligent tutoring system (ITSS) that has the potential to offer consistent modeling, practice tasks, assessment, and feedback to the learner. Finally, we report on statistically significant findings from a large scale randomized controlled efficacy trial with rural and suburban 4th-grade students using ITSS.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Information and college access: Evidence from a randomized field experiment (NBER Working Paper No. 18551). (2012)
High school students from disadvantaged high schools in Toronto were invited to take two surveys, about three weeks apart. Half of the students taking the first survey were also shown a 3 minute video about the benefits of post secondary education (PSE) and invited to try out a financial-aid calculator. Most students' perceived returns to PSE were high, even among those not expecting to continue. Those exposed to the video, especially those initially unsure about their own educational attainment, reported significantly higher expected returns, lower concerns about costs, and expressed greater likelihood of PSE attainment. The two online surveys are appended.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 1
Enhancing the efficacy of teacher incentives through loss aversion: A field experiment. (2012)
Domestic attempts to use financial incentives for teachers to increase student achievement have been ineffective. In this paper, we demonstrate that exploiting the power of loss aversion--teachers are paid in advance and asked to give back the money if their students do not improve sufficiently--increases math test scores between 0.201 (0.076) and 0.398 (0.129) standard deviations. This is equivalent to increasing teacher quality by more than one standard deviation. A second treatment arm, identical to the loss aversion treatment but implemented in the standard fashion, yields smaller and statistically insignificant results. This suggests it is loss aversion, rather than other features of the design or population sampled, that leads to the stark differences between our findings and past research.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 1
Louisiana Striving Readers: Final evaluation report. (2012)
The Louisiana Striving Readers evaluation assessed the implementation and effectiveness of the Voyager "Passport Reading Journeys" (PRJ), a widely used supplemental literacy intervention for struggling adolescent readers that reflects the research-based practices recommended by the National Reading Panel (2000) and other more recent syntheses (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004; Edmonds, et al., 2009; Kamil, et al., 2008; Scammacca et al., 2007; Torgesen et al., 2007). To date, PRJ has been adopted in 45 states across the country in almost 470 districts and over 2,200 schools, and has served over 268,000 students. PRJ offers four levels of instruction appropriate for middle and high school students. The PRJ curriculum uses direct, explicit instruction in reading comprehension, vocabulary, and word study for adolescents who struggle with reading using age-appropriate fiction and non-fiction texts. The Louisiana Striving Readers Program, funded by the Louisiana Department of Education (LDOE) through a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, targeted over 1,200 struggling readers in grades 6-7 from ten middle schools across the state of Louisiana. The grant required a rigorous, independent experimental evaluation, conducted by SEDL, addressing fidelity of program implementation and program impacts on student motivation and reading achievement. The study reported here had two specific aims: (1) determine the fidelity of implementation, or the extent to which the program was delivered as the grant indicated it should be implemented; and (2) determine the impacts of PRJ on student reading and other related outcomes (i.e., student motivation and engagement in reading) and how the effects may have varied by student subgroups. This report details the intervention, the implementation study design and results, and the impact study design and results.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-10 1
Striving Readers: Impact study and project evaluation report—Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (with Milwaukee Public Schools). (2012)
American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted an evaluation of the effect on struggling readers of implementing the READ 180 reading intervention in five participating schools in Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) under a Striving Readers grant from the U.S. Department of Education. The evaluation used an experimental design in order to produce a rigorous estimate of the impact of the READ 180 intervention on measures of reading achievement for struggling students. The evaluation also explored implementation fidelity and the contexts and conditions of implementation that may extend or limit the intervention's effects. To measure program impact on students' academic performance in reading, AIR analyzed student achievement data collected from the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) benchmark assessment. AIR also administered a student survey to assess the impact on student engagement and self-efficacy for reading. This report asked the following research questions: (1) Does the READ 180 reading intervention improve students' academic performance in reading?; (2) With what fidelity did the program implement the professional development model and what factors mediated the level of implementation?; and (3) With what fidelity did classroom intervention teachers implement READ 180 and what factors mediated the level of implementation?
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 1
Evaluation of "System 44." Final Report [2012] (2012)
The purpose of this evaluation of Scholastic's "System 44" conducted by RMC Research was to expand the existing research on students with learning disabilities by conducting a randomized study of struggling readers with approximately half of the sample comprised of students with learning disabilities. Specifically, this evaluation examined the impact of "System 44" on the reading outcomes of struggling readers and on a subsample of students with learning disabilities in Grades 4-8. The evaluation of the implementation and impact of "System 44" involved 12 elementary schools and 4 middle and K-8 schools in a district in Michigan. Scholastic's "System 44" is a foundational reading program intended for older struggling readers who have not mastered basic phonics and decoding skills. Combining researched-based phonics instruction with adaptive technology, "System 44" is designed to improve students' word reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. The "System 44" program delivers research-based instruction through an adaptive computer component; teacher-led small-group instruction; and individual student practice involving high-interest, leveled materials. Thus students who have not responded to classroom reading instruction may benefit from the more intensive and specific decoding instruction provided through "System 44." The evaluators selected the target sample based on student performance on the fall 2011 Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) and spring 2011 AIMSweb assessment. The Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) was used to screen students for "System 44" eligibility. The district administered the SRI to all students in the target sample. Those students who scored below 600 Lexiles on the SRI were administered the Scholastic Phonics Inventory (SPI). All students who scored in the Beginning or Developing reader categories on the SPI were randomly assigned (stratified by school and grade level) to either the "System 44" treatment group or the control group. RMC Research hired and trained 4 local testers to individually administer a battery of standardized reading tests to all treatment and control group students. The testers administered the tests in October 2011 to establish baseline scores and again in May 2012 to attain follow-up scores. The tests included the following: (1) Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC); (2) Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Elision subtest; (3) Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) Sight Word Efficiency subtest; and (4) Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) Phonetic Decoding Efficiency subtest. The evaluation of "System 44" revealed significant impacts on several tests for both the overall sample and the learning disabled sample. Additional findings revealed that impacts were stronger on several tests for middle school students than for elementary school students, particularly on SPI Nonsense Word Accuracy, TOSREC, and SRI. Although significant impacts were attained by the end of Year 1, the majority of students in the study did not complete the "System 44" program. Data collected through teacher surveys, classroom visits, and interviews provided information on teachers' implementation of "System 44" in the classroom, and software usage data were used to examine differences in students with varying program exit and topic completion patterns. [For the November 2011 report, see ED613693.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 1
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) (NCEE 2012–4008). (2012)
This report presents the results of an experiment conducted in Alabama beginning in the 2006/07 school year, to determine the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI), which aims to improve mathematics and science achievement in the state's K-12 schools. This study is the first randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of AMSTI in improving mathematics problem solving and science achievement in upper-elementary and middle schools. AMSTI is an initiative specific to Alabama and was developed and supported through state resources. An important finding is the positive and statistically significant effect of AMSTI on mathematics achievement as measured by the SAT 10 mathematics problem solving assessment administered by the state to students in grades 4-8. After one year in the program, student mathematics scores were higher than those of a control group that did not receive AMSTI by 0.05 standard deviation, equivalent to 2 percentile points. Nine of the 10 sensitivity analyses yielded effect estimates that were statistically significant at the 0.025 level, consistent with the main finding. The estimated effect of AMSTI on science achievement measured after one year was not statistically significant. Based on the SAT 10 science test administered by the state to students in grades 5 and 7, no difference between AMSTI and control schools could be discerned after one year. Changes in classroom instructional strategies, especially an emphasis on more active-learning strategies, are important to the AMSTI theory of action. Therefore, a secondary investigation of classroom practices was conducted, based on data from survey responses from teachers. For both mathematics and science, statistically significant differences were found between AMSTI and control teachers in the average reported time spent using the strategies. The effect of AMSTI on these instructional strategies was 0.47 standard deviation in mathematics and 0.32 standard deviation in science. Two years of AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on achievement in mathematics problem solving, compared to no AMSTI. Two years of AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on achievement in science. AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on reading achievement as measured by the SAT 10 test of reading administered by the state to students in grades 4-8. AMSTI did not appear to have a statistically significant effect on teacher-reported content knowledge in mathematics or science after one year. AMSTI did not appear to have statistically significant differential effects on student achievement in mathematics problem solving or science based on racial/ethnic minority status, enrollment in the free or reduced-price lunch program, gender, or pretest level. Appended are: (1) Explanation of primary and secondary confirmatory outcome measures; (2) Explanation of exploratory research questions; (3) Selection and random assignment of schools; (4) Statistical power analysis; (5) Data collection procedures and timeline; (6) Description of program implementation data collected but not used in report; (7) Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) teacher survey #3; (8) Data cleaning and data file construction; (9) Attrition through study stages for samples used in the confirmatory analysis; (10) Description of degree rank; (11) Equivalence of Year 1 baseline and analyzed samples for confirmatory student-level and classroom practice outcomes; (12) Internal consistency and validity of active learning measures; (13) Number of students and teachers in schools in analytic samples used to analyze Year 1 confirmatory questions; (14) Attrition through study stages for samples used in Year 1 exploratory analysis; (15) Tests of equivalence for baseline and analytic samples for Year 1 exploratory outcomes; (16) Statistical power analyses for moderator analyses; (17) Derivation and motivation of the Bell-Bradley estimator when measuring estimated two-year effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI); (18) Attrition through study stages for samples contributing to estimation of two-year effects; (19) Examination of equivalence in baseline and analytic samples used in the estimation of two-year effects; (20) Estimation model for two-year effects of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI); (21) Topics and instructional methods used at the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) summer institute; (22) Parameter estimates on probability scale for odds-ratio tests of differences between Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control conditions in Year 1 (associated with summer professional development and in-school support outcomes); (23) Descriptive statistics for variables that change to a binary scale used in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control conditions in Year 1; (24) Comparison of assumed parameter values and observed sample statistics for statistical power analysis after one year; (25) Parameter estimates for Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) mathematics problem solving after one year; (26) Parameter estimates for Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) science after one year; (27) Parameter estimates for active learning in mathematics after one year; (28) Parameter estimates for active learning in science after one year; (29) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) mathematics problem solving achievement after one year; (30) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) science achievement after one year; (31) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on active learning instructional strategies in mathematics classrooms after one year; (32) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on active learning instructional strategies in science classrooms after one year; (33) Tests for violations of factors associated with assumption of equal first year effects on students in Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control schools; (34) Post hoc adjustment to standard error for estimate of two-year effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on mathematics achievement after two years; (35) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) after two years; (36) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on student reading achievement after one year; (37) Parameter estimates for teacher content and student engagement after one year; (38) Estimates of effects for terms involving the indicator of treatment status in the analysis of the moderating effect of the three-level pretest variable; (39) Parameter estimates for the analysis of the moderating effect of racial/ethnic minority status on the impact of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading after one year; (40) Parameter estimates for analysis of average effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading by racial/ethnic minority students after one year; and (41) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading for White students after one year. (Contains 26 figures, 136 tables, 1 box and 130 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Access to Algebra I: The effects of online mathematics for grade 8 students (NCEE 2012–4021). (2012)
This report presents findings from a randomized control trial designed to inform the decisions of policymakers who are considering using online courses to provide access to Algebra I in grade 8. It focuses on students judged by their schools to be ready to take Algebra I in grade 8 but who attend schools that do not offer the course. The study tested the impact of offering an online Algebra I course on students' algebra achievement at the end of grade 8 and their subsequent likelihood of participating in an advanced mathematics course sequence in high school. The study was designed to respond to both broad public interest in the deployment of online courses for K-12 students and to calls from policymakers to provide students with adequate pathways to advanced coursetaking sequences in mathematics (National Mathematics Advisory Panel 2008). This study is the first of its kind to rigorously evaluate the impact of offering an online version of Algebra I in schools that otherwise do not typically offer the course, even though they have students who are ready to take it. For educators and students facing similar challenges, the results of this study may be particularly informative and promising. Results showed that offering an online course to AR students is an effective way to broaden access to Algebra I in grade 8 and later, to more challenging mathematics course opportunities. The study demonstrates that an online course as implemented is more effective in promoting students' success in mathematics than existing practices in these schools. Appended are: (1) Study Design, Study Samples, and Statistical Precision; (2) Measures; (3) Intervention Features; (4) Estimation Methods and Hypothesis Testing; (5) Sensitivity Analyses; and (6) Missing Data and Multiple Imputation. (Contains 77 tables, 12 figures and 61 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Developing procedural flexibility: Are novices prepared to learn from comparing procedures? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 436–455. (2012)
Background: A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of procedural flexibility, where learners know multiple procedures and use them appropriately to solve a range of problems (e.g., Verschaffel, Luwel, Torbeyns, & Van Dooren, 2009). However, students often fail to become flexible problem solvers in mathematics. To support flexibility, teaching standards in many countries recommend that students be exposed to multiple procedures early in instruction and be encouraged to compare them. Aims: We experimentally evaluated this recommended instructional practice for supporting procedural flexibility during a classroom lesson, relative to two alternative conditions. The alternatives reflected the common instructional practice of delayed exposure to multiple procedures, either with or without comparison of procedures. Sample: Grade 8 students from two public schools (N= 198) were randomly assigned to condition. Students had not received prior instruction on multi-step equation solving, which was the topic of our lessons. Method: Students learned about multi-step equation solving under one of three conditions in math class for about 3 hr. They also completed a pre-test, post-test, and 1-month-retention test on their procedural knowledge, procedural flexibility, and conceptual knowledge of equation solving. Results: Novices who compared procedures immediately were more flexible problem solvers than those who did not, even on a 1-month retention test. Although condition had limited direct impact on conceptual and procedural knowledge, greater flexibility was associated with greater knowledge of both types. Conclusions: Comparing procedures can support flexibility in novices and early introduction to multiple procedures may be one important reason. (Contains 5 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
Expanding the start of the college pipeline: Ninth-grade findings from an experimental study of the impact of the Early College High School Model. (2012)
Early college high schools are a new and rapidly spreading model that merges the high school and college experiences and that is designed to increase the number of students who graduate from high school and enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. This article presents results from a federally funded experimental study of the impact of the early college model on Grade 9 outcomes. Results show that, as compared to control group students, a statistically significant and substantively higher proportion of treatment group students are taking core college preparatory courses and succeeding in them. Students in the treatment group also have statistically significantly higher attendance and lower suspension rates than students in the control group. (Contains 10 footnotes, 5 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 1
Evaluation of "System 44." Final Report [2011] (2011)
Scholastic's "System 44" is a foundational reading program intended for older struggling readers who have not mastered basic phonics and decoding skills. Combining researched-based phonics instruction with adaptive technology, "System 44" is designed to improve students' word reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. The "System 44" program delivers research-based instruction through an adaptive computer component; teacher-led small group instruction; and individual student practice involving high-interest, leveled materials. Thus students who have not responded to classroom reading instruction may benefit from the more intensive and specific decoding instruction provided through "System 44." Using a randomized design, this evaluation assessed the effectiveness of "System 44" in terms of improving the foundational reading skills of struggling readers in Grades 4-8 in a large suburban school district in southern California during the 2010-2011 school year. The evaluation of the implementation and impact of "System 44" involved 7 of the 11 elementary schools and all 4 middle schools in the district. A 2-step process was used to establish student eligibility for "System 44." The Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) was used to screen students in Grades 4-8 who performed below the 50th percentile on the spring 2010 California Standards Test (CST) for "System 44" eligibility. Those students who scored below 600 Lexiles on the SRI were administered the Scholastic Phonics Inventory (SPI), a computer-based test used to identify students in need of additional phonics instruction. Students who scored in the Beginning or Developing reader categories on the SPI were randomly assigned (stratified by school and grade level) to either the "System 44" treatment group or the control group. Data collection activities for the "System 44" evaluation included student reading tests, teacher surveys, "System 44" classroom observations, a professional development observation, and staff interviews. RMC Research hired and trained 4 local testers to administer a battery of standardized reading tests to all treatment and control students. The testers administered the tests to each student separately over a 3-week period in September and October 2010 to establish baseline scores and again in May 2011 to attain follow-up scores. Listed in order of administration, the tests included the following: (1) Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC); (2) Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Elision subtest; (3) Woodcock-Johnson III Word Identification subtest; (4) Woodcock-Johnson III Word Attack subtest; (5) Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) Sight Word Efficiency subtest; and (6) Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) Phonetic Decoding Efficiency subtest. This report details the program impact findings and concludes with recommendations from the evaluation team.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-12 1
A randomized experiment of a cognitive strategies approach to text-based analytical writing for mainstreamed Latino English language learners in grades 6 to 12. (2011)
This study reports Year 1 findings from a multisite cluster randomized controlled trial of a cognitive strategies approach to teaching text-based analytical writing for mainstreamed Latino English language learners (ELLs) in 9 middle schools and 6 high schools. There were 103 English teachers stratified by school and grade and then randomly assigned to the Pathway Project professional development intervention or control group. The Pathway Project trains teachers to use a pretest on-demand writing assessment to improve text-based analytical writing instruction for mainstreamed Latino ELLs who are able to participate in regular English classes. The intervention draws on well-documented instructional frameworks for teaching mainstreamed ELLs. Such frameworks emphasize the merits of a cognitive strategies approach that supports these learners' English language development. Pathway teachers participated in 46 hrs of training and learned how to apply cognitive strategies by using an on-demand writing assessment to help students understand, interpret, and write analytical essays about literature. Multilevel models revealed significant effects on an on-demand writing assessment (d = 0.35) and the California Standards Test in English language arts (d = 0.07). (Contains 1 figure, 7 tables and 4 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 1
Evaluation of Rocketship Education’s use of DreamBox Learning’s online mathematics program. (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Efficacy of a tier 2 supplemental root word vocabulary and decoding intervention with kindergarten Spanish-speaking English learners. (2011)
The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 standard protocol supplemental intervention designed simultaneously to develop root word vocabulary and reinforce decoding skills being taught to all students in the core beginning reading program with kindergarten Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs). Participating students were drawn from six public elementary schools in the Midwest. Within classrooms, students were randomly assigned to either the supplemental intervention (treatment) or the specified control condition (i.e., used to control for instructional time and consistency). All instruction in both conditions was delivered by paraeducator tutors and occurred in small groups for approximately 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 20 weeks (October to April). At posttest, treatment students (n = 93) in the experimental condition significantly outperformed controls (n = 92) on a proximal (i.e., linked directly with the instructional focus of the intervention) measure of root word vocabulary (d = 1.04) and word reading (d = 0.69). Treatment students did not significantly outperform controls on a distal (i.e., not linked directly to the instructional focus of the intervention) measure of reading vocabulary (d = 0.38). The results, practical importance, and limitations are discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Effective classroom instruction: Implications of child characteristics by reading instruction interactions on first graders’ word reading achievement. (2011)
Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes. (Contains 7 figures and 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 1
Large scale, randomized cluster design study of the relative effectiveness of reform-based and traditional/verification curricula in supporting student science learning. (2010, March)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Learning the control of variables strategy in higher and lower achieving classrooms: Contributions of explicit instruction and experimentation. (2010)
Students (n = 797) from 36 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy for designing experiments. In the instruct condition, classes were taught in an interactive lecture format. In the manipulate condition, students worked in groups to design and run experiments to determine the effects of four variables. In the both condition, classes received the interactive lecture and also designed and ran experiments. We assessed students' understanding using a written test of their ability to distinguish valid from invalid experimental comparisons. Performance on this test improved from the pretest to the immediate posttest in all conditions, and gains were maintained at a 5-month delay. For students from both higher and lower achieving schools, gains ordered as follows: both greater than instruct greater than manipulate. However, students from higher achieving schools showed greater gains in all conditions. Item analyses showed that the interactive lecture improved students' understanding of the need to control irrelevant variables, and experimentation improved students' understanding of the need to vary the focal variable. (Contains 4 tables, 2 figures and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2010)
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal versus distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4-6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20-30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2010)
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal versus distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4-6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20-30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
The effectiveness of a program to accelerate vocabulary development in kindergarten (VOCAB) (NCEE 2010-4014). (2010)
State education departments, in discussions with Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Southeast, identified low reading achievement as a critical issue for their students and expressed an interest in identifying effective strategies to promote the foundational skills in young students that might improve reading achievement. The Mississippi State Department of Education has focused specifically on interventions that might enhance students' vocabulary knowledge. Kindergarten PAVEd for Success (K-PAVE) was selected to be tested in Mississippi for three reasons. First, there were only a small number of vocabulary interventions appropriate for this age group to be considered. Second, among these, PAVE--the preschool version of the intervention--was the only one for which an impact study had been completed that provided some evidence of effects. Third, K-PAVE was the only curriculum that had developed teacher training materials and a training protocol, which meant that it could be implemented with sufficient fidelity across a variety of districts and school settings. The primary research question for the study addressed the impact of K-PAVE on kindergarten students' expressive vocabulary. Secondary research questions addressed the impacts on kindergarten students' academic knowledge and listening comprehension. Although the study was concerned primarily with the impacts of K-PAVE on students, impacts on intermediate classroom instruction outcomes were also assessed to provide context for understanding potential impacts on students. The study addressed research questions about impacts on classroom instruction in vocabulary and comprehension support, instructional support, and emotional support. Finally, the study examined whether the introduction of K-PAVE had the unintended consequence of reducing the time spent on areas of literacy instruction other than vocabulary and comprehension (such as phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, print concepts, and decoding). The study found that kindergarten students in schools using K-PAVE as a supplement to the regular literacy instruction performed better than kindergarten students in control schools on the Expressive Vocabulary Test-2 administered at the end of the school year. The study also found that kindergarten students in K-PAVE schools performed better than students in control schools on the measure of academic knowledge administered at the end of the year. K-PAVE caused a positive and statistically significant impact on one of the three kindergarten classroom instructional practices examined: vocabulary and comprehension support, which includes introducing vocabulary words during read-alouds, introducing vocabulary words throughout the school day, asking higher order questions during read-alouds, and providing comprehension support during book read-alouds. Appendices include: (1) Mississippi Counties with Study Schools, by County; (2) Statistical Power Analysis; (3) Random Assignment; (4) Recruitment and Random Selection of the Student Sample; (5) Comparison of Students Missing and Not Missing Baseline Assessment; (6) Classroom Observation Measures for Impact Evaluation; (7) Teacher Survey; (8) K-PAVE Fidelity Observer Handbook and Training Fidelity Checklist; (9) Data Collection Procedures; (10) Data Quality Assurance Procedures; (11) Model Specifications; (12) Flowchart Illustrating Sample Attrition from Data Collection; (13) Missing Data Imputation; (14) Sensitivity Analyses; (15) School, Teacher, and Student Covariates; (16) List of K-PAVE Materials Provided to Teachers; (17) Sample Weekly Unit from K-PAVE Program; (18) List of the 240 K-PAVE Target Words; (19) K-PAVE Teacher Training Agenda; (20) K-PAVE Teacher Phone Follow-Up Agenda; (21) Sample Means and Standard Deviations for Student and Classroom Outcome Measures, by Intervention Status; (22) Checking Model Assumptions; and (23) Translating Impacts on Students into Age-Equivalent Differences in Posttest Outcomes. (Contains 53 tables, 16 figures, 1 map, 3 boxes, and 86 footnotes
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 1
Implementation of effective intervention: An empirical study to evaluate the efficacy of Fountas & Pinnell’s Leveled Literacy Intervention system (LLI). (2010)
This report summarizes evaluation results for an efficacy study of the Leveled Literacy Intervention system (LLI) implemented in Tift County Schools (TCS) in Georgia and the Enlarged City School District of Middletown (ECSDM) in New York during the 2009-2010 school year. Developed by Fountas & Pinnell (2009) and published by Heinemann, LLI is a short-term, small-group, supplemental literacy intervention system designed for students in kindergarten through second grade (K-2) who struggle with literacy. The goal of LLI is to provide intensive support to help these early learners quickly achieve grade-level competency. Both school districts evaluated in this study adopted the targeted, small-group implementation model of LLI in their schools with support from Heinemann consultants providing LLI professional development. This report focuses on the implementation and impact of this model during the first full school year of the system in these schools. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to determine the efficacy of the Leveled Literacy Intervention system (LLI) in increasing reading achievement for K-2 students; (2) to examine the implementation fidelity of LLI; and (3) to determine perceptions of the LLI system according to relevant stakeholders. This study focused on two U.S. school districts and comprised 427 K-2 students who were matched demographically and randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. This evaluation used a mixed-methods design to address the following key research questions: (1) What progress in literacy do students who receive LLI make compared to students who receive only regular classroom literacy instruction? (2) Was LLI implemented with fidelity to the developers' model? and (3) What were LLI teachers' perceptions of LLI and its impact on their students' literacy? Altogether, the results from this evaluation allow us to conclude that the LLI system positively impacts students' literacy skills. These results also suggest that continued implementation of LLI would be beneficial in both Tift County Schools and the Enlarged City School District of Middletown. From this evaluation, CREP proposes several recommendations. (Contains 34 tables, 8 footnotes, and 1 figure.) [This study was supported by funding from Heinemann Publishing.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools (2010)
Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school environments by creating improved systems and procedures that promote positive change in student behavior by targeting staff behaviors. This study uses data from a 5-year longitudinal randomized controlled effectiveness trial of SWPBIS conducted in 37 elementary schools to examine the impact of training in SWPBIS on implementation fidelity as well as student suspensions, office discipline referrals, and academic achievement. School-level longitudinal analyses indicated that the schools trained in SWPBIS implemented the model with high fidelity and experienced significant reductions in student suspensions and office discipline referrals. (Contains 1 table and 5 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study Final Report: The Impact of Supplemental Literacy Courses for Struggling Ninth-Grade Readers. (2010)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), just over 70 percent of students nationally arrive in high school with reading skills that are below "proficient"--defined as demonstrating competency over challenging subject matter. Of these students, nearly half do not exhibit even partial mastery of the knowledge and skills that are fundamental to proficient work at grade level. These limitations in literacy skills are a major source of course failure, high school dropout, and poor performance in postsecondary education. While research is beginning to emerge about the special needs of striving adolescent readers, very little is known about effective interventions aimed at addressing these needs. To help fill this gap and to provide evidence-based guidance to practitioners, the U.S. Department of Education initiated the Enhanced Reading Opportunities (ERO) study--a demonstration and rigorous evaluation of supplemental literacy programs targeted to ninth-grade students whose reading skills are at least two years below grade level. As part of this demonstration, 34 high schools from 10 school districts implemented one of two reading interventions: Reading Apprenticeship Academic Literacy (RAAL), designed by WestEd, and Xtreme Reading, designed by the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. These programs were implemented in the study schools for two school years. The U.S. Department of Education's (ED) Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) funded the implementation of these programs, and its Institute of Education Sciences (IES) was responsible for oversight of the evaluation. MDRC--a nonprofit, nonpartisan education and social policy research organization--conducted the evaluation in partnership with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Survey Research Management (SRM). The goal of the reading interventions--which consist of a year-long course that replaces a ninth-grade elective class--is to help striving adolescent readers develop the strategies and routines used by proficient readers, thereby improving their reading skills and ultimately, their academic performance in high school. The first two reports for the study evaluated the programs' impact on the two most proximal outcomes targeted by the interventions--students' reading skills and their reading behaviors at the end of ninth grade. This report--which is the final of three reports for this evaluation--examines the impact of the ERO programs on the more general outcomes that the programs hope to affect--students' academic performance in high school (grade point average [GPA], credit accumulation, and state test scores) as well as students' behavioral outcomes (attendance and disciplinary infractions). These academic and behavioral outcomes are examined during the year in which they were enrolled in the ERO programs (ninth grade), as well as the following school year (tenth grade for most students). Appendices include: (1) The ERO Programs and the ERO Teachers; (2) ERO Student Survey Measures; (3) ERO Implementation Fidelity; (4) State Tests Included in the ERO Study; (5) Response Analysis and Baseline Comparison Tables; (6) Technical Notes for Impact Findings; (7) Statistical Power and Minimum Detectable Effect Size; (8) Supplementary Impact Findings; (9) Baseline and Impact Findings, by Cohort; (10) The Association Between Reading Outcomes and Academic Performance in High School; (11) Variation in Impacts Across Sites and Cohorts; (12) Program Costs; and (13) Poststudy Adolescent Literacy Programming in the ERO Schools: Methodology and Additional Findings. (Contains 97 tables, 23 figures, 2 boxes, and 185 footnotes.) [This paper was written with Edmond Wong. For the first-year report, see ED499778. For the second report, see ED503380.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
The enhanced reading opportunity study final report: The impact of supplemental literacy courses for struggling ninth-grade readers (NCEE 2010-4021). (2010)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), just over 70 percent of students nationally arrive in high school with reading skills that are below "proficient"--defined as demonstrating competency over challenging subject matter. Of these students, nearly half do not exhibit even partial mastery of the knowledge and skills that are fundamental to proficient work at grade level. These limitations in literacy skills are a major source of course failure, high school dropout, and poor performance in postsecondary education. While research is beginning to emerge about the special needs of striving adolescent readers, very little is known about effective interventions aimed at addressing these needs. To help fill this gap and to provide evidence-based guidance to practitioners, the U.S. Department of Education initiated the Enhanced Reading Opportunities (ERO) study--a demonstration and rigorous evaluation of supplemental literacy programs targeted to ninth-grade students whose reading skills are at least two years below grade level. As part of this demonstration, 34 high schools from 10 school districts implemented one of two reading interventions: Reading Apprenticeship Academic Literacy (RAAL), designed by WestEd, and Xtreme Reading, designed by the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. These programs were implemented in the study schools for two school years. The U.S. Department of Education's (ED) Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) funded the implementation of these programs, and its Institute of Education Sciences (IES) was responsible for oversight of the evaluation. MDRC--a nonprofit, nonpartisan education and social policy research organization--conducted the evaluation in partnership with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Survey Research Management (SRM). The goal of the reading interventions--which consist of a year-long course that replaces a ninth-grade elective class--is to help striving adolescent readers develop the strategies and routines used by proficient readers, thereby improving their reading skills and ultimately, their academic performance in high school. The first two reports for the study evaluated the programs' impact on the two most proximal outcomes targeted by the interventions--students' reading skills and their reading behaviors at the end of ninth grade. This report--which is the final of three reports for this evaluation--examines the impact of the ERO programs on the more general outcomes that the programs hope to affect--students' academic performance in high school (grade point average [GPA], credit accumulation, and state test scores) as well as students' behavioral outcomes (attendance and disciplinary infractions). These academic and behavioral outcomes are examined during the year in which they were enrolled in the ERO programs (ninth grade), as well as the following school year (tenth grade for most students). Appendices include: (1) The ERO Programs and the ERO Teachers; (2) ERO Student Survey Measures; (3) ERO Implementation Fidelity; (4) State Tests Included in the ERO Study; (5) Response Analysis and Baseline Comparison Tables; (6) Technical Notes for Impact Findings; (7) Statistical Power and Minimum Detectable Effect Size; (8) Supplementary Impact Findings; (9) Baseline and Impact Findings, by Cohort; (10) The Association Between Reading Outcomes and Academic Performance in High School; (11) Variation in Impacts Across Sites and Cohorts; (12) Program Costs; and (13) Poststudy Adolescent Literacy Programming in the ERO Schools: Methodology and Additional Findings. (Contains 97 tables, 23 figures, 2 boxes, and 185 footnotes.) [This paper was written with Edmond Wong. For the first-year report, see ED499778. For the second report, see ED503380.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
The enhanced reading opportunity study final report: The impact of supplemental literacy courses for struggling ninth-grade readers (NCEE 2010-4021). (2010)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), just over 70 percent of students nationally arrive in high school with reading skills that are below "proficient"--defined as demonstrating competency over challenging subject matter. Of these students, nearly half do not exhibit even partial mastery of the knowledge and skills that are fundamental to proficient work at grade level. These limitations in literacy skills are a major source of course failure, high school dropout, and poor performance in postsecondary education. While research is beginning to emerge about the special needs of striving adolescent readers, very little is known about effective interventions aimed at addressing these needs. To help fill this gap and to provide evidence-based guidance to practitioners, the U.S. Department of Education initiated the Enhanced Reading Opportunities (ERO) study--a demonstration and rigorous evaluation of supplemental literacy programs targeted to ninth-grade students whose reading skills are at least two years below grade level. As part of this demonstration, 34 high schools from 10 school districts implemented one of two reading interventions: Reading Apprenticeship Academic Literacy (RAAL), designed by WestEd, and Xtreme Reading, designed by the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. These programs were implemented in the study schools for two school years. The U.S. Department of Education's (ED) Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) funded the implementation of these programs, and its Institute of Education Sciences (IES) was responsible for oversight of the evaluation. MDRC--a nonprofit, nonpartisan education and social policy research organization--conducted the evaluation in partnership with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Survey Research Management (SRM). The goal of the reading interventions--which consist of a year-long course that replaces a ninth-grade elective class--is to help striving adolescent readers develop the strategies and routines used by proficient readers, thereby improving their reading skills and ultimately, their academic performance in high school. The first two reports for the study evaluated the programs' impact on the two most proximal outcomes targeted by the interventions--students' reading skills and their reading behaviors at the end of ninth grade. This report--which is the final of three reports for this evaluation--examines the impact of the ERO programs on the more general outcomes that the programs hope to affect--students' academic performance in high school (grade point average [GPA], credit accumulation, and state test scores) as well as students' behavioral outcomes (attendance and disciplinary infractions). These academic and behavioral outcomes are examined during the year in which they were enrolled in the ERO programs (ninth grade), as well as the following school year (tenth grade for most students). Appendices include: (1) The ERO Programs and the ERO Teachers; (2) ERO Student Survey Measures; (3) ERO Implementation Fidelity; (4) State Tests Included in the ERO Study; (5) Response Analysis and Baseline Comparison Tables; (6) Technical Notes for Impact Findings; (7) Statistical Power and Minimum Detectable Effect Size; (8) Supplementary Impact Findings; (9) Baseline and Impact Findings, by Cohort; (10) The Association Between Reading Outcomes and Academic Performance in High School; (11) Variation in Impacts Across Sites and Cohorts; (12) Program Costs; and (13) Poststudy Adolescent Literacy Programming in the ERO Schools: Methodology and Additional Findings. (Contains 97 tables, 23 figures, 2 boxes, and 185 footnotes.) [This paper was written with Edmond Wong. For the first-year report, see ED499778. For the second report, see ED503380.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 1
Accommodations for English language learner students: The effect of linguistic modification of math test item sets (NCEE 2009-4079). (2010)
This study examined the effect of linguistic modification on middle school students' ability to show what they know and can do on math assessments. REL West's study on middle school math assessment accommodations found that simplifying the language--or linguistic modification--on standardized math test items made it easier for English Language learners to focus on and grasp math concepts, and thus was a more accurate assessment of their math skills. The results contribute to the body of knowledge informing assessment practices and accommodations appropriate for English language learner students. The study examined students' performance on two sets of math items--both the originally worded items and those that had been modified. Researchers analyzed results from three subgroups of students--English learners (EL), non-English language arts proficient (NEP), and English language arts proficient (EP) students. Key results include: (1) Linguistically modifying the language of mathematics test items did not change the math knowledge being assessed; (2) The effect of linguistic modification on students' math performance varied between the three student subgroups. The results also varied depending on how scores were calculated for each student; and (3) For each of the four scoring approaches analyzed, the effect of linguistic modification was greatest for EL students, followed by NEP and EP students. The report is structured as follows. Following an Executive Summary and a Study Overview, Chapter 2 describes the study design, sample selection and recruitment, item set development processes, and standardized administration procedures. Chapter 3 describes the implementation of the accommodation (linguistic modification), including discussion of considerations and methods for data analysis. Chapter 4 presents findings from data analyses. Chapter 5 summarizes and interprets key findings, describes study challenges, comments on implications of the findings, and offers recommendations for future research. Appendices include: (1) Power analysis for primary research questions; (2) Operational test administration manual; (3) Student Language Background Survey; (4) Guide for developing a linguistically modified assessment; (5) Workgroup training materials; (6) Overview and protocol for cognitive interviews; (7) Item parameter estimates for IRT models; (8) Descriptive statistics from four scoring approaches; (9) ANOVA findings across four scoring approaches; (10) Cross-approach comparisons; (11) Results of the classical item-level analyses; (12) Summary of differential item functioning findings; (13) Exploratory factor analysis results; (14) Operational item set--original; and (15) Operational item set--linguistically modified. (Contains 31 tables, 10 figures, and 45 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 1
Integration of technology, curriculum, and professional development for advancing middle school mathematics: Three large-scale studies. (2010)
The authors present three studies (two randomized controlled experiments and one embedded quasi-experiment) designed to evaluate the impact of replacement units targeting student learning of advanced middle school mathematics. The studies evaluated the SimCalc approach, which integrates an interactive representational technology, paper curriculum, and teacher professional development. Each study addressed both replicability of findings and robustness across Texas settings, with varied teacher characteristics (backgrounds, knowledge, attitudes) and student characteristics (demographics, levels of prior mathematics knowledge). Analyses revealed statistically significant main effects, with student-level effect sizes of 0.63, 0.50, and 0.56. These consistent gains support the conclusion that SimCalc is effective in enabling a wide variety of teachers in a diversity of settings to extend student learning to more advanced mathematics. (Contains 4 tables, 5 figures, and 1 note.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 1
Compared to what? The effects of different comparisons on conceptual knowledge and procedural flexibility for equation solving. (2009)
Researchers in both cognitive science and mathematics education emphasize the importance of comparison for learning and transfer. However, surprisingly little is known about the advantages and disadvantages of what types of things are being compared. In this experimental study, 162 seventh- and eighth-grade students learned to solve equations (a) by comparing equivalent problems solved with the same solution method, (b) by comparing different problem types solved with the same solution method, or (c) by comparing different solution methods to the same problem. Students' conceptual knowledge and procedural flexibility were best supported by comparing solution methods and to a lesser extent by comparing problem types. The benefits of comparison are augmented when examples differ on relevant features, and contrasting methods may be particularly useful in mathematics learning. (Contains 3 figures, 8 tables, and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Can interdistrict choice boost student achievement? The case of Connecticut’s interdistrict magnet school program. (2009)
Connecticut's interdistrict magnet schools offer a model of choice-based desegregation that appears to satisfy current legal constraints. This study presents evidence that interdistrict magnet schools have provided students from Connecticut's central cities access to less racially and economically isolated educational environments and estimates the impact of attending a magnet school on student achievement. To address potential selection biases, the analyses exploit the random assignment that results from lottery-based admissions for a small set of schools, as well as value-added and fixed-effect estimators that rely on pre-magnet school measures of student achievement to obtain effect estimates for a broader set of interdistrict magnet schools. Results indicate that attendance at an interdistrict magnet high school has positive effects on the math and reading achievement of central city students and that interdistrict magnet middle schools have positive effects on reading achievement. (Contains 20 notes, 8 tables, and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 1
Impact evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education’s Student Mentoring Program. Final report (NCEE 2009-4047). (2009)
This report summarizes the findings from a national evaluation of mentoring programs funded under the U.S. Department of Education's Student Mentoring Program. The impact evaluation used an experimental design in which students were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Thirty-two purposively selected School Mentoring Programs and 2,573 students took part in the evaluation, which estimated the impact of the programs over one school year on a range of student outcomes. The evaluation also describes the characteristics of the program and the mentors, and provides information about program delivery. The Student Mentoring Program is designed to fund grantees to enable them to provide mentoring to at-risk students in grades 4-8. The ultimate goal of the program is to improve student academic and behavioral outcomes through the guidance and encouragement of a volunteer mentor. Seventeen total impacts in the domains of academic achievement/engagement, interpersonal relationships/personal responsibility, and high-risk/delinquent behavior were measured. The main finding of the Impact Study was that there were no statistically significant impacts of the Student Mentoring Program for the sample as a whole on this array of student outcomes. However, there was some scattered evidence that impacts were heterogeneous across types of students. In particular, impacts on girls were statistically significantly different from impacts on boys for two self-reported scales: Scholastic Efficacy and School Bonding, and Pro-social Behaviors. For boys, the impact on Prosocial Behaviors was negative and statistically significant. For girls, the impact on Scholastic Efficacy and School Bonding was positive and statistically significant. The impact on truancy was negative and statistically significant for students below age 12. There were negative associations between program supervision of mentors and site-level impacts on three of the seventeen individual outcome measures: Pro-social Behaviors, grades in math and social studies, and a positive relationship with the outcome of school-reported delinquency. The report also presented results demonstrating that the Student Mentoring Program represented a fairly low level of intensity in terms of service: although grantees, on average, adhered to the general intents of the legislation and program guidance, they were simultaneously constrained by the limits of the school calendar and the population from which to draw mentors. Thirty-five percent of the control group students reported receiving mentoring either from the program or elsewhere in the community; this finding, coupled with the fact that not all treatment group students met with a mentor, reduced the treatment contrast and may have led to some dilution of the impacts on students compared to expectations. Seven appendices are included; (1) Sampling Design and Methodology; (2) Survey Instruments; (3) Construction of Student Outcome Measures; (4) Impact Analysis Results on Original Student Survey Scales and Measures; (5) Sensitivity Tests; (6) Standard Errors and Confidence Intervals of Main Effects; and (7) Site-Level Predictors and Impacts. (Contains 109 footnotes and 122 exhibits.) ["Impact Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education's Student Mentoring Program. Final Report" was written with the assistance of Christine Dyous, Michelle Klausner, Nancy McGarry, Rachel Luck and William Rhodes.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial (2009)
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20-30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. (Contains 5 tables and 8 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial (2009)
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20-30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. (Contains 5 tables and 8 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
Effects of Fact Retrieval Tutoring on Third-Grade Students with Math Difficulties with and without Reading Difficulties (2009)
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MD-only) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring conditions: fact retrieval practice, conceptual fact retrieval instruction with practice, procedural computation/estimation instruction, and control (no tutoring). Tutoring occurred for 45 sessions over 15 weeks for 15-25 minutes per session. Results provided evidence of an interaction between tutoring condition and MD subtype status for assessment of fact retrieval. For MD-only students, students in both fact retrieval conditions achieved comparably and outperformed MD-only students in the control group as well as those in the procedural computation/estimation instruction group. By contrast, for MDRD students, there were no significant differences among intervention conditions.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-5 1
A multisite cluster randomized field trial of Open Court Reading. (2008)
In this article, the authors report achievement outcomes of a multisite cluster randomized field trial of Open Court Reading 2005 (OCR), a K-6 literacy curriculum published by SRA/McGraw-Hill. The participants are 49 first-grade through fifth-grade classrooms from predominantly minority and poor contexts across the nation. Blocking by grade level within schools, the trial includes 27 classrooms receiving the OCR curricular materials and professional development and 22 "business-as-usual" control classrooms. Multilevel analyses of classroom-level effects of assignment to OCR reveal statistically significant treatment effects on all three of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, 5th edition, Terra Nova literacy posttests. The OCR effect sizes are d = 0.16 for the Reading Composite, d = 0.19 for Vocabulary, and d = 0.12 for Reading Comprehension. These effects achieved across 27 classrooms and 5 schools demonstrate the potential for replicating improved literacy outcomes through the scale-up of OCR. (Contains 4 tables and 1 note.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
Flexibility in problem solving: The case of equation solving. (2008)
A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on multiple strategies. Participants were 132 sixth-grade students who solved linear equations for three hours. Both interventions improved students' flexibility in problem solving and did not replace, nor interfere with, one another. Overall, the study provides causal evidence that exposure to multiple strategies leads to improved flexibility in problem solving and that discovery learning and direct instruction are compatible instructional approaches. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
The effects of content and audience awareness goals for revision on the persuasive essays of fifth- and eighth-grade students. (2008)
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of revising goals focused on content and audience awareness on the persuasive writing of fifth- and eighth-grade students. Students were randomly assigned to three different goal conditions: a general goal; a goal to improve content; and a goal to improve content and communication with an audience. Final drafts of essays were scored for elements of persuasive discourse relevant to content and audience and for overall persuasiveness. Students in the audience goal group were more likely than both other groups to consider opposing positions and rebut them. Students in both the content and audience goal groups wrote essays that were more persuasive than essays by students in the general goal group. The results also indicate that eighth-grade students wrote more persuasively than fifth-grade students and that girls wrote more persuasively than boys.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Scaling up an early reading program: Relationships among teacher support, fidelity of implementation, and student performance across different sites and years. (2008)
Successful implementation of evidence-based educational practices at scale is of great importance but has presented significant challenges. In this article, the authors address the following questions: How does the level of on-site technical assistance affect student outcomes? Do teachers' fidelity of treatment implementation and their perceptions of school climate mediate effects on student performance? Using a randomized control trial at scale, the authors examine Kindergarten Peer Assisted Learning Strategies, which previously has been shown to be effective in increasing student reading achievement. Analyzing data from 2 years and three sites, the analyses show that the level of on-site technical support has significant effects on reading achievement gains, are robust across multiple sites, and are mediated by fidelity of implementation within teachers' classrooms. (Contains 2 figures and 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Career academies: Long-term impacts on labor market autcomes, educational attainment, and transitions to adulthood. (2008)
Career Academies offer high schools--particularly those in urban communities that struggle to keep students in school and to prepare them for post-secondary education and employment opportunities--a systematic approach to addressing a range of challenges. Typically serving between 150 and 200 students from grades 9 or 10 through grade 12, Career Academies have three distinguishing features: (1) they are organized as small learning communities to create a more supportive, personalized learning environment; (2) they combine academic and career and technical curricula around a career theme to enrich teaching and learning; and (3) they establish partnerships with local employers to provide career awareness and work-based learning opportunities for students. There are estimated to be more than 2,500 Career Academies across the country, operating either as a single program or as multiple programs within a larger high school. This report examines the impact that Career Academies have had on the educational attainment and post-secondary labor market experiences of young people through the four years following their scheduled graduation from high school. It is based on survey data collected from 1,458 young people in the Career Academies Evaluation study sample (about 85 percent of whom are either Hispanic or African-American). Findings included: (1) the Career Academies substantially improved the labor market prospects of young men, a group that has experienced a severe decline in real earnings in recent years; (2) the Career Academies had no significant impacts (positive or negative) on the labor market outcomes for young women; (3) Overall, the Career Academies served as viable pathways to a range of post-secondary education opportunities, but they do not appear to have been more effective than options available to the non-Academy group; and (4) The positive labor market impacts were concentrated among Academy group members who were at high or medium risk of dropping out of high school when they entered the programs. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of improving labor market preparation and successful school-to-work transitions without compromising academic goals and preparation for college. (Contains 10 exhibits.) [Report written with Judith Scott-Clayton. Dissemination of MDRC publications is also supported by Starr Foundation.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
Scaling up SimCalc project: Can a technology enhanced curriculum improve student learning of important mathematics? (Technical Report 01). (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
Does comparing solution methods facilitate conceptual and procedural knowledge? An experimental study on learning to solve equations. (2007)
Encouraging students to share and compare solution methods is a key component of reform efforts in mathematics, and comparison is emerging as a fundamental learning mechanism. To experimentally evaluate the effects of comparison for mathematics learning, the authors randomly assigned 70 seventh-grade students to learn about algebra equation solving by either (a) comparing and contrasting alternative solution methods or (b) reflecting on the same solution methods one at a time. At posttest, students in the compare group had made greater gains in procedural knowledge and flexibility and comparable gains in conceptual knowledge. These findings suggest potential mechanisms behind the benefits of comparing contrasting solutions and ways to support effective comparison in the classroom.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 1
Final reading outcomes of the national randomized field trial of Success for All. (2007)
Using a cluster randomization design, schools were randomly assigned to implement Success for All, a comprehensive reading reform model, or control methods. This article reports final literacy outcomes for a 3-year longitudinal sample of children who participated in the treatment or control condition from kindergarten through second grade and a combined longitudinal and in-mover student sample, both of which were nested within 35 schools. Hierarchical linear model analyses of all three outcomes for both samples revealed statistically significant school-level effects of treatment assignment as large as one third of a standard deviation. The results correspond with the Success for All program theory, which emphasizes both comprehensive school-level reform and targeted student-level achievement effects through a multi-year sequencing of literacy instruction. (Contains 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-5 1
Alternative routes to teaching: The impacts of Teach for America on student achievement and other outcomes. (2006)
This paper reports on a randomized experiment to study the impact of an alternative teacher preparation program, Teach for America (TFA), on student achievement and other outcomes. We found that TFA teachers had a positive impact on math achievement and no impact on reading achievement. The size of the impact on math scores was about 15 percent of a standard deviation, equivalent to about one month of instruction. The general conclusions did not differ substantially for subgroups of teachers, including novice teachers, or for subgroups of students. We found no impacts on other student outcomes such as attendance, promotion, or disciplinary incidents, but TFA teachers were more likely to report problems with student behavior than were their peers. The findings contradict claims that such programs allowing teachers to bypass the traditional route to the classroom harm students.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
The effects of computer-assisted instruction on number combination skill in at-risk first graders. (2006)
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the potential for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to enhance number combination skill among children with concurrent risk for math disability and reading disability. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of CAI on spelling. At-risk students were assigned randomly to math or spelling CAI, which they received in 50 sessions over 18 weeks. Acquisition and transfer effects were assessed. The results indicated that math CAI was effective in promoting addition but not subtraction number combination skill and that transfer to arithmetic story problems did not occur. Spelling CAI effects were reliable on acquisition and transfer spelling measures, with small to moderate effect sizes on transfer to reading measures. These results provide the basis for additional work with larger samples.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Literacy learning of at-risk first-grade students in the Reading Recovery early intervention. (2005)
This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of the Reading Recovery early intervention. At-risk 1st-grade students were randomly assigned to receive the intervention during the 1st or 2nd half of the school year. High-average and low-average students from the same classrooms provided additional comparisons. Thirty-seven teachers from across the United States used a Web-based system to register participants (n = 148), received random assignment of the at-risk students from this system, and submitted complete data sets. Performance levels were measured at 3 points across the year on M. M. Clay's (1993a) observation survey tasks, 2 standardized reading measures, and 2 phonemic awareness measures. The intervention group showed significantly higher performance compared with the random control group and no differences compared with average groups. Further analyses explored the efficiency of Reading Recovery to identify children for early intervention service and subsequent long-term literacy support.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Promoting school completion of urban secondary youth with emotional or behavioral disabilities. (2005)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, nearly 4 in 10 fourth graders read below the basic level. These literacy problems get worse as students advance through school and are exposed to progressively more complex concepts and courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of four remedial reading programs in improving the reading skills of 3rd and 5th graders, whether the impacts of the programs vary across students with difference baseline characteristics, and to what extent can this instruction close the reading gap and bring struggling readers within the normal range--relative to the instruction normally provided by their schools. The study took place in elementary schools in 27 districts of the Allegheny Intermediate Unit outside Pittsburgh, PA during the 2003-04 school year. Within each of 50 schools, 3rd and 5th grade students were identified as struggling readers by their teachers. These students were tested and were eligible for the study if they scored at or below the 30th percentile on a word-level reading test and at or above the 5th percentile on a vocabulary test. The final sample contains a total of 742 students. There are 335 3rd graders ? 208 treatment and 127 control students. There are 407 5th graders ? 228 treatment and 179 control students. Four existing programs were used: Spell Read P.A.T., Corrective Reading, Wilson Reading, and Failure Free Reading. Corrective Reading and Wilson Reading were modified to focus only on word-level skills. Spell Read P.A.T. and Failure Free Reading were intended to focus equally on word-level skills and reading comprehension/vocabulary. Teachers received 70 hours of professional development and support during the year. Instruction was delivered in small groups of 3 students, 5 days a week, for a total of 90 hours. Seven measures of reading skill were administered at the beginning and end of the school year to assess student progress: Word Attack, Word Identification Comprehension (Woodcock Reading Mastery Test); Phonemic Decoding Efficiency and Sight Word Efficiency (Test of Word Reading Efficiency); Oral Reading Fluency (Edformation); and Passage Comprehension (Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation). After one year of instruction, there were significant impacts on phonemic decoding, word reading accuracy and fluency, and comprehension for 3rd graders, but not for 5th graders. For third graders in the reading programs, the gap in word attach skills between struggling readers and average readers was reduced by about two-thirds. It was found that reading skills of 3rd graders can be significantly improved through instruction in word-level skills, but not the reading skills of 5th graders. The following are appended: (1) Details of Study Design and Implementation; (2) Data Collection; (3) Weighting Adjustment and Missing Data; (4) Details of Statistical Methods; (5) Intervention Impacts on Spelling and Calculation; (6) Instructional Group Clustering; (7) Parent Survey; (8) Teacher Survey and Behavioral Rating Forms; (9) Instructional Group Clustering; (10) Videotape Coding Guidelines for Each Reading Program; (11) Supporting Tables; (12) Sample Test Items; (13) Impact Estimate Standard Errors and P-Values; (14) Association between Instructional Group Heterogeneity and The Outcome; (15) Teacher Rating Form; (16) School Survey; and (17) Scientific Advisory Board. [This report was produced by the Corporation for the Advancement of Policy Evaluation. Additional support provided by the Barksdale Reading Institute, and the Haan Foundation for Children.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Career Academies: Impacts on labor market outcomes and educational attainment. (2004)
Career Academies offer high schools--particularly those in urban communities that struggle to keep students in school and to prepare them for post-secondary education and employment opportunities--a systematic approach to addressing a range of challenges. Typically serving between 150 and 200 students from grades 9 or 10 through grade 12, Career Academies have three distinguishing features: (1) they are organized as small learning communities to create a more supportive, personalized learning environment; (2) they combine academic and career and technical curricula around a career theme to enrich teaching and learning; and (3) they establish partnerships with local employers to provide career awareness and work-based learning opportunities for students. There are estimated to be more than 2,500 Career Academies across the country, operating either as a single program or as multiple programs within a larger high school. This report examines the impact that Career Academies have had on the educational attainment and post-secondary labor market experiences of young people through the four years following their scheduled graduation from high school. It is based on survey data collected from 1,458 young people in the Career Academies Evaluation study sample (about 85 percent of whom are either Hispanic or African-American). Findings included: (1) the Career Academies substantially improved the labor market prospects of young men, a group that has experienced a severe decline in real earnings in recent years; (2) the Career Academies had no significant impacts (positive or negative) on the labor market outcomes for young women; (3) Overall, the Career Academies served as viable pathways to a range of post-secondary education opportunities, but they do not appear to have been more effective than options available to the non-Academy group; and (4) The positive labor market impacts were concentrated among Academy group members who were at high or medium risk of dropping out of high school when they entered the programs. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of improving labor market preparation and successful school-to-work transitions without compromising academic goals and preparation for college. (Contains 10 exhibits.) [Report written with Judith Scott-Clayton. Dissemination of MDRC publications is also supported by Starr Foundation.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
Improved language skills by children with low reading performance who used Fast ForWord Language. (2004)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Implementation study of Chemistry That Applies (2002–2003): SCALE-uP Report No. 2. (2004)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-5 1
The effects of Teach for America on students: Findings from a national evaluation. (2004)
Teach For America (TFA) was founded in 1989 to address the educational inequities facing children in low-income communities across the United States by expanding the pool of teacher candidates available to the schools those children attend. TFA recruits seniors and recent graduates from colleges around the country, people who are willing to commit to teach for a minimum of two years in low-income schools. TFA focuses its recruitment on people with strong academic records and leadership capabilities, whether or not they have planned to teach or have taken education courses. TFA is particularly interested in candidates that have the potential to be effective in the classroom but in the absence of TFA would not consider a teaching career. Consequently, most TFA recruits do not have education-related majors in college and therefore have not received the same training that traditional teachers are expected to have. After an executive summary and introduction, this discussion paper addresses the following: (1) How TFA Works; (2) Study Design; (3) Who Teaches in the Schools Where TFA Places Teachers?; (4) What Does Our Sample of Students Look Like?; (5) Were TFA Teachers Effective in the Classroom?; and (6) Did TFA Have an Impact on Other Student Outcomes? Primary findings from the study include: from the perspective of a community or a school faced with the opportunity to hire TFA teachers, TFA offers an appealing pool of candidates; from the perspective of TFA and its funders, the organization is making progress toward its primary mission of reducing inequities in education--it supplies low-income schools with academically talented teachers who contribute positively to the academic achievement of their students; and from the perspective of policymakers who are trying to improve the educational opportunities of children in poor communities, many of the control teachers in the study were not certified or did not have formal pre-service training, highlighting the need for programs or policies that offer the potential of attracting good teachers to schools in the most disadvantaged communities--the findings show that TFA is one such program. Appended are: (1) Supplementary Tables; and (2) Estimation Approach. (Contains 17 tables and 6 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 1
The differential effects of teaching addition through strategy instruction versus drill and practice to students with and without learning disabilities (2003)
This study compared instruction in addition using either a minimum addend strategy or drill and practice with 84 students either with or without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD improved significantly only in the strategy condition, whereas general education students improved in both the strategy and the drill-and-practice conditions. In a transfer task, students from both groups improved only in the strategy conditions. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 1
The differential effects of teaching addition through strategy instruction versus drill and practice to students with and without learning disabilities (2003)
This study compared instruction in addition using either a minimum addend strategy or drill and practice with 84 students either with or without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD improved significantly only in the strategy condition, whereas general education students improved in both the strategy and the drill-and-practice conditions. In a transfer task, students from both groups improved only in the strategy conditions. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 2
Reasoning Mind students outperform comparison on Singapore Math Test. (in press)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 2
Impact Evaluation of G2ROW STEM: Girls and Guys Realizing Opportunities with STEM (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Creating a Future-oriented Culture in High School: The Impact of the College and Career Readiness Expansion (CCRE) Project. (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 2
Indiana and Minnesota students who focused on career and technical education in high school: Who are they, and what are their college and employment outcomes? REL 2021-090. (2021)
In Indiana and Minnesota the state education agency, state higher education agency, and the state workforce agency have collaborated to develop career and technical education courses intended to improve high school students' college and career readiness. These agencies partnered with the Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest to examine whether high school graduates in each state who completed a large number of career and technical education courses in a single career-oriented program of study (concentrators) had different college and workforce outcomes from graduates who completed fewer (samplers) or no career and technical education courses (nonparticipants). The study found that in the 2012/13-2017/18 graduation cohorts, male graduates were more likely to be concentrators than female graduates, and graduates who received special education services were more likely to be concentrators than those who did not receive services. Graduates who were not proficient in reading in grade 8 also were more likely to become concentrators than those who were proficient. Graduates who attended urban and suburban schools were more likely than students who attended town and rural schools to be nonparticipants. Concentrators were less likely than samplers and nonparticipants with similar characteristics to enroll in college, but the differences reflect mainly enrollment in four-year colleges. Concentrators were more likely to enroll in two-year colleges. Concentrators also were less likely than similar samplers and nonparticipants to complete a bachelor's degree within four to six years. Finally, compared with similar samplers and nonparticipants, concentrators were employed at higher rates in the first five years after high school and had higher earnings. [For the study brief, see ED613045; for the study snapshot, see ED613046; and for the appendixes, see ED613050.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 2
The effects of accelerated college credit programs on educational attainment in Rhode Island. REL 2021–103. (2021)
This study examined participation in accelerated college credit programs dual enrollment, concurrent enrollment, and Advanced Placement courses in Rhode Island high schools to understand their effects on educational attainment in the 2013/14 grade 9 cohort. The state, which has funded and promoted these opportunities for students to earn college credit during high school over the past five years, sought evidence of the programs' effects on participants' high school graduation rates, postsecondary enrollment rates, and enrollment rates in developmental education courses in college. The study found that male, economically disadvantaged, and racial/ethnic minority students were underrepresented in accelerated college credit programs. Participation in these programs had positive effects on students' rates of high school graduation and postsecondary enrollment. Among students in the cohort who enrolled in Rhode Island public colleges, participation was associated with lower rates of developmental education course enrollment in the first year of college. The effects of participating in an accelerated college credit program were similar for economically disadvantaged students and for their peers. [For the Study Snapshot, see ED612888. For the appendices, see ED612890.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 2
The impact of career and technical education on postsecondary outcomes in Nebraska and South Dakota. REL 2021-087. (2021)
Education leaders in Nebraska and South Dakota partnered with the Regional Educational Laboratory Central to examine how completing a sequence of career and technical education (CTE) courses in high school affects students' rates of on-time high school graduation and their rates of postsecondary education enrollment and completion within two and five years. The study found that CTE concentrators (students who complete a sequence of CTE courses aligned to a specific career field such as manufacturing or education and training) were 7 percentage points more likely than non-CTE concentrators to graduate from high school on time and 10 percentage points more likely to enroll in any type of postsecondary education within two years of their expected high school graduation year. The study also found that CTE concentrators were 3 percentage points more likely than non-CTE concentrators to earn a postsecondary award, such as a professional certificate, diploma, or associate's or bachelor's degree, within five years of their expected high school graduation year. CTE concentrators were 4 percentage points more likely than non-CTE concentrators to obtain up to an associate's degree as their highest postsecondary award within five years of their expected high school graduation year but 1 percentage point less likely to obtain a bachelor's degree or higher. [For the appendixes, see ED612631; for the study brief, see ED612632; for the study snapshot, see ED612633.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 2
AVID participation in high school and post-secondary success: An evaluation and cost analysis. (2020)
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) program and to derive estimates of program costs. We used the Coarsened Exact Matching approach to match AVID students with non-AVID students on 40 baseline characteristics. After matching, we estimated group differences in high-school graduation and college enrollment. We used the ingredients method to estimate program costs and calculated cost-effectiveness ratios by the duration of participation. Findings indicate that students who complete at least one AVID elective have higher high school graduation and college enrollment rates than comparable non-AVID students. We discuss how AVID compares to other college outreach programs in terms of costs and effects.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
2015 Collaborative Regional Education (CORE) i3 Validation Study: Implementation and Impact Study Results. Final Report (2020)
Purpose: The purpose of this two-year study was to assess the impact of the CORE program, a model that integrates technology and active learning modules in high schools by providing multi-disciplinary teams of teachers and administrators with professional development and resources to support the development of students' non-cognitive skills and increase their college and career readiness. A fidelity of implementation study was also conducted to assess the seven key program components were being implemented as intended. Methods: This Randomized Control Trial (RCT) study followed a cohort of 9th and 10th grade high school students in 28 treatment and control schools; students completed the CWRA+ assessment and non-cognitive skills, engagement, and self-efficacy scales at three timepoints. Using the hierarchical linear model (HLM), the study assessed one-year program impact and two-year program impact. The two-year program impact model suffered a high attrition (due to COVID19) and the study became a quasi-experimental design (QED) study after propensity score matching analysis was applied. Results: Findings highlight how students at CORE schools showed increased scores across the two-year program intervention. Specifically, standardized effects on CWRA+ scores, the non-cognitive skills scale, engagement scale, and efficacy scale were respectively, 0.22, 0.22, 0.23, and 0.32. The effect size for the efficacy scale (0.32) was large enough to be considered important. To selectively mention exploratory findings, the level of program exposure both in terms of whether students were enrolled in the program-trained teachers' courses and whether teachers participated in PD activities seemed correlated with a higher growth in student's CWRA+ scores. Another set of exploratory findings implied that the program impact may interact with demographic characteristics of students. Findings demonstrate a need for further testing of differences between student subgroups based on demographics, as well as the importance of buy-in from program implementers to provide the customized PD support that educators and partners at rural schools need to more effectively serve their students. The exploratory findings suggested that the program exposure of teachers and students may be a key to enhance the CORE program impact. [This report was submitted by the ICF Evaluation Team.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 2
A Team-Based Leadership Intervention in New York City Schools: An Evaluation of the Targeted Intensive School Support Program (2020)
In 2013, the NYC Leadership Academy (NYCLA) developed a leadership intervention--the Targeted Intensive School Support (TISS) program--in collaboration with the New York City Department of Education (NYC DOE) to support schools that were facing particular challenges. NYCLA asked the RAND Corporation to provide an independent evaluation of the program's implementation and effects, and those findings are detailed in this report. The TISS program consisted of five key components: (1) teaming and collaborative training in aligned preservice preparation programs for a principal and assistant principal (AP); (2) coplacement of a principal and AP into an NYC DOE school; (3) team-based coaching to support the principal and AP; (4) 328 hours of extended coaching over the first three years after placement; and (5) use of a diagnostic process to guide goal setting and coaching according to school needs. Implementation findings suggest that only two of the five key components were implemented with fidelity. A propensity weighting approach was used to compare schools with TISS principals to other schools with new principals trained through residency-based preservice programs who did not participate in TISS. Findings suggest no statistically significant differences between TISS schools and comparison schools on measures of student achievement, school culture, and principal retention. TISS schools underperformed relative to comparison schools on the measure of chronic student absenteeism. [Sponsored by NYC Leadership Academy through a subgrant from the U.S. Department of Education.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 2
Illustrating the Promise of Community Schools: An Assessment of the Impact of the New York City Community Schools Initiative. (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 2
Effects of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Super Solvers Intervention on Fraction Magnitude Understanding and Calculation Skill (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 2
Effects of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Super Solvers Intervention on Fraction Magnitude Understanding and Calculation Skill (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 12-PS 2
The Story of Scaling Up: Interim Report on the Impact of Success Boston's Coaching for Completion (2019)
Access to middle class jobs increasingly requires a college degree or credential. Individuals with postsecondary education have competitive advantage in the labor market: even when a job does not explicitly require a degree, a candidate with a degree will tend to be hired over an equally qualified candidate without one. Low-income students, in particular, along with first-generation students and racial/ethnic minorities, are underrepresented in postsecondary education Massachusetts is faced with an aging workforce where nearly half of the labor market is 45 or older. In Boston, the six-year college graduation rate for the city's 2011 public high school graduates who enrolled in college was 52 percent. This rate improves upon the 39 percent seven-year rate for 2000 graduates, yet likely is not sufficient to meet the predicted demand for a college-educated workforce. One-on-one coaching from experienced counselors when students are completing their senior year in high school and beginning college can help them succeed. A core strategy of the city-wide "Success Boston" initiative is one-on-one transition coaching. The coaching model is implemented across a network of nonprofit organizations (that provide coaching) in partnership with institutions of higher education. Transition coaching offers students sustained, proactive, and responsive support in their first two years after high school. This report refers to the transition coaching program as Success Boston Coaching (SBC). The report is designed to answer four main research questions about implementation and impact: (1) What is the effect of SBC on student success in college?; (2) How, if at all, do the impacts of SBC vary by student characteristics and features of the coaching?; (3) How is SBC implemented across partner organizations and partner colleges? and (4) What resources are necessary to implement SBC? This report focuses on the effectiveness of coaching on students' persistence and achievement early in college, answering the first and second research questions. [For the previous report, "Success Boston: Coaching for Completion. 2015-16 Implementation Report," see ED582088. For the companion report, "The Story of Scaling Up: Highlights from the Interim Report on the Impact of Success Boston's Coaching for Completion," see ED602749.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Improving High Schools through STEM Early College Strategies: The Impact of the STEM Early College Expansion Partnership (SECEP) (2019)
The STEM Early College Expansion Project is an effort to integrate STEM strategies with the early college model and implement this in comprehensive high schools. This report summarizes findings from two separate quasi-experimental impact studies of the model in Michigan and Connecticut. Results from Michigan showed statistically significant impacts on enrollment in college-level courses and on attainment of college credits. Treatment schools in Michigan also had descriptively lower dropout rates. The Connecticut impact study had challenges with the study design that resulted in an inability to make clear causal claims about the impact.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Evaluating a Unit Aimed at Helping Students Understand Matter and Energy for Growth and Activity (2019)
To support implementation of the "Next Generation Science Standards," we designed a high school biology unit, "Matter and Energy for Growth and Activity" (MEGA), that engages students in explaining physical and life science phenomena using evidence, models, and science ideas about matter and energy changes within systems and transfers between systems. The unit's promise was evaluated using a randomized control trial (RCT) involving fifteen teachers from two schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to implement either the MEGA unit or district-developed activities that targeted the same learning goals. Pre- and post-tests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. Here we describe the unit and report on RCT results. Our data showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students in the treatment group performed better on the post-test than the students in the comparison group, indicating the MEGA unit has promise in improving students' understanding. We also discuss a number of challenges that arose when developing and evaluating the unit.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 2
Preparing School Leaders for Success: Evaluation of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals Program, 2012-2017 (2019)
A growing body of research points to the ways in which principals influence teachers, classrooms, and, ultimately, student achievement. New Leaders aims to prepare transformational school leaders by partnering with districts and charter schools to offer rigorous, research-based training for aspiring principals. The Aspiring Principals program is New Leaders' signature program and has three core features: selective recruitment and admission, training and endorsement, and support for principals early in their tenure. This report is a follow-up to the 2014 evaluation of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals program. Focusing on the revised program, which was first implemented in 2012, the authors present evidence of the effectiveness of the revised Aspiring Principals program and share lessons that can inform principal-preparation policy and practice. To assess the effect of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals program, researchers analyzed whether schools and students led by graduates of the program outperformed comparison schools and students in the same district, focusing on student achievement and principal retention. They also examined program graduate placement and satisfaction with the Aspiring Principals program. [For the appendixes, see ED605724.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 2
A state-wide quasi-experimental effectiveness study of the scale-up of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2019)
The three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework promotes the development of systems and data analysis to guide the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices across multiple tiers. The current study examined the effects of universal (tier 1) or school-wide PBIS (SW-PBIS) in one state's scale-up of this tier of the framework. Annual propensity score weights were generated to examine the longitudinal effects of SW-PBIS from 2006-07 through 2011-12. School-level archival and administrative data outcomes were examined using panel models with an autoregressive structure. The sample included 1,316 elementary, middle, and high schools. Elementary schools trained in SW-PBIS demonstrated statistically significantly lower suspensions during the fourth and fifth study years (i.e., small effect size) and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the first two study years as well as in one and two later years (i.e., small to large effect sizes), respectively. Secondary schools implementing SW-PBIS had statistically significantly lower suspensions and truancy rates during the second study year and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the second and third study years. These findings demonstrate medium effect sizes for all outcomes except suspensions. Given the widespread use of SW-PBIS across nearly 26,000 schools in the U.S., this study has important implications for educational practices and policies. [This paper was published in the "Journal of School Psychology" v73 p41-55 Apr 2019 (ISSN 0022-4405).]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-Not reported 2
Impact of the UPSTART Program on Forestalling Summer Learning Loss (2019)
The UPSTART Summer program is a federally funded i3 validation project that uses a computer-based program to maintain and develop the literacy skills of elementary school students in rural Utah during the summer months when school is out of session. Researchers used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of the program in forestalling literacy learning loss during several summer periods. Students in the treatment group participated in the UPSTART Summer program, in the summer periods after kindergarten, first grade, and/or second grade. A second group of children, who were not enrolled in the program served as a comparison. Statistical matching procedures were used to create separate treatment and comparison analytic samples for each outcome measure that were equivalent on baseline scores and demographic variables (e.g., school, gender, race, language learner status, household income, Title 1 school enrollment, etc.). Standardized literacy assessments of letter knowledge, phonics, and reading fluency were administered prior to program commencement at the end of the academic school year and upon program completion at the beginning of the following school year. Results revealed that the UPSTART Summer program had a significant impact in reducing literacy learning loss in rising first graders on assessments of letter naming fluency, nonsense word fluency (correct letter sounds), and a reading composite score when compared to a matched comparison group. There were no differences in learning loss rates between rising first graders and comparison students on assessments measuring phoneme segmentation fluency or nonsense word reading (whole words read). Additionally, the UPSTART Summer program did not have an impact on literacy learning loss prevention in rising second or third grade students as measured by assessments of nonsense word reading, oral reading fluency, or overall reading composites. Taken together these results suggest that the UPSTART program helps to maintain early literacy skills in the summer months between Kindergarten and first grade.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 2
Improving Fraction Understanding in Sixth Graders with Mathematics Difficulties: Effects of a Number Line Approach Combined with Cognitive Learning Strategies (2019)
The effectiveness of an experimental middle school fraction intervention was evaluated. The intervention was centered on the number line and incorporated key principles from the science of learning. Sixth graders (N = 51) who struggled with fraction concepts were randomly assigned at the student level to the experimental intervention (n = 28) or to a business-as-usual control who received their school's intervention (n = 23). The experimental intervention occurred over 6 weeks (27 lessons). Fraction number line estimation, magnitude comparisons, concepts, and arithmetic were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest. The experimental group demonstrated significantly more learning than the control group from pretest to posttest, with meaningful effect sizes on measures of fraction concepts (g = 1.09), number line estimation as measured by percent absolute error (g = -0.85), and magnitude comparisons (g = 0.82). These improvements held at delayed posttest 7 weeks later. Exploratory analyses showed a significant interaction between classroom attentive behavior and intervention group on fraction concepts at posttest, suggesting a buffering effect of the experimental intervention on the normally negative impact of low attentive behavior on learning. A number line-centered approach to teaching fractions that also incorporates research-based learning strategies helps struggling learners to make durable gains in their conceptual understanding of fractions. [This paper will be published in the "Journal of Educational Psychology."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 2
Visual-Syntactic Text Format: Improving Adolescent Literacy (2019)
Seventh- and 8th-grade students in a within-teacher randomized control study read from visual-syntactic formatted text for 44 min per week over the course of 1 year. On the annual state assessment, we found small statistically significant improvements on the overall English Language Arts scaled score (ES = 0.05, p < .05) and the writing assessment (ES = 0.07, p < .01) for the treatment group compared to the control group. We found no interactions between gifted, special education, or English learner classification and treatment status on the effect on overall English Language Arts score, but our categorical and subgroup analyses showed that the use of visual-syntactic text formatting provided a modest benefit to middle school students who were near or at grade level in the prior school year.
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 2
Equipping and empowering 8th grade mathematics teachers to create dynamic learning activities promoting conceptual understanding (2018, April 14)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-12 2
Evaluation of the James Madison Legacy Project: Cohort 2 Student Knowledge (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 2
A year-long state-wide RCT of the Minnesota Math Corps: Final report to Laura and John Arnold Foundation (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 2
HEROES i3 Development Grant: External Evaluation Report. (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 2
English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation (ELLA-V) i3 Evaluation (Valid 22). Final Report (2018)
The English Language and Literacy Acquisition--Validation (ELLA-V) study was a five-year evaluation of a program that provided professional development, coaching, and curricula that targeted English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for teachers of K-3 English learners (ELs). ELLA-V was implemented in 10 school districts in Texas in the 2013-14 through 2016-17 school years. The project was federally funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund (PR/Award Number U411B120047). Professors at Texas A&M University were the recipients of the grant and developed the professional development, the coaching program, and the curricula. Researchers at the Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE) at Johns Hopkins University were contracted to conduct the independent evaluation. The evaluation of ELLA-V was a multi-site cluster randomized trial designed to meet the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for rigorous education research (WWC, 2017). The study used a mixed method design to estimate program impacts on student and teacher outcomes and document the fidelity of implementation and perceived quality of the program. [This report was published at the Center for Research and Reform in Education (ED594703). Principal Investigators were Rafael Lara-Alecio, Beverly Irby, and Fuhui Tong. Cindy Guerrero and Laura Cajiao-Wingenbach were Lead Coordinators.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Evaluation of the We the People Program: Student Knowledge (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 2
Annual evaluation report for the Pennsylvania Dyslexia Screening and Early Literacy Intervention Pilot Program: Pilot year 2, 2016– 17 school year (2018)
The 3-year Pennsylvania Dyslexia Screening and Early Literacy Intervention Pilot Program (Pilot) began in 2015-16 (Year 1) with the kindergarten class of 2015-16 (Cohort 1). In 2016-17 (Year 2), the Pilot was implemented with Cohort 1 students, now in first grade, and a second cohort of kindergarteners (Cohort 2). A third cohort will be added in 2017-18. The Pilot provides two levels of support: (1) a classroom program, which supplements core instruction for all students, with an increased focus on phonemic awareness and multisensory structured language (MSL), and (2) an MSL intervention to provide extra instruction for students identified as needing more support based on early literacy screening in the winter of kindergarten. Both levels of support are meant to affect special education referrals and students' literacy skills, measured by the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Next benchmark assessments (only DIBELS data are available at this time). This report presents key findings from Year 2. The effectiveness of the classroom program was evaluated using a school-level matched design, in which the performance of students in the 21 Pilot schools was compared with the performance of students in 21 matched comparison (Comparison) schools identified through Mahalanobis distance matching. These analyses suggest that both Pilot cohorts (21 schools) outperformed the Comparison sample on some spring 2017 (Year 2) measures (nonsense word fluency for both cohorts and letter naming fluency for Cohort 2). This may be because of improved implementation in Year 2, and is particularly encouraging given the Comparison sample's participation in another literacy initiative, which may result in an underestimation of Pilot program effects compared with typical schools (which may not use universal screening to inform core instruction and identify students to receive supplemental intervention). The effectiveness of the MSL intervention was assessed using a regression discontinuity (RD) design, in which Pilot students eligible for the intervention were compared with similarly performing students in the same schools who were not eligible for the intervention. Although these analyses yielded no positive effects, exploratory analyses suggest that the intervention may have contributed to improved performance for Cohort 1 Pilot intervention students compared to similar Comparison students. Exploratory analyses also found an association between intervention hours and outcomes, suggesting increased dosage might yield stronger intervention effects (most schools did not meet target hours). These findings suggest that the combination of enhanced core instruction and supplemental MSL intervention improve some student outcomes in school settings, warranting further study. The Pilot's final evaluation report will cover the third year of Pilot implementation, allowing comparisons across three cohorts and expanding the Pilot to second grade (Cohort 1), and consider other variables such as special education status. This report includes numerous exhibits to explain implementation, samples, and findings, and includes the following appendices: (1) Study Design; (2) Matching to Establish Comparison Sample; (3) Supplementary Implementation Information; (4) Comparisons of Analysis Samples; (5) Sample Parent Notification and Opt-Out Template Provided by PDE to Pilot Districts; (6) Technical Information.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-12 2
Can Restorative Practices Improve School Climate and Curb Suspensions? An Evaluation of the Impact of Restorative Practices in a Mid-Sized Urban School District. Research Report. RR-2840-DOJ. (2018)
Across the country, school districts, their stakeholders, and policymakers have become increasingly concerned about suspensions, particularly about suspending students from elementary school and disproportionately suspending ethnic/racial minority students. Suspended students are less likely to graduate, possibly because they miss the instructional time they need to advance academically. Restorative practices have gained buy-in in the education community as a strategy to reduce suspension rates. Proactively improving relationships among students and staff and building a sense of community in classrooms and schools may make students less inclined to misbehave. And addressing severe misbehavior through a restorative approach may help students realize the impacts of their actions and make them less likely to offend again. This study of the implementation of restorative practices in the Pittsburgh Public Schools district (PPS) in school years 2015-16 and 2016-17 represents one of the first randomized controlled trials of the effects of restorative practices on classroom and school climates and suspension rates. The authors examined a specific restorative practices program -- the International Institute for Restorative Practices' SaferSanerSchools™ Whole-School Change program -- implemented in a selected group of PPS schools under a program called Pursuing Equitable and Restorative Communities, or PERC. The researchers found that PERC achieved several positive effects, including an improvement in overall school climates (as rated by teachers), a reduction in overall suspension rates, and a reduction in the disparities in suspension rates between African American and white students and between low- and higher-income students. Key Findings: Effects of the Pursuing Equitable and Restorative Communities (PERC) program in Pittsburgh Public Schools: (1) Implementation of restorative practices through PERC improved overall school climates, as rated by teachers; (2) Implementation of restorative practices reduced the average suspension rate: During the study period, average suspension rates decreased in both PERC and non-PERC schools, but rates decreased more in PERC schools; (3) Suspension rates of African American students and of those from low-income families also went down in PERC schools, shrinking the disparities in suspension rates between African American and white students and between low- and higher-income students; (4) Academic outcomes did not improve in PERC schools, and actually worsened for grades 6-8; and (5) Arrest rates among PERC schools did not decrease. Recommendations: (1) Given the constraints on teachers' time, emphasize restorative practices that can be woven into the school day; (2) Ensure that school leaders understand and can model restorative practices, including by providing mandatory professional development, books and other materials, and coaching on restorative practices; (3) Establish a mechanism for school staff to meet at least once per month as a professional learning community on restorative practices; (4) Ensure that leaders at the district level can coordinate this work; (5) Set, and update, clear expectations regarding the use of restorative practices; and (6) Implement data collection systems to collect accurate information on all types of behavioral incidents and remedies.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 2
Effects of the first year of a three-year CGI teacher professional development program on grades 3–5 student achievement: A multisite cluster-randomized trial. (Research Report No. 2018-25) (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 10-12 2
Linked Learning San Bernardino (LLSB): Accelerating College and Career Readiness in Low-Performing Schools: An Investing in Innovation (i3) Development Grant Evaluation. Technical Report. (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors. (2017)
Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the "Positive Action" program (PA) on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "High/declining" and "Low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "Low/rising" and "High/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes. [This paper was published in "Prevention Science" v18 p214-224 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-11 2
The effects of statewide private school choice on college enrollment and graduation (2017)
Although several studies have documented the effects of statewide private school choice programs on student test scores, this report is the first to examine the effects of one of these programs on college enrollment and graduation. Using data from the Florida Tax Credit (FTC) Scholarship program, we find that low-income Florida students who attended private schools using an FTC scholarship enrolled in and graduated from Florida colleges at a higher rate than their public school counterparts. [Additional support for this study was provided by the Bill and Susan Oberndorf Foundation and Kate and Bill Duhamel.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 12-PS 2
The power of coaching: Interim report on the impact of Success Boston’s transition coaching on college success (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 2
A comprehensive model of teacher induction: Implementation and impact on teachers and students. Evaluation of the New Teacher Center’s i3 Validation Grant, Final Report (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 2
Enhancing middle school science lessons with playground activities: A study of the impact of playground physics. (2017)
Playground Physics is a technology-based application and accompanying curriculum designed by New York Hall of Science (NYSCI) to support middle school students' science engagement and learning of force, energy, and motion. The program includes professional development, the Playground Physics app, and a curriculum aligned with New York State Learning Standards, Common Core State Standards, and Next Generation Science Standards. The iOS app allows students to record and review videos through three "lenses": (1) motion; (2) force (Newton's third law); and (3) energy, and the curriculum integrates informal and formal, inquiry-based learning strategies to promote greater student knowledge and understanding of physics. The program was designed to be implemented in a formal school setting during the regular school day. This report describes the results of an experimental study of the Playground Physics program's impact on learning of physics concepts, student engagement, and science-related attitudes. Sixty New York City middle grade teachers were randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. Treatment teachers were asked to participate in Playground Physics professional development and use Playground Physics as part of their physics instruction during the 2015-16 academic year; control teachers were asked to use their regular instruction. In total, 15 teachers left the study. The final sample included student data from 24 treatment teachers and 21 control teachers. The following are appended: (1) Playground Physics Curriculum Activities; (2) Student Outcome Measures; (3) Teacher Survey; (4) Impact Analysis Technical Approach; (5) Output from Statistical Models; (6) Knowledge Assessment Responses and Standards Alignment; (7) 2014-15 Fidelity of Implementation Analysis; and (8) Supplemental Analysis.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 2
The Urban Advantage: The impact of informal science collaborations on student achievement (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-12 2
Leveraging technology to engage parents at scale: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial. (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 2
Improving content knowledge and comprehension for English language learners: Findings from a randomized control trial (2017)
Supporting the reading comprehension and content knowledge acquisition of English language learners (ELs) requires instructional practices that continue beyond developing the foundational skills of reading. In particular, the challenges ELs face highlight the importance of teaching reading comprehension practices in the middle grades through content acquisition. We conducted a randomized control trial to examine the efficacy of a content acquisition and reading comprehension intervention implemented in eighth-grade social studies classrooms with English language learners. Using a within-teacher design, in which 18 eighth-grade teachers' social studies classes were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Teachers taught the same instructional content to treatment and comparison classes, but the treatment classes used instructional practices that included comprehension canopy, essential words, knowledge acquisition, and team-based learning. Students in the treatment group (n = 845) outperformed students in the comparison group (n = 784) on measures of content knowledge acquisition and content reading comprehension but not general reading comprehension. Both ELs and non-ELs who received the treatment outperformed those assigned to the BAU comparison condition on measures of content knowledge acquisition (ES = 0.40) and content-related reading comprehension (ES = 0.20). In addition, the proportion of English language learners in classes moderated outcomes for content knowledge acquisition.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 2
Web-based text structure strategy instruction improves seventh graders' content area reading comprehension (2017)
Reading comprehension in the content areas is a challenge for many middle grade students. Text structure-based instruction has yielded positive outcomes in reading comprehension at all grade levels in small and large studies. The text structure strategy delivered via the web, called Intelligent Tutoring System for the Text Structure Strategy (ITSS), has proven successful in large-scale studies at 4th and 5th grades and a smaller study at 7th grade. Text structure-based instruction focuses on selection and encoding of strategic memory. This strategic memory proves to be an effective springboard for many comprehension-based activities such as summarizing, inferring, elaborating, and applying. This was the first large-scale randomized controlled efficacy study on the web-based delivery of the text structure strategy to 7th-grade students. 108 classrooms from rural and suburban schools were randomly assigned to ITSS or control and pretests and posttests were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. Multilevel data analyses were conducted on standardized and researcher designed measures of reading comprehension. Results showed that ITSS classrooms outperformed the control classrooms on all measures with the highest effects reported for number of ideas included in the main idea. Results have practical implications for classroom practices.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 2
Impact results of the eMINTS professional development validation study (2016)
This article presents the findings of an evaluation of the eMINTS (enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies) professional development program. eMINTS is an intensive teacher professional development program designed to promote inquiry-based learning, support high-quality lesson design, build community among students and teachers, and create technology-rich learning environments. This evaluation included 60 high-poverty rural schools across Missouri that were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions and a control condition, with approximately 200 teachers and 3,000 students in the 2011-2012 baseline academic year. The researchers conclude that after 3 years, the eMINTS treatment group and an eMINTS treatment group with an additional year of Intel support resulted in changed teacher instructional behaviors and increased student achievement in mathematics.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-12 2
Reducing achievement gaps in academic writing for Latinos and English learners in grades 7–12. (2016)
This study reports 2 years of findings from a randomized controlled trial designed to replicate and demonstrate the efficacy of an existing, successful professional development program, the Pathway Project, that uses a cognitive strategies approach to text-based analytical writing. Building on an earlier randomized field trial in a large, urban, low socioeconomic status (SES) district in which 98% of the students were Latino and 88% were mainstreamed English learners (ELs) at the intermediate level of fluency, the project aimed to help secondary school students, specifically Latinos and mainstreamed ELs, in another large, urban, low-SES district to develop the academic writing skills called for in the rigorous Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts. The Pathway Project draws on well-documented instructional frameworks that support approaches that incorporate strategy instruction to enhance students' academic literacy. Ninety-five teachers in 16 secondary schools were stratified by school and grade and then randomly assigned to the Pathway or control group. Pathway teachers participated in 46 hr of training to help students write analytical essays. Difference-in-differences and regression analyses revealed significant effects on student writing outcomes in both years of the intervention (Year 1, d = 0.48; Year 2, d = 0.60). Additionally, Pathway students had higher odds than control students of passing the California High School Exit Exam in both years.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 2
The Causal Effects of Cultural Relevance: Evidence from an Ethnic Studies Curriculum (CEPA Working Paper No.16-01) (2016)
An extensive theoretical and qualitative literature stresses the promise of instructional practices and content aligned with the cultural experiences of minority students. Ethnic studies courses provide a growing but controversial example of such "culturally relevant pedagogy." However, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of these courses is limited. In this study, we estimate the causal effects of an ethnic studies curriculum piloted in several San Francisco high schools. We rely on a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design based on the fact that several schools assigned students with eighth-grade GPAs below a threshold to take the course in ninth grade. Our results indicate that assignment to this course increased ninth-grade student attendance by 21 percentage points, GPA by 1.4 grade points, and credits earned by 23. These surprisingly large effects are consistent with the hypothesis that the course reduced dropout rates and suggest that culturally relevant teaching, when implemented in a supportive, high-fidelity context, can provide effective support to at-risk students.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 2
Testing the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention: A Conceptual Replication Study (2016)
The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the counterfactual. Similar to the original investigation, however, the current study tested the same intervention, used the same outcome measures and statistical analyses, and involved the same population of learners. A total of 319 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 36 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Students who were randomly assigned to the treatment condition received the intervention in small-group formats, with 2 or 5 students per group. Control students participated in a no-treatment control condition. Significant effects on proximal and distal measures of mathematics achievement were found. Effect sizes obtained for all measures fell within or exceeded the upper bound of the effects reported in the initial study. Implications for systematically situating replication studies in larger frameworks of intervention research and reporting rates of treatment response across replication studies are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 2
Effects of an early numeracy intervention on struggling kindergarteners’ mathematics performance. (2016)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an early numeracy intervention delivered by kindergarten teachers to students identified as having mathematics difficulties. A multigroup growth-modeling-with-random-assignment-to-intervention-condition design was employed. Thirty-two teachers were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. A total of 71 students participated in the study, 47 in the treatment group and 24 in the comparison group. Results indicated that the treatment condition students outperformed comparison students (g* = 0.99) and demonstrated statistically significantly higher scores on all proximal measures of early numeracy. Also, about 80% to 100% of the variance was accounted for at the student level. Performance on distal measures was less impressive, with no significant differences between groups; the effect size was 0.44. Teachers rated components of the intervention highly, reflecting strong teacher satisfaction.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS 2
Charter schools’ effects on long-term attainment and earnings. (2016)
Since their inception in 1992, the number of charter schools has grown to more than 6,800 nationally, serving nearly three million students. Various studies have examined charter schools' impacts on test scores, and a few have begun to examine longer-term outcomes including graduation and college attendance. This paper is the first to estimate charter schools' effects on earnings in adulthood, alongside effects on educational attainment. Using data from Florida, we first confirm previous research (Booker et al., 2011) that students attending charter high schools are more likely to graduate from high school and enroll in college. We then examine two longer-term outcomes not previously studied in research on charter schools--college persistence and earnings. We find that students attending charter high schools are more likely to persist in college, and that in their mid-20s they experience higher earnings.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
National Board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from Washington state. (2016)
We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board-Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS-certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05 student standard deviations more effective than non-NBCTS with similar levels of experience. Certification effects vary by subject, grade level, and certification type, with greater effects for middle school math certificates. We find mixed evidence that teachers who pass the assessment are more effective than those who fail, but that the underlying NBPTS assessment score predicts student achievement.
Reviews of Individual Studies 12 2
Evaluation of the expository reading and writing course: Findings from the Investing in Innovation development grant. (2015)
The Expository Reading and Writing Course (ERWC) was developed by California State University (CSU) faculty and high school educators to improve the academic literacy of high school seniors, thereby reducing the need for students to enroll in remedial English courses upon entering college. This report, produced by Innovation Studies at WestEd, presents the findings of an independent evaluation of the ERWC funded by an Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant from the U.S. Department of Education. The study sample for the evaluation included more than 5,000 12th grade students in 24 high schools across nine California school districts in the 2013/14 school year. The authors of the report found that the ERWC has a statistically significant positive impact on student achievement. Results from an analysis of implementation fidelity are also presented, along with qualitative findings based on survey data from study participants. Appendixes include: (1) Statistical Power for Impact Estimates; (2) Data Collection Instruments to Measure Fidelity of Implementation; and (3) Rubric for Calculating Fidelity of Implementation for Each Component of the Expository Reading and Writing Course.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 2
Effects of a Multitier Support System on Calculation, Word Problem, and Prealgebraic Performance among At-Risk Learners (2015)
The focus of the present study was enhancing word problem and calculation achievement in ways that support prealgebraic thinking among second-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty. Intervention relied on a multitier support system (i.e., responsiveness to intervention, or RTI) in which at-risk students participate in general classroom instruction and receive supplementary small-group tutoring. Participants were 265 students in 110 classrooms in 25 schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: calculation RTI, word problem RTI, or business-as-usual control. Intervention lasted 17 weeks. Multilevel modeling indicated that calculation RTI improved calculation but not word problem outcomes, word problem RTI enhanced proximal word problem outcomes as well as performance on some calculation outcomes, and word problem RTI provided a stronger route than calculation RTI to prealgebraic knowledge.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
Intervention for First Graders with Limited Number Knowledge: Large-Scale Replication of a Randomized Controlled Trial (2015)
Replication studies are extremely rare in education. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scale-up replication of Fuchs et al., which in a sample of 139 found a statistically significant positive impact for Number Rockets, a small-group intervention for at-risk first graders that focused on building understanding of number operations. The study was relatively small scale (one site) and highly controlled. This replication was implemented at a much larger scale--in 76 schools in four urban districts; 994 at-risk students participated. Intervention students participated in approximately 30 hours of small-group work in addition to classroom instruction; control students received typical instruction and whatever assistance the teacher would normally provide. Intervention students showed significantly superior performance on a broad measure of mathematics proficiency.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Understanding the effect of KIPP as it scales: Volume I, Impacts on achievement and other outcomes. Final report of KIPP’s Investing in Innovation grant evaluation [High School]. (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first high-quality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other non-KIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Matched-Student Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-Student Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-School Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Measuring the causal effect of National Math + Science Initiative’s College Readiness Program (CRESST Report No. 847). (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Academic impacts of career and technical schools. (2015)
This study presents findings from three cohorts of students--the classes of 2003, 2004, and 2005, in the School District of Philadelphia--that were admitted to the district's career and technical education (CTE) schools through a randomized lottery process. This study takes advantage of this so-called "'natural experiment' to compare high school academic outcomes for" lottery applicants who were admitted with those for students who did not receive an acceptance. Results find that CTE students had significantly better outcomes in terms of graduation rates, credit accumulation, and the successful completion of the college preparatory mathematics sequence algebra 1, algebra 2, and geometry. Results for other outcomes such as the completion of science and foreign language course sequences, overall grade point average, and mathematics and reading comprehension achievement, were inconsistent across cohorts and statistical tests, neither favoring nor against students accepted to CTE schools.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 2
A Kindergarten Number-Sense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for Low-Achieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a research-based number-sense intervention for low-achieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a number-sense intervention followed by a number-fact practice session, an identical number-sense intervention followed by a number-list practice session, or a business-as-usual control group. The number-fact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the number-list practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-10 2
Taking stock of the California Linked Learning District Initiative. Sixth-year evaluation report. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 2
The implementation and effects of the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC): Early findings in eighth-grade history/social studies and science courses (CRESST Report 848) (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 2
The implementation and effects of the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC): Early findings in eighth-grade history/social studies and science courses (CRESST Report 848) (2015)
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation invested in the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) as one strategy to support teachers' and students' transition to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English language arts. This report provides an early look at the implementation of LDC in sixth-grade Advanced Reading classes in a large Florida district, and the effectiveness of the intervention in this setting. The study found that teachers understood LDC and implemented it with fidelity and that curriculum modules were well crafted. Teachers also generally reported positive attitudes about the effectiveness of LDC and its usefulness as a tool for teaching CCSS skills. Although implementation results were highly positive, quasi-experimental analyses employing matched control group and regression discontinuity designs found no evidence of an impact of LDC on student performance on state reading or district writing assessments. Furthermore, students generally performed at basic levels on assessments designed to align with the intervention, suggesting the challenge of meeting CCSS expectations. Exploratory analyses suggest that LDC may have been most effective for higher achieving students. However understandable, the findings thus suggest that, in the absence of additional scaffolding and supports for low-achieving students, LDC may be gap enhancing. Two appendices are included: (1) LDC Instruments and Rubrics; and (2) Summary Report: Developing an Assignment Measure to Assess Quality of LDC Modules (Abby Reisman, Joan Herman, Rebecca Luskin, and Scott Epstein).
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-10 2
Impact of the National Writing Project’s College-Ready Writers Program on teachers and students. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 2
Effects of a Research-Based Intervention to Improve Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Problem Solving: A Cluster Randomized Trial (2015)
This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of a research-based intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), on students' proportional problem solving. SBI emphasizes the underlying mathematical structure of problems, uses schematic diagrams to represent information in the problem text, provides explicit problem solving and metacognitive strategy instruction, and focuses on the flexible use of multiple solution strategies. Eighty-two teachers/classrooms with a total of 1,999 seventh-grade students across 50 school districts were randomly assigned to a treatment (SBI) or control (business-as-usual) condition. An observational measure provided evidence that the SBI intervention was implemented with fidelity. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that the SBI group scored on average significantly higher than the control group on the posttest and retention test (9 weeks later) and also showed significantly more growth in proportional problem solving. There were no treatment effects on the Process and Applications subtest of the Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation. These results demonstrate that SBI can be more effective than the control approach in improving students' proportional problem solving. [This paper was published in the "Journal of Educational Psychology," (EJ1082754).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 2
Understanding the effect of KIPP as it scales: Volume I, Impacts on achievement and other outcomes. Final report of KIPP’s Investing in Innovation grant evaluation [Middle School; QED]. (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first high-quality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other non-KIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Matched-Student Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-Student Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-School Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-12 2
Enhancing secondary school instruction and student achievement: Replication and extension of the My Teaching Partner-Secondary intervention (2015)
My Teaching Partner-Secondary (MTP-S) is a web-mediated coaching intervention, which an initial randomized trial, primarily in middle schools, found to improve teacher-student interactions and student achievement. Given the dearth of validated teacher development interventions showing consistent effects, we sought to both replicate and extend these findings with a modified version of the program in a predominantly high school population, and in a more urban, sociodemographically diverse school district. MTP-S produced substantial gains in student achievement across 86 secondary school classrooms involving 1,194 students. Gains were robust across subject areas and equivalent to moving the average student from the 50th to the 59th percentile in achievement scores. Results suggest that MTP-S can enhance student outcomes across diverse settings and implementation modalities.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 2
Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms (2015)
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general education classrooms. Results showed that students in the EAI condition improved their performance on math skills contained in several of the standards. Effect sizes were especially large for students with MD when the special education teacher more actively participated in the instructional activities with the math teacher. Classroom observations provided examples of how teachers can work together to benefit students in inclusive math settings.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 2
Effects of blended instructional models on math performance (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 2
Supporting middle school content teachers transition to the Common Core: The implementation and effects of LDC. (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 2
Early progress: Interim research on personalized learning. (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 2
Preparing principals to raise student achievement: Implementation and effects of the New Leaders Program in ten districts. (2014)
New Leaders is a nonprofit organization with a mission to ensure high academic achievement for all students by developing outstanding school leaders to serve in urban schools. Its premise is that a combination of preparation and improved working conditions for principals, especially greater autonomy, would lead to improved student outcomes. Its approach involves both preparing principals and partnering with school districts and charter management organizations (CMOs) to improve the conditions in which its highly trained principals work. As part of the partnerships, New Leaders agrees to provide carefully selected and trained principals who can be placed in schools that need principals and to provide coaching and other support after those principals are placed. The districts and CMOs agree to establish working conditions that support, rather than hinder, the principals' efforts to improve student outcomes. This report describes how the New Leaders program was implemented in partner districts, and it provides evidence of the effect that New Leaders has on student achievement. [The research in this report was produced within RAND Education. For the appendices that accompany this report, see ED561154. For the research brief, "Principal Preparation Matters: How Leadership Development Affects Student Achievement. Research Brief," see ED561155.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Exploring variation in the impact of dual-credit coursework on postsecondary outcomes: A quasi-experimental analysis of Texas students. (2014)
Despite the growing popularity of dual-credit courses as a college readiness strategy, numerous reviews of the literature have noted a number of important limitations of the research on the effects of dual-credit on student postsecondary outcomes. This study addressed these gaps in the literature by estimating the impact of dual-credit courses on postsecondary access, first-to-second year persistence, and eventual college attainment, and overcame many of the methodological limitations of previous studies. The study utilized a statewide longitudinal data system (SLDS), allowing us to track an entire cohort of students through their transition into postsecondary statewide. Propensity score matching was used in order to reduce the self-selection bias associated with high achieving students being more likely to take dual-credit courses. We explored how the number of dual-credit courses students complete and the subject of the courses influences their impact. We also compared the effects of dual-credit to alternative advanced courses. Our results suggest that dual-credit is a promising strategy for increasing the likelihood of students accessing, persisting through, and completing a degree in postsecondary, and is possibly even more impactful than advanced coursework. However, significant variation in the benefit of dual-credit exists.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
Success for All in England: Results from the third year of a national evaluation. (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 2
Alignment of game design features and state mathematics standards: Do results reflect intentions? (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 11 2
The Effects of Team-Based Learning on Social Studies Knowledge Acquisition in High School (2014)
This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of team-based learning implemented within 11th-grade social studies classes. A randomized blocked design was implemented with 26 classes randomly assigned to treatment or comparison. In the treatment classes teachers implemented team-based learning practices to support students in engaging in dialogue about course content, application of content to solve problems, and use of evidence to support responses. Significant differences in favor of the treatment group on content acquisition were noted (Hedges's g = 0.19). Examination of differences in response to the treatment indicated groups of students classified with high or moderate pretest scores benefitted from the treatment, whereas a group of students classified with low pretest scores did not benefit from the treatment.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 2
The effects of teacher entry portals on student achievement (2014)
The current teacher workforce is younger, less experienced, more likely to turnover, and more diverse in preparation experiences than the workforce of two decades ago. Research shows that inexperienced teachers are less effective, but we know little about the effectiveness of teachers with different types of preparation. In this study, we classify North Carolina public school teachers into "portals"--fixed and mutually exclusive categories that capture teachers' formal preparation and qualifications upon first entering the profession--and estimate the adjusted average test score gains of students taught by teachers from each portal. Compared with undergraduate-prepared teachers from in-state public universities, (a) out-of-state undergraduate-prepared teachers are less effective in elementary grades and high school, (b) alternative entry teachers are less effective in high school, and (c) Teach For America corps members are more effective in STEM subjects and secondary grades.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Impact of Small-Group Tutoring Interventions on the Mathematical Problem Solving and Achievement of Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2013)
This intervention study compared the efficacy of small-group tutoring on the mathematics learning of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty using either a school-provided standards-based curriculum (SBC) or a schema-based instruction (SBI) curriculum. The SBI curriculum placed particular emphasis on the underlying mathematical structure of additive problems to represent and solve word problems. At-risk students (N = 136) from 35 classrooms scoring below a proficiency level on their district accountability assessment were assigned randomly to treatment groups. Results indicated interaction effects on the word problem-solving (WPS) posttest and retention tests such that SBI students with higher incoming (pretest) WPS scores outperformed SBC students with higher pretest scores, whereas SBC students with lower pretest scores outperformed SBI students with lower pretest scores. No effects were found on number combinations automaticity, and mathematics and reading achievement. Implications to improve the problem-solving performance of at-risk students are discussed. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 2
After two years, three elementary math curricula outperform a fourth (NCEE 2013-4019). (2013)
This brief aims to help educators understand the implications of math curriculum choice in the early elementary grades by presenting new findings from a study that examined how four math curricula affect students' achievement across two years--from 1st through 2nd grades. The four curricula were (1) Investigations in Number, Data, and Space (Investigations); (2) Math Expressions; (3) Saxon Math (Saxon); and (4) Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics (SFAW), which the developer revised and renamed enVision Math (enVision) during the study. These curricula are widely used and differ in their approaches to teaching and learning. Within districts, we randomly assigned one of the four curricula to each school that participated in the study. After one year (by the end of 1st grade), students taught with Math Expressions and Saxon made greater gains in achievement than students taught with Investigations and SFAW. After two years (by the end of 2nd grade), Investigations students continued to lag behind Math Expressions and Saxon students, while SFAW/enVision students caught up to Math Expressions and Saxon students. Therefore, Math Expressions, Saxon, and SFAW/enVision improved 1st-through-2nd-grade math achievement by similar amounts, and all three outperformed Investigations. Our findings also suggest that switching between some of the study's curricula does not harm student achievement and can even be beneficial. (Contains 24 endnotes, 3 figures, and 2 tables.) [For "After Two Years, Three Elementary Math Curricula Outperform a Fourth. NCEE Technical Appendix. NCEE 2013-4019", see ED544187.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Outcomes for Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2013)
This study compared the effects of delivering a supplemental, small-group tutoring intervention on the mathematics outcomes of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD) who were randomly assigned to either a schema-based instruction (SBI) or control group. SBI emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of additive problems. All students at risk for MD identified through screening received a mathematics intervention in groups of 2-4 for 12 weeks across the school year. Results revealed that students in the SBI group outperformed students in the control group on a word problem solving (WPS) posttest ("g" = 0.46). The effect of SBI proved to be equivalent for students in both high and low at-risk subgroups. On a district-administered mathematics achievement test, SBI students scored significantly higher than control students (g = 0.34); however, there were no significant effects on the WPS retention test (8 weeks later). (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
National charter school study 2013. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
Evaluating Math Recovery: Assessing the Causal Impact of a Diagnostic Tutoring Program on Student Achievement (2013)
Mathematics Recovery (MR) is designed to identify first graders who are struggling in mathematics and provide them with intensive one-to-one tutoring. We report findings from a 2-year evaluation of MR conducted in 20 elementary schools across five districts in two states. The design allowed for the estimation of the counterfactual growth trajectory based on those students randomly assigned either to a tutoring cohort with a delayed start or to a wait list. Results demonstrate strong end of first grade effects on a diagnostic measure developed by MR and weak to moderate effects (effect size, 0.15-0.30) on measures administered by external evaluators. By the end of second grade, no significant effects were found on any measures. Practical and research implications are discussed. (Contains 7 tables, 3 figures, and 5 notes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
Expanding college opportunities for high-achieving, low income students. (2013)
For this study, the authors designed an experiment to test whether some high-achieving, low-income students would change their behavior if they knew more about colleges and, more importantly, whether a cost-effective way to help such students realize their full array of college opportunities can be implemented. This was done by randomly assigning interventions that provide different types of information to roughly 18,000 students, including 3,000 students who serve as controls. The most comprehensive form of the intervention, which is called the Expanding College Opportunities-Comprehensive (ECO-C) Intervention, combined application guidance, semicustomized information about the net cost of attending different colleges, and no-paperwork application fee waivers. Expanding College Opportunities Project was designed to to test several hypotheses about why most high-achieving, low-income students do not apply to and attend selective colleges. The application guidance component of ECO-C provides the kind of advice that an expert college counselor would give a high-achieving student. An expert counselor would advise such a student to apply to eight or more colleges, including a combination of "safety," "match," and "reach" colleges. The authors call this group of colleges that are within an appropriate range for a given student's achievement "peer" colleges. Using random assignment of thousands of students, the authors successfully demonstrated that a low-cost, fully scalable intervention can help many high-achieving, low-income students recognize their full array of college opportunities.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
The impact of dual enrollment on college degree attainment: Do low-SES students benefit? (2013)
Dual enrollment in high school is viewed by many as one mechanism for widening college admission and completion of low-income students. However, little evidence demonstrates that these students discretely benefit from dual enrollment and whether these programs narrow attainment gaps vis-a-vis students from middle-class or affluent family backgrounds. Using the National Longitudinal Study of 1988 ("N"= 8,800), I find significant benefits in boosting rates of college degree attainment for low-income students while holding weaker effects for peers from more affluent backgrounds. These results remain even with analyses from newer data of college freshman of 2004. I conduct sensitivity analyses and find that these results are robust to relatively large unobserved confounders. However, expanding dual enrollment programs would modestly reduce gaps in degree attainment. (Contains 1 note and 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 2
Evaluation of the 2010-2011 Reasoning Mind program in Beaumont ISD. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 2
An evaluation of the Chicago Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP) after four years. (2012)
In 2007, using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began piloting its version of a schoolwide reform model called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP). Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and take on increased responsibilities through promotion (to mentor teacher or master teacher), and they become eligible for annual performance bonuses based on a combination of their contribution to student achievement (known as "value added") and observed performance in the classroom. The model calls for weekly meetings of teachers and mentors ("cluster groups"), and regular classroom observations by a school leadership team to help teachers meet their performance goals. The idea behind TAP is that giving teachers performance incentives, along with tools to track their performance and improve instruction, will help schools attract and retain talented teachers and help all teachers raise student achievement. This report is the last in a series of reports providing evidence on the impacts of CPS' version of TAP, called "Chicago TAP." It presents findings from the four-year implementation period, with special emphasis on the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years, the third and fourth years of the program's rollout in Chicago. Earlier reports (Glazerman et al. 2009; Glazerman and Seifullah 2010) provide detailed data on each of the first two years of the program, respectively. CPS implemented Chicago TAP as a pilot program intended for 40 high-need schools. The program began in 10 schools in the first year (cohort 1) with a rollout plan to add 10 more Chicago TAP schools (cohorts 2, 3, and 4) in each year of the TIF grant's four-year implementation period. The authors address three research questions regarding Chicago TAP: (1) How was the program implemented?; (2) What impact did the program have on student achievement?; and (3) What impact did the program have on teacher retention within schools? To assess the first year under Chicago TAP for schools that began the program in fall 2009 (cohort 3), the authors looked at how teacher development and compensation practices in Chicago TAP schools differ from practices normally implemented in CPS schools. The authors found that teachers in Chicago TAP schools reported receiving significantly more mentoring support than teachers in similar non-TAP (control) schools. This finding reflects the fact that under the Chicago TAP model, teachers are guided by mentor teachers, and cluster groups meet weekly. They also found that veteran teachers in Chicago TAP schools were more likely than their control group counterparts to provide mentoring support to their colleagues; this finding is consistent with the fact that under Chicago TAP, teachers have the opportunity to assume leadership roles and responsibilities as Chicago TAP mentor or lead teachers. Teachers in Chicago TAP schools (veteran and novice) were aware of their eligibility for performance-based compensation. The authors found that the amount of compensation they expected approached the amount that was eventually paid out; that is, the average expectation was about $900, and the actual amount paid out in bonuses to this group was an average of about $1,100 per teacher. They generally did not find evidence of an impact of Chicago TAP on teacher attitudes or school climate. While the introduction of Chicago TAP led to real changes inside the schools, the program did not consistently raise student achievement as measured by growth in Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) scores. The authors found evidence of both positive and negative test score impacts in selected subjects, years, and cohorts of schools, but overall there was no detectable impact on math, reading, or science achievement that was robust to different methods of estimation. For example, impacts on science scores overall (across years and cohorts) were positive, but not statistically significant unless they used one particular matching method that excluded some Chicago TAP schools from the analysis. The authors did find evidence suggesting that Chicago TAP increased schools' retention of teachers, although the impacts were not uniform or universal across years, cohorts, and subgroups of teachers. They found that teachers who were working in Chicago TAP schools in 2007 returned in each of the following three years at higher rates than teachers in comparable non-TAP schools. For example, the authors found that 67 percent of classroom teachers in cohort 1 schools in fall 2007 returned to their same school in fall 2010 compared to about 56 percent of teachers in non-TAP schools, an impact of nearly 12 percentage points. In other words, teachers in Chicago TAP schools in fall 2007 were about 20% more likely than teachers in comparison schools to be in those same schools three years later. When the authors looked at teachers who were working in schools that started Chicago TAP in later years, some of the impact estimates were not statistically significant. The authors also found some evidence of impacts on retention for subgroups of teachers, such as those with less experience, but the pattern of findings was not consistent. When they considered retention of teachers in the district, the authors did not find consistent evidence of a measurable impact. Given that Chicago TAP is a school-specific program, their main focus was on school-level retention, as opposed to retention in the district. Appended are: (1) Propensity Score Matching; and (2) Supplemental Tables. (Contains 32 tables, 6 figures and 27 footnotes.) [For related reports, see "An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year One Impact Report. Final Report" (ED507502) and "An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report" (ED510712).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 2
Evaluation of Teach For America in Texas schools. (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 2
Springfield-Chicopee School Districts Striving Readers (SR) program final report Years 1–5: Evaluation of implementation and impact. (2012)
This evaluation report presents implementation and impact findings to date regarding the Striving Readers grant as implemented by the Springfield and Chicopee Public School Districts. Any questions regarding this final report should be directed to the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) at the U.S. Department of Education. There were 25,213 students enrolled in Springfield and 7,845 in Chicopee in the 2010-11 school year. The districts differed in terms of student demographics as well as in size. In Springfield, 88% to 92% of the students were designated as minority in the participating schools as compared to 25% to 35% in Chicopee. Over three-quarters of the students in Springfield were also eligible for free or reduced lunch (80% to 84%) as compared to approximately one half in Chicopee (44% to 51%). [This report was prepared by the Research & Evaluation Division at the Education Alliance at Brown University.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 2
Springfield-Chicopee School District's Striving Readers (SR) program. Final report years 1–5: Evaluation of implementation and impact. (2012)
This evaluation report presents implementation and impact findings to date regarding the Striving Readers grant as implemented by the Springfield and Chicopee Public School Districts. Any questions regarding this final report should be directed to the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) at the U.S. Department of Education. There were 25,213 students enrolled in Springfield and 7,845 in Chicopee in the 2010-11 school year. The districts differed in terms of student demographics as well as in size. In Springfield, 88% to 92% of the students were designated as minority in the participating schools as compared to 25% to 35% in Chicopee. Over three-quarters of the students in Springfield were also eligible for free or reduced lunch (80% to 84%) as compared to approximately one half in Chicopee (44% to 51%). [This report was prepared by the Research & Evaluation Division at the Education Alliance at Brown University.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Evaluation of Green Dot’s Locke Transformation Project: Findings for Cohort 1 and 2 students (CRESST Report 815). (2012)
With funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, CRESST conducted a multi-year evaluation of a major school reform project at Alain Leroy Locke High School, historically one of California's lowest performing secondary schools. Beginning in 2007, Locke High School transitioned into a set of smaller, Green Dot Charter High Schools, subsequently referred to as Green Dot Locke (GDL) in this report. Based on 9th grade students who entered GDL in 2007 and 2008 respectively, CRESST used a range of student outcomes to monitor progress of the GDL transformation. The CRESST evaluation, employing a strong quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching, found statistically significant, positive effects for the GDL transformation including improved achievement, school persistence, and completion of college preparatory courses. Appended are: (1) Demographic Characteristics and Achievement of the Freshmen at GDL and LAUSD; (2) Cohort Specific Descriptives; and (3) General Descriptives. (Contains 17 figures, 43 tables and 6 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K 2
Longitudinal evaluation of a scale-up model for teaching mathematics with trajectories and technologies. (2012)
We used a cluster randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a research-based model for scaling up educational interventions, focusing on the persistence of effects with and without a follow-through intervention. The instantiation of the Technology-enhanced, Research-based, Instruction, Assessment, and professional Development (TRIAD) model emphasized teaching early mathematics for understanding via learning trajectories and technology. The TRIAD implementation began in 42 schools in two city districts serving low-resource communities, randomly assigned to three conditions. In pre-kindergarten, the 2 experimental interventions were identical, but 1 included follow-through in the kindergarten year, including knowledge of the pre-K intervention and ways to build upon that knowledge using learning trajectories. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that students in both the follow-through condition (g = 0.33) and non-follow-through condition (g = 0.22) scored statistically significantly higher than children in the control condition. Both groups outperformed the control condition in treatment-on-the-treated analyses (g = 0.38, follow-through; g = 0.30 non-follow-through). Moderators and mediators were also analyzed. We conclude that the instantiation of the TRIAD model was successful and that follow through may contribute to the persistence of the effects of preschool interventions. (Contains 5 tables and 3 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 11-12 2
Taking college courses in high school: A strategy guide for college readiness: The college outcomes of dual enrollment in Texas. (2012)
States and school districts are searching for strategies to raise the college and career readiness of high school graduates--imperative in an era when postsecondary credentials are the key to good jobs, better pay, and stronger economies. The creation and implementation of higher graduation standards aligned to college and career expectations is the most visible and emblematic effort by states to ensure students are prepared to succeed after high school, but it is far from the only one. A policy strategy of increasing interest is the practice of providing students with the opportunity to take college courses while in high school, known as dual enrollment. The premise of dual enrollment is that high school students can enhance their chances for college success if they better understand what it takes to succeed in college: they do this by actually experiencing real college coursework, often earning "dual credit" for both high school and college. New research, conducted in Texas by Jobs for the Future (JFF), points to the effectiveness of dual enrollment as a strategy for improving postsecondary success. This study focused on the academic outcomes of 32,908 Texas students from the high school graduating class of 2004. Like some of these studies, the authors' research used rigorous quasi-experimental methods to control for factors other than dual enrollment that could explain student success by comparing dual enrollees to non-dual enrollees who are otherwise closely matched academically and socially. JFF's methodological approach, known as a propensity score matching model, enabled the authors to account for student background characteristics to the highest degree possible short of a randomized study. This greatly increases the certainty that the better college outcomes found for dual enrollment participants are due t o the effects of the dual enrollment courses they completed. Appended are: (1) Propensity Score Model; (2) Cohort, Treatment, and Control Group, by Region; (3) Educational Attainment of Treatment and Control Groups; (4) Test Scores by Treatment and Control Groups; (5) Odds Ratios for College Access Model; (6) Odds Ratios for College Completion Model; and (7) Dual-credit Study Methodology. (Contains 2 figures, 7 tables, and 15 endnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 12-PS 2
The role of application assistance and information in college decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA experiment. (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-10 2
MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Fifth Year Report. (2012)
This is the final report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 2006-07. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides government-funded vouchers for low-income children to attend private schools in the City of Milwaukee. The maximum voucher amount in 2010-11 was $6,442, and 20,996 children used a voucher to attend either secular or religious private schools. The MPCP is the oldest and largest urban school voucher program in the United States. This evaluation was authorized by 2005 Wisconsin Act 125, which was enacted in 2006. The primary purpose of the evaluation is twofold: 1) to analyze the effectiveness of the MPCP in promoting growth in student achievement as compared to MPS; and 2) to examine the educational attainment--measured by high school graduation and college enrollment rates--of MPCP and MPS students. The first purpose is accomplished by gauging growth in student achievement--as measured by the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examinations (WKCE) in math and reading in grades 3 through 8 and grade 10--over a five-year period for a sample of MPCP students and a carefully matched group of MPS students. The second purpose is accomplished by following the 2006-07 8th and 9th grade MPCP and matched MPS cohorts over a five-year period during which they would have had the opportunity to graduate from high school and enroll in college. Appended are: (1) Descriptive Statistics; (2) Attrition Study; and (3) Stability of the Sample. (Contains 4 figures, 12 tables and 14 footnotes.) [For the "MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fourth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 23", see ED518597. Additional support for this report was provided by the Robertson Foundation.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
Charter school performance in New Jersey. (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
The impact of the NISL Executive Development Program on school performance in Massachusetts: Cohort 2 results. (2011)
School leaders are increasingly being asked, whether by rhetoric or policy, to measurably improve student achievement. The resultant need to assist school leaders in their ability to improve teaching and learning for all students in their schools led to the establishment of the National Institute of School Leadership's (NISL's) Executive Development Program. The NISL program emphasizes the role of principals as strategic thinkers, instructional leaders, and creators of a just, fair, and caring culture in which all students meet high standards. The current national focus on the importance of effective, instructional leadership has, in turn, led to calls for principal evaluation to be tied directly to student achievement (Davis, Kearney, Sanders, Thomas, and Leon, 2011). Within this milieu, effective and proven principal leadership development programs are crucial. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.) [This report was produced by the Center for Educational Partnerships, Old Dominion University.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-6 2
Can a mixed-method literacy intervention improve the reading achievement of low-performing elementary school students in an after-school program? Results from a randomized controlled trial of READ 180 enterprise. (2011)
The authors describe an independent evaluation of the READ 180 Enterprise intervention designed by Scholastic, Inc. Despite widespread use of the program with upper elementary through high school students, there is limited empirical evidence to support its effectiveness. In this randomized controlled trial involving 312 students enrolled in an after-school program, the authors generated intention-to-treat and treatment-on-the-treated estimates of the program's impact on several literacy outcomes of fourth, fifth, and sixth graders reading below proficiency on a state assessment at baseline. READ 180 Enterprise students outperformed control group students on vocabulary (d = 0.23) and reading comprehension (d = 0.32) but not on spelling and oral reading fluency. The authors interpret the findings in light of the theory of instruction underpinning the READ 180 Enterprise intervention. (Contains 2 figures, 7 tables, and 4 notes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Classroom instruction, child X instruction interactions and the impact of differentiating student instruction on third graders’ reading comprehension. (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
Early Numeracy Intervention Program for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2011)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an early numeracy preventative Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Researchers used a pretest-posttest control group design with randomized assignment of 139 students to the Tier 2 treatment condition and 65 students to the comparison condition. Systematic instruction, visual representations of mathematical concepts, purposeful and meaningful practice opportunities, and frequent progress monitoring were used to develop understanding in early numeracy skills and concepts. Researchers used progress-monitoring measures and a standardized assessment measure to test the effects of the intervention. Findings showed that students in the treatment group outperformed students in the comparison group on the progress-monitoring measures of mathematics performance and the measures that focused on whole-number computation. There were no differences between groups on the problem-solving measures. (Contains 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 10-12 2
Evaluation of achieving a college education plus: A credit-based transition program. (2011)
This ex post facto study evaluated Achieving a College Education (ACE) Plus program, a credit-based transition program between a high school district and a community college. Achieving a College Education Plus is an early outreach program. It is designed to aid at-risk students in graduating from high school and making a smooth transition to higher education, while taking college courses and earning college credit. The authors examined the efficacy of Achieving a College Education Plus with respect to retention rates, graduation rates, and rate of transfer to colleges. Sixty high school students who had participated in Achieving a College Education Plus were matched to a sample of 60 non-Achieving a College Education Plus students. Archival records, postgraduate survey, and school district transcript information comprised three sources of data for this study. Using a series of logistic regression analyses to assess data and provide adequate controls for prior academic achievement, the authors determined that there were no differences in the findings with respect to gender, ethnicity, and language spoken in the home. However, statistically significant differences were found in favor of the Achieving a College Education Plus program with regard to student retention, graduation, and college enrollment. With an increasing emphasis on college readiness and student retention, this study is timely and contributes empirical data and findings to the community college literature. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Making a difference? The effects of Teach For America in high school. (2011)
Teach For America (TFA) selects and places graduates from the most competitive colleges as teachers in the lowest-performing schools in the country. This paper is the first study that examines TFA effects in high school. We use rich longitudinal data from North Carolina and estimate TFA effects through cross-subject student and school fixed effects models. We find that TFA teachers tend to have a positive effect on high school student test scores relative to non-TFA teachers, including those who are certified in field. Such effects offset or exceed the impact of additional years of experience and are particularly strong in science. (Contains 1 figure, 14 tables and 14 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-12 2
An interaction-based approach to enhancing secondary school instruction and student achievement. (2011)
Improving teaching quality is widely recognized as critical to addressing deficiencies in secondary school education, yet the field has struggled to identify rigorously evaluated teacher-development approaches that can produce reliable gains in student achievement. A randomized controlled trial of My Teaching Partner-Secondary--a Web-mediated approach focused on improving teacher-student interactions in the classroom--examined the efficacy of the approach in improving teacher quality and student achievement with 78 secondary school teachers and 2237 students. The intervention produced substantial gains in measured student achievement in the year following its completion, equivalent to moving the average student from the 50th to the 59th percentile in achievement test scores. Gains appeared to be mediated by changes in teacher-student interaction qualities targeted by the intervention. [For a related What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report, see ED557783.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Transforming the high school experience: How New York City’s new small schools are boosting student achievement and graduation rates. (2010)
Over the last decade, New York City has been the site of a systemwide high school reform effort that is unprecedented in its scope and pace. Since 2002, the school district has closed more than 20 failing high schools, opened more than 200 new secondary schools, and implemented a centralized high school admission process in which approximately 80,000 students a year indicate their school preferences from a wide-ranging choice of programs. At the heart of these reforms lie the new schools that in this report are called "small schools of choice" (SSCs)--small, academically nonselective, public high schools that were opened between 2002 and 2008. Serving approximately 100 students per grade in grades 9 through 12 and open to students at all levels of academic achievement, the SSCs in this study were created to serve the district's most disadvantaged and historically underserved students. Prior to the 2002-2003 school year, these students would have had little option but to enroll in one of the city's large, zoned high schools when they made the transition from eighth to ninth grade. Many of the large schools were low-performing, with graduation rates below 50 percent. This report presents encouraging findings from an unusually large and rigorous study, supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, of the effects of SSCs on students' academic achievement in high school. SSCs have a substantial positive impact on the transition into high school during ninth grade, according to data using all four cohorts: (1) SSC enrollees were 10.8 percentage points more likely than the students who enrolled in other schools to earn 10 or more credits during their first year--73.1 percent compared with 62.3 percent; (2) SSC enrollees were 7.8 percentage points less likely to fail more than one core subject (39 percent compared with 46.8 percent); (3) Combining these two indicators, 58.5 percent of SSC enrollees were on track to graduate in four years compared with 48.5 percent of their counterparts who attended a different type of school--a 10 percentage point difference; and (4) During the first year of high school, SSC enrollees earn almost one full credit more (0.9 credit) toward graduation than do their control group counterparts. These positive effects on the transition into high school during ninth grade were seen among nearly all subgroups as defined by students' academic proficiency, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and gender. For all students, second- and third-year follow-up data indicate that these effects are sustained and/or increased as they continue through high school. For the "first" cohort of students (the only cohort for whom there are four years of follow-up data), the evidence indicates that SSC improvements in students' academic progress and school engagement during the early years of high school translate into higher rates of on-time graduation after four years: (1) SSCs increase overall graduation rates by 6.8 percentage points, from 61.9 percent for students who attend schools other than SSCs to 68.7 percent for SSC enrollees; (2) A majority of the SSC effect on graduation rates reflects an increase in receipt of New York State Regents diplomas. For this type of diploma, students must pass a series of Regents examinations with a score of 65 points or above and pass all of their required courses; and (3) SSCs increase the proportion of students (by 5.3 percentage points) who passed the English Regents with a score of 75 points or higher, the threshold for exempting incoming students at the City University of New York from remedial courses. They did not have an effect on math Regents exams. (Contains 2 tables and 4 footnotes.) [For the full report, "Transforming the High School Experience: How New York City's New Small Schools Are Boosting Student Achievement and Graduation Rates," see ED511106.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 2
Achievement effects of four early elementary school math curricula: Findings for first and second graders (NCEE 2011-4001). (2010)
National achievement data show that elementary school students in the United States, particularly those from low socioeconomic backgrounds, have weak math skills (National Center for Education Statistics 2009). In fact, data show that, even before they enter elementary school, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are behind their more advantaged peers in basic competencies such as number-line ordering and magnitude comparison (Rathburn and West 2004). Furthermore, after a year of kindergarten, disadvantaged students still have less extensive knowledge of mathematics than their more affluent peers (Denton and West 2002). This study examines whether some early elementary school math curricula are more effective than others at improving student math achievement in disadvantaged schools. A small number of curricula, which are based on different approaches for developing student math skills, dominate elementary math instruction--7 curricula make up 91 percent of those used by K-2 educators, according to a 2008 survey (Resnick et al. 2010). Little rigorous evidence exists to support one approach over another, however, which means that research does not provide educators with much useful information when choosing a math curriculum to use. The key findings in this report include the following: (1) Teachers used their assigned curriculum, and the instructional approaches of the four curriculum groups differed as expected; (2) Math instruction varied in other notable ways across the curriculum groups; (3) In terms of student math achievement, the curriculum used by the study schools mattered; and (4) The curriculum used in different contexts also mattered, and some of these findings are consistent with findings based on all students whereas others are not. Appendices include: (1) Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Teacher-Reported Frequency of Implementing Other Curriculum-Specific Activities; (3) Glossary of Curriculum-Specific Terms; and (4) Constructing the Analyses Samples and Estimating Curriculum Effects. (Contains 82 tables, 7 figures and 97 footnotes.) [For the executive summary, see ED512553.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Effects of preventative tutoring on the mathematical problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties (2008)
This study assessed the effects of preventative tutoring on the math problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties. Students (n = 35) were assigned randomly to continue in their general education math program or to receive secondary preventative tutoring 3 times per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks. Schema-broadening tutoring taught students to (a) focus on the mathematical structure of 3 problem types; (b) recognize problems as belonging to those 3 problem-type schemas; (c) solve the 3 word-problem types; and (d) transfer solution methods to problems that include irrelevant information, 2-digit operands, missing information in the first or second positions in the algebraic equation, or relevant information in charts, graphs, and pictures. Also, students were taught to perform the calculation and algebraic skills foundational for problem solving. Analyses of variance revealed statistically significant effects on a wide range of word problems, with large effect sizes. Findings support the efficacy of the tutoring protocol for preventing word-problem deficits among third-grade students with math and reading deficits. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Effects of small-group tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on at-risk students’ math problem solving: Are two tiers of prevention better than one? (2008)
This study assessed the effects of small-group tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on at-risk students' math problem solving. Stratifying within schools, 119 3rd-grade classes were randomly assigned to conventional or validated problem-solving instruction (Hot Math, schema-broadening instruction). Students identified as at risk (n = 243) were randomly assigned, within classroom conditions, to receive or not receive Hot Math tutoring. Students were tested on problem-solving and math applications measures before and after 16 weeks of intervention. Analyses of variance, which accounted for the nested structure of the data, revealed that the tutored students who received validated classroom instruction achieved better than the tutored students who received conventional classroom instruction (effect size = 1.34). However, the advantage for tutoring over no tutoring was similar whether students received validated or conventional classroom instruction (effect sizes = 1.18 and 1.13). Tutoring, not validated classroom instruction, reduced the prevalence of math difficulty. Implications for responsiveness-to-intervention prevention models and for enhancing math problem-solving instruction are discussed. (Contains 5 tables, 1 figure and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Remediating Computational Deficits at Third Grade: A Randomized Field Trial (2008)
The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and randomly assigned to 4 conditions: word recognition (control) tutoring or 1 of 3 computation tutoring conditions: fact retrieval, procedural computation and computational estimation, and combined (fact retrieval + procedural computation and computational estimation). Results revealed that fact retrieval tutoring enhanced fact retrieval skill, and procedural computation and computational estimation tutoring (whether in isolation or combined with fact retrieval tutoring) enhanced computational estimation skill. Remediation was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. (Contains 4 tables and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-6 2
What works in afterschool programs: The impact of a reading intervention on student achievement in the Brockton Public Schools (phase II). (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 2
San Francisco Bay Area KIPP schools: A study of early implementation and achievement. Final report. (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-12 2
A cognitive strategies approach to reading and writing instruction for English language learners in secondary school. (2007)
This study was conducted by members of a site of the California Writing Project in partnership with a large, urban, low-SES school district where 93% of the students speak English as a second language and 69% are designated Limited English Proficient. Over an eight-year period, a relatively stable group of 55 secondary teachers engaged in ongoing professional development implemented a cognitive strategies approach to reading and writing instruction, making visible for approximately 2000 students per year the thinking tools experienced readers and writers access in the process of meaning construction. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of this approach on the reading and writing abilities of English language learners (ELLs) in all 13 secondary schools in the district. Students receiving cognitive strategies instruction significantly out-gained peers on holistically scored assessments of academic writing for seven consecutive years. Treatment-group students also performed significantly better than control-group students on GPA, standardized tests, and high-stakes writing assessments. Findings reinforce the importance of having high expectations for ELLs; exposing them to a rigorous language arts curriculum;explicitly teaching, modeling and providing guided practice in a variety of strategies to help students read and write about challenging texts; and involving students as partners in a community of learners. What distinguishes the project is its integrity with respect to its fidelity to three core dimensions: Teachers and students were exposed to an extensive set of cognitive strategies and a wide array of curricular approaches to strategy use (comprehensiveness) in a manner designed to cultivate deep knowledge and application of those strategies in reading and writing (density) over an extended period of time (duration). The consistency of positive outcomes on multiple measures strongly points to the efficacy of using this approach with ELLs. Appended are: (1) Great Expectations Writing Prompt; and (2) Student Models. (Contains 1 note, 5 tables, and 6 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 2
Instructional sensitivity of a complex language arts performance assessment. (2007)
Validation of assessments intended to improve instruction and learning should include evidence of instructional sensitivity. This study investigated the instructional sensitivity of a standards-based ninth-grade performance assessment that required students to write an essay about conflict in a literary work. Before administering the assessment, teachers of 886 ninth-grade students were randomly assigned to one of three instructional groups: literary analysis, organization of writing, and teacher-selected instruction. Despite the short duration of instruction (8 class periods), results support the instructional sensitivity of the assessment in two ways: Instruction on literary analysis significantly improved students' ability to analyze and describe conflicts in literature, and instruction on the organization of writing led to significantly higher scores on measures of coherence and organization. (Contains 9 tables. Appended are: (1) Example of Writing Group Lesson; (2) Example of Literary Analysis Group Lesson; (3) The English-Language Arts Grade 9 Performance Assessment Rubric; and (4) CRESST/LAUSD Instructional Sensitivity Study Score Sheet.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
Use of a progress monitoring system to enable teachers to differentiate mathematics instruction. (2007)
We explored how a progress monitoring and instructional management system can be used to help educators differentiate instruction and meet the wide-ranging learning needs of their increasingly diverse classrooms. We compared classrooms in 24 states that used a curriculum-based progress monitoring and instructional management system, Accelerated Math, to same school control classrooms that did not use it. Among the major findings were the following: (1) At every grade level there were large differences in grade equivalent score and percentile gains for students in the experimental and control classrooms; (2) Gains were experienced across the achievement spectrum. An analysis of low-, middle-, and high-achieving students showed consistent rates of gain for each math objective mastered; (3) Intervention integrity had a significant effect on student achievement; (4) Teachers using the progress monitoring and instructional management system spent more time providing individual versus group instruction and felt better able to meet the individual needs of their students; and (5) Significantly more students who were in classrooms where teachers used the progress monitoring and instructional management system reported that they like math, help each other with math, and like math better this year than last year. Addition of a progress monitoring and instructional management system to ongoing mathematics instruction improves mathematics outcomes for students. The effects of the program clearly are a function of intervention integrity; when progress monitoring and instructional management practices are implemented with high fidelity or integrity, the mathematics performance of all students is significantly enhanced. Implications for practice are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 2
Improving student literacy in the Phoenix Union High School District 2003–04 and 2004–05: Final report. (2006)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-10 2
Improving student literacy in the Phoenix Union High School District 2003–04 and 2004–05: Final report. (2006)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
The prevention, identification, and cognitive determinants of math difficulty. (2005)
This study examined the efficacy of preventive 1st-grade tutoring in mathematics, estimated the prevalence and severity of mathematics disability, and explored pretreatment cognitive characteristics associated with mathematics development. Participants were 564 first graders, 127 of whom were designated at risk (AR) for mathematics difficulty and randomly assigned to tutoring or control conditions. Before treatment, all participants were assessed on cognitive and academic measures. Tutoring occurred 3 times weekly for 16 weeks; treatment fidelity was documented; and math outcomes were assessed. Tutoring efficacy was supported on computation and concepts/applications, but not on fact fluency. Tutoring decreased the prevalence of math disability, with prevalence and severity varying as a function of identification method and math domain. Attention accounted for unique variance in predicting each aspect of end-of-year math performance. Other predictors, depending on the aspect of math performance, were nonverbal problem solving, working memory, and phonological processing.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 2
Description and evaluation of Reasoning Mind’s 2003 pilot project. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 3
An Evaluation of the Literacy-Infused Science Using Technology Innovation Opportunity (LISTO): i3 Evaluation (Valid 45) Final Report (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 3
Can feedback, correct, and incorrect worked examples improve numerical magnitude estimation precision? (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Addressing Challenging Mathematics Standards with At-Risk Learners: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effects of Fractions Intervention at Third Grade (2020)
The purposes of this study were to assess the effects of fractions intervention for students who are at-risk for poor outcomes and to examine whether a component that combines self-regulated learning with growth mindset instruction (SR-GM) provides added value for improving outcomes. At-risk students (N = 84) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: fractions intervention, fractions intervention with embedded SR-GM, and a control group. Intervention was conducted 3 times per week for 35 min per session for 13 weeks. Multilevel models indicated both fractions intervention conditions produced strong effects, with no added value for SR-GM. Posttest fractions achievement gaps for both intervention conditions held steady, narrowed, or closed, while the control group's gaps remained sizeable or grew. Results suggest that intervention can address challenging mathematics standards for at-risk learners and that SR-GM instruction may not be necessary in the context of strong intervention. [This is the in press version of an article published in "Exceptional Children."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 3
The effects of a paraphrasing and text structure intervention on the main idea generation and reading comprehension of students with reading disabilities in grades 4 and 5. (2020)
This study examined the effects of a small group intervention targeting paraphrasing and text structure instruction on the main idea generation and reading comprehension of students with reading disabilities in Grades 4 and 5. Students (N = 62) were randomly assigned to receive the Tier 2-type intervention or business-as-usual instruction. Students in the intervention received 25, 40-minute lessons focused on paraphrasing sections of text by identifying the main topic and the most important idea about that topic. Students utilized the text structure organization to inform their main idea generation. Results yielded statistically significant, positive effects in favor of the intervention group on near-transfer and mid-transfer measures of text structure identification (g = 0.75) and main idea generation (g = 0.70), but no statistically significant effect on a far-transfer measure of reading comprehension. These findings provide initial support for utilizing this instruction to improve students' main idea generation on taught and untaught structures.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Massachusetts Innovation Pathway & Early College Pathway Program Evaluation (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
The Role of Pre-Algebraic Reasoning within a Word-Problem Intervention for Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2019-09-16)
Students in the elementary grades often experience difficulty setting up and solving word problems. Using an equation to represent the structure of the problem serves as an effective tool for solving word problems, but students may require specific pre-algebraic reasoning instruction about the equal sign as a relational symbol to set up and solve such equations successfully. We identified students with mathematics difficulty (n = 138) from a sample of 916 third-grade students. We randomly assigned students to a word-problem intervention with a pre-algebraic reasoning component, a word-problem intervention without pre-algebraic reasoning, or the business-as-usual. Students in the 2 active intervention conditions participated in 45 individual sessions and learned about 3 additive word-problem schemas. Students who received word-problem intervention with a pre-algebraic reasoning component demonstrated improved nonstandard equation solving, equal sign understanding, and word-problem solving compared to students in the other two conditions. [The paper will be published in "ZDM Mathematics Education."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Embedding Self-Regulation Instruction within Fractions Intervention for Third Graders with Mathematics Difficulties (2019)
The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of fractions intervention with and without an embedded self-regulation (SR) component for third-grade students at risk for mathematics disabilities. Fractions intervention focused on magnitude understanding and word problems. Embedded SR was designed to support a growth mindset (fostering belief that intellectual and academic abilities can be developed) along with SR processes in which students set goals, self-monitor, and use strategies to engage motivationally, metacognitively, and behaviorally through challenging tasks. Students (n = 69) were randomly assigned to business-as-usual control and the two versions of fractions intervention. Multilevel models, accounting for the nested structure of the data, identified a moderation effect on fraction word problems: For students receiving fractions intervention with embedded SR, response to intervention was robust across the continuum of students' pretest word problem skill; by contrast, without SR, response to fractions intervention depended on students' pretest word problem skill. On the remaining outcomes, results reflected stronger outcomes when fractions intervention embedded SR instruction without moderation. [This paper will be published in the "Journal of Learning Disabilities."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Relational Scaffolding Enhances Children's Understanding of Scientific Models (2019)
Models are central to the practice and teaching of science. Yet people often fail to grasp how scientific models explain their observations of the world. Realizing the explanatory power of a model may require aligning its relational structure to that of the observable phenomena. The present research tested whether "relational scaffolding"--guided comparisons between observable and modeled events--enhances children's understanding of scientific models. We tested relational scaffolding during instruction about the day-night cycle, a topic that involves relating "Earth-based" observations to a "space-based" model of Earth rotation. Experiment 1 found that 3rd graders (N = 108) learned more from instruction that incorporated relational scaffolding. Experiment 2 (N = 99) found that guided comparison--not merely viewing observable and modeled events--is a critical component of relational scaffolding, especially for children with low initial knowledge. Relational scaffolding could be applied broadly to assist the many students who struggle with science. [This is the in press version of an article to be published in "Psychological Science."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 3
Replication of an experimental study investigating the efficacy of a multisyllabic word reading intervention with and without motivational beliefs training for struggling readers. (2019)
This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving multisyllabic word reading (MWR) skills among fourth- and fifth-grade struggling readers (n = 109, 48.6% male), as well as the relative effects of an embedded motivational beliefs training component. This study was a closely aligned replication of our earlier work. The intervention was replicated with a three-condition design: MWR only, MWR with a motivational beliefs component, and business-as-usual control. Students were tutored in small groups for 40 lessons (four 40-min lessons each week). When we combined performance of students in both MWR conditions, intervention students significantly outperformed controls on proximal measures of affix reading and MWR, as well as standardized measures of decoding, spelling, and text comprehension. Furthermore, there was a noted interaction between English learner status and treatment on spelling performance. There were no statistically significant main effects between the MWR groups on proximal or standardized measures of interest. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to MWR instruction for students with persistent reading difficulties and considerations for future research related to the malleability of motivation.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 3
Efficacy of a word- and text-based intervention for students with significant reading difficulties. (2019)
We examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve word reading and reading comprehension in fourth- and fifth-grade students with significant reading problems. Using a randomized control trial design, we compare the fourth- and fifth-grade reading outcomes of students with severe reading difficulties who were provided a researcher-developed treatment with reading outcomes of students in a business-as-usual (BAU) comparison condition. A total of 280 fourth- and fifth-grade students were randomly assigned within school in a 1:1 ratio to either the BAU comparison condition (n = 139) or the treatment condition (n = 141). Treatment students were provided small-group tutoring for 30 to 45 minutes for an average of 68 lessons (mean hours of instruction = 44.4, SD = 11.2). Treatment students performed statistically significantly higher than BAU students on a word reading measure (effect size [ES] = 0.58) and a measure of reading fluency (ES = 0.46). Though not statistically significant, effect sizes for students in the treatment condition were consistently higher than BAU students for decoding measures (ES = 0.06, 0.08), and mixed for comprehension (ES = -0.02, 0.14).
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 3
Addressing Literacy Needs of Struggling Spanish-Speaking First Graders: First-Year Results from a National Randomized Controlled Trial of Descubriendo La Lectura (2019)
Given the growing number of Latino English learners and the lack of evidence-based educational opportunities they are provided, we investigated the impact of one potentially effective literacy intervention that targets struggling first-grade Spanish-speaking students: Descubriendo La Lectura (DLL). DLL provides first-grade Spanish-speaking students one-on-one literacy instruction in their native language and is implemented at an individualized pace for approximately 12 to 20 weeks by trained bilingual teachers. Using a multisite, multicohort, student-level randomized controlled trial, we examined the impact of DLL on both Spanish and English literacy skills. In this article, we report findings from the first of three cohorts of students to participate in the study. Analyses of outcomes indicate that treated students outperformed control students on all 11 Spanish literacy assessments with statistically significant effect sizes ranging from 0.34 to 1.06. Analyses of outcomes on four English literacy assessments yielded positive effect sizes, though none were statistically significant. [This article was published in "AERA Open" (EJ1229779).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Impact Evaluation of "UNISON": "U"plifting "N"on-Cognitive Skills and "I"nnovation through "S"tudent "O"pportunity "N"etworks (2019)
"UNISON" was an Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant funded by the Office of Innovation and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education to Take Stock in Children (TSIC), a state-wide, 501(c)(3) non-profit, private-public partnership in Florida. UNISON provided a whole school mentoring approach and focused on developing students' non-cognitive skills with a focus on improving academic success and attainment thereby impacting graduation rates in low-performing schools. Intervention strategies included a whole-school culture program with clubs and activities focused on sustaining the culture of kindness and compassion, BARR teacher training, block meetings, and implementation of the I-Time curricula, TSIC 1:1 mentoring, group mentoring, summer Leadership Institute, and parent engagement. The grant funded a collective impact coordinator for each county and a college success coach in each school. "UNISON" targeted three treatment schools in northeast Florida, and the impact study included 15 comparison schools using a comparative short interrupted time series (CSITS) to measure the effect on graduation rates after three years of intervention strategies. Using the publicly available graduation rate data from the Florida Department of Education website, baseline equivalence was established based on rural/urban county designations and baseline graduation rates from 2014-15 prior to the intervention. The study found a statistically significant positive difference in the one urban and two rural treatment schools compared to the six urban and nine rural "business-as-usual" comparison schools. The treatment schools gained almost 20 percentage points in their graduation rate during the three-year intervention from 72.43% to 91.73%, while comparison schools moved from 72.98% to 83.40%. [The report was written for Take Stock in Children.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Effectiveness of "Enhanced Units": A Report of a Randomized Experiment in California and Virginia. Research Report (2019)
Empirical Education Inc. is the independent evaluator of SRI International's 2014 Investing in Innovation (i3) Development grant called Redesigning Secondary Courses to Improve Academic Outcomes for Adolescents with Disabilities and Other Underperforming Adolescents. The goal of the grant is to develop "Enhanced Units" that combine research-based content enhancement routines, collaboration strategy, and technology components for secondary U.S. History and biology classes. This report presents findings of a randomized control trial (RCT) during the 2017-18 school year. The RCT measured the impact of "Enhanced Units" on higher order content skills (as measured through unit tests) in high school biology and U.S. History classes in three districts in Virginia and California. SRI, the Center for Applied Special Education Technology (CAST), and their research and practitioner partners developed "Enhanced Units" (EU) with the goal of integrating research-based content enhancement routines with technological enhancements to improve student content learning and higher order reasoning, especially for students with disabilities or other learning challenges. This study also documents the extent to which the core components of EU were implemented with fidelity. The authors provide descriptive results on classroom practices (as measured by teacher surveys) and contextual factors that support or hinder implementation (as described during teacher interviews). Future improvements to EU should focus on answering the question: "What is/are the best way(s) for teachers to present SIM routines to their students, particularly for students with learning challenges through SIM intervention?"
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 3
The effects of inference instruction on the reading comprehension of English learners with reading comprehension difficulties (2019)
Inference skill is one of the most important predictors of reading comprehension. Still, there is little rigorous research investigating the effects of inference instruction on reading comprehension. There is no research investigating the effects of inference instruction on reading comprehension for English learners with reading comprehension difficulties. The current study investigated the effects of small-group inference instruction on the inference generation and reading comprehension of sixth- and seventh-grade students who were below-average readers (M = 86.7, SD = 8.1). Seventy-seven percent of student participants were designated limited English proficient. Participants were randomly assigned to 24, 40-min sessions of the inference instruction intervention (n = 39) or to business-as-usual English language arts instruction (n = 39). Membership in the treatment condition statistically significantly predicted higher outcome score on the "Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test" Reading Comprehension subtest (d = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.16, 1.03]), but not on the other measures of inference skill.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 3
Word Knowledge and Comprehension Effects of an Academic Vocabulary Intervention for Middle School Students (2018)
This article presents findings from an intervention across sixth and seventh grades to teach academic words to middle school students. The goals included investigating a progression of outcomes from word knowledge to comprehension and investigating the processes students use in establishing word meaning. Participants in Year 1 were two sixth-grade reading teachers and 105 students (treatment n = 62; control n = 43) and in Year 2, one seventh-grade reading teacher and 87 students (treatment n = 44; control n = 43) from the same public school. In both years, results favored instructed students in word knowledge, lexical access, and morphological awareness on researcher-designed measures. In Year 2, small advances were also found for comprehension. Transcripts of lessons shed light on processes of developing representations of unfamiliar words.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Evaluation of Learning by Making i3 Project: STEM Success for Rural Schools (2018)
The Learning by Making (LbyM) project is funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation Fund (i3). As a five-year development project (2014-2018), Sonoma State University (SSU), in partnership with high-need schools and districts, has been developing an innovative, integrated high school Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum. The curriculum consists of Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) in earth science and biology as described in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, 2013) and utilizes an easy-to-use Logo programming language that conducts data transfer and network communications in support of student-designed investigations. The purpose of this study is to understand how LbyM is implemented in high school classrooms in rural environments, to observe the influences of this curriculum on student learning and engagement, and to explore how teachers' instructional practices and technological capacities evolve while using the curriculum. The study used a quasi-experimental design. One hundred thirty-seven students were recruited to enroll in eight LbyM STEM classes in six participating high schools. Three of the participating high schools are small schools, and it is not possible to find comparison students from these small schools. Therefore, all comparison students were recruited from the larger schools, with a total of 141 comparison students from six classrooms in three out of six participating high schools. The results from the study indicated that the LbyM curriculum that was developed by SSU helped teachers integrate NGSS and project-based learning into classroom instruction. Teachers reported spending more instructional time supporting students to collect, organize, display, and present data. Students were highly engaged with the LbyM curriculum and demonstrated increased confidence and problem solving stamina. Teachers reported that some students who typically struggle to participate in class exhibited higher levels of participation in LbyM and even demonstrated leadership. They also reported that some students with special needs, while still requiring extra attention, remained engaged with the curriculum and were even quicker to complete certain activities than the other students. The LbyM curriculum was positively associated with significant gains in students' science content knowledge. It helped low-achieving students improve math understanding.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 3
The Effect of e-Book Vocabulary Instruction on Spanish–English Speaking Children (2018)
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effect of an intensive vocabulary intervention embedded in e-books on the vocabulary skills of young Spanish-English speaking English learners (ELs) from low-socioeconomic status backgrounds. Method: Children (N = 288) in kindergarten and 1st grade were randomly assigned to treatment and read-only conditions. All children received e-book readings approximately 3 times a week for 10-20 weeks using the same books. Children in the treatment condition received e-books supplemented with vocabulary instruction that included scaffolding through explanations in Spanish, repetition in English, checks for understanding, and highlighted morphology. Results: There was a main effect of the intervention on expressive labeling (g = 0.38) and vocabulary on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Fourth Edition (g = 0.14; Dunn & Dunn, 2007), with no significant moderation effect of initial Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test score. There was no significant difference between conditions on children's expressive definitions. Conclusion: Findings substantiate the effectiveness of computer-implemented embedded vocabulary intervention for increasing ELs' vocabulary knowledge.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 3
Promoting cultural responsivity and student engagement through double check coaching of classroom teachers: An efficacy study (2018)
This article presents findings from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the impact of a novel coaching approach utilized as one element of the Double Check cultural responsivity and student engagement model. The RCT included 158 elementary and middle school teachers randomized to receive coaching or serve as comparisons; all participating teachers were exposed to school-wide professional development activities. Pre-post nonexperimental comparisons indicated improvements in self-reported culturally responsive behavior management and self-efficacy for teachers in both conditions following professional development exposure. With regard to the experimental findings, trained observers recorded significantly more proactive behavior management and anticipation of student problems by teachers, higher student cooperation, less student noncooperation, and fewer disruptive behaviors in classrooms led by coached teachers relative to comparison teachers. Taken together, the findings suggest the potential promise of coaching combined with school-wide professional development for improving classroom management practices and possibly reducing office discipline referrals among Black students.
Reviews of Individual Studies 11 3
The Effectiveness of a Teacher Delivered Mindfulness-Based Curriculum on Adolescent Social-Emotional and Executive Functioning (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 10-12 3
Final Report of the Impacts of the National Math + Science Initiative's (NMSI's) College Readiness Program on High School Students' Outcomes (2017)
The National Math + Science Initiative's (NMSI's) College Readiness Program (CRP) is an established program whose goal is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education in high schools to improve students' readiness for college. It provides teacher, student, and school supports to promote high school students' success in mathematics, science, and English Advanced Placement (AP) courses, with a focus on students who are traditionally underrepresented in the targeted AP courses. Through a federal Investing in Innovation Fund (i3) validation grant awarded to NMSI in 2011, CRP was implemented in a total of 58 high schools in two states--Colorado and Indiana--beginning in the 2012-13 school year. American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted an independent evaluation of the impacts of CRP on students' AP outcomes in these schools for the three cohorts of schools that adopted the program in sequential years, using a comparative interrupted time series (CITS) design that matched comparison schools to program schools in the two states. Overall, schools implementing CRP demonstrated significantly larger increases in the share of students taking and passing AP tests in targeted areas relative to comparison schools in each of the three cohorts of schools, and the gains in CRP schools were sustained over time. Fidelity of program implementation was evaluated using a fidelity matrix approach required as part of the National Evaluation of the i3 program, which showed that not all elements of the program were implemented with high fidelity. Teachers and students were not always able to attend all meetings, and schools did not always meet negotiated enrollment targets. Teacher survey data indicated that teachers found the professional development activities provided by CRP to be the most helpful support they received under CRP, and students reported that the tutoring and special study sessions were the most helpful. Although the program provided financial incentives to both teachers and students that were tied to student performance on AP tests, these incentives were considered the least important element of the program by both teachers and students
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 3
A randomized controlled trial of working memory training with and without strategy instruction: Effects on young children’s working memory and comprehension. (2017)
Researchers are increasingly interested in working memory (WM) training. However, it is unclear whether it strengthens comprehension in young children who are at risk for learning difficulties. We conducted a modest study of whether the training of verbal WM would improve verbal WM and passage listening comprehension and whether training effects differed between two approaches: training with and without strategy instruction. A total of 58 first-grade children were randomly assigned to three groups: WM training with a rehearsal strategy, WM training without strategy instruction, and controls. Each member of the two training groups received a one-to-one, 35-min session of verbal WM training on each of 10 consecutive school days, totaling 5.8 hr. Both training groups improved on trained verbal WM tasks, with the rehearsal group making greater gains. Without correction for multiple group comparisons, the rehearsal group made reliable improvements over controls on an untrained verbal WM task and on passage listening comprehension and listening retell measures. The no-strategy-instruction group outperformed controls on passage listening comprehension. When corrected for multiple contrasts, these group differences disappeared but were associated with moderate to large effect sizes. Findings suggest--however tentatively--that brief but intensive verbal WM training may strengthen the verbal WM and comprehension performance of young children at risk. Necessary caveats and possible implications for theory and future research are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-6 3
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams "CW-FIT": Outcomes from a Multi-Site Randomized Replication Trial (2017)
The purpose of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to demonstrate efficacy of the Class-wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program. The study was designed to replicate an initial RCT conducted by the CW-FIT developers in 1 site, with 2 additional research groups not involved in its development. The study was conducted across 3 states, in 21 culturally diverse schools, and with 83 teachers (classrooms) assigned to CW-FIT and 74 teachers (classrooms) assigned to the comparison group. The CW-FIT intervention included teaching prosocial skills and use of differential attention (teacher praise and points) for appropriate behaviors using a group contingency, class teams, goal setting, points, and rewards. Class-wide student on-task behavior improved, teacher praise and attention to appropriate behaviors increased, and reprimands decreased in the CW-FIT classes with significantly fewer changes over time for the comparison group.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 3
The efficacy of conjoint behavioral consultation in the home setting: Outcomes and mechanisms in rural communities (2017)
This study reports the results of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC), a family-school partnership intervention, on children's behaviors, parents' skills, and parent-teacher relationships in rural community and town settings. Participants were 267 children, 267 parents, and 152 teachers in 45 Midwestern schools. Using an Intent to Treat approach and data analyzed within a multilevel modeling framework, CBC yielded promising results for some but not all outcomes. Specifically, children participating in CBC experienced decreases in daily reports of aggressiveness, noncompliance, and temper tantrums; and increases in parent-reported adaptive skills and social skills at a significantly greater pace than those in a control group. Other outcomes (e.g., parent reports of internalizing and externalizing behaviors) suggested a nonsignificant effect at post-test. CBC parents reported using more effective parenting strategies, gaining more competence in their problem-solving practices, and feeling more efficacious for helping their child succeed in school than parents in the control group. Parents participating in CBC also reported significant improvements in the parent-teacher relationship, and the parent-teacher relationship mediated the effect of CBC on children's adaptive skills. Implications for practice in rural communities, study limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. [This article was published in "Journal of School Psychology" v62 p81-101 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Overcoming the Research-to-Practice Gap: A Randomized Trial With Two Brief Homework and Organization Interventions for Students With ADHD as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers (2017)
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of 2 brief school-based interventions targeting the homework problems of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention and the Completing Homework by Improving Efficiency and Focus (CHIEF) intervention, as implemented by school mental health providers during the school day. A secondary goal was to use moderator analyses to identify student characteristics that may differentially predict intervention response. Method: Two-hundred and eighty middle school students with ADHD were randomized to the HOPS or CHIEF interventions or to waitlist, and parent and teacher ratings were collected pre, post, and at a 6-month follow-up. Results: Both interventions were implemented with fidelity by school mental health providers. Participants were pulled from elective periods and sessions averaged less than 20 min. Participants in HOPS and CHIEF demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comparison with waitlist on parent ratings of homework problems and organizational skills and effect sizes were large. HOPS participants also demonstrated moderate effect size improvements on materials management and organized action behaviors according to teachers. HOPS participants made significantly greater improvements in parent- and teacher-rated use of organized actions in comparison with CHIEF, but not on measures of homework problems. Moderation analyses revealed that participants with more severe psychopathology and behavioral dysregulation did significantly better with the HOPS intervention as compared to the CHIEF intervention. Conclusions: Brief school-based interventions implemented by school providers can be effective. This type of service delivery model may facilitate overcoming the oft cited research-to-practice gap.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 3
The effects of a comprehensive reading program on reading outcomes for middle school students with disabilities (2017)
Reading achievement scores for adolescents with disabilities are markedly lower than the scores of adolescents without disabilities. For example, 62% of students with disabilities read below the basic level on the NAEP Reading assessment, compared to 19% of their nondisabled peers. This achievement gap has been a continuing challenge for more than 35 years. In this article, we report on the promise of a comprehensive 2-year reading program called Fusion Reading. Fusion Reading is designed to significantly narrow the reading achievement gap of middle school students with reading disabilities. Using a quasi-experimental design with matched groups of middle school students with reading disabilities, statistically significant differences were found between the experimental and comparison conditions on multiple measures of reading achievement with scores favoring the experimental condition. The effect size of the differences were Hedges’s g = 1.66 to g = 1.04 on standardized measures of reading achievement.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Effects of a text-processing comprehension intervention on struggling middle school readers (2016)
Reading comprehension, which has been defined as gaining understanding of written text through a process of translating print into meaning (RAND, 2002), is a critically important academic skill (Nash & Snowling, 2006; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000). Yet national and international studies reveal that a significant number of adolescents do not adequately understand complex texts. That, in turn, impedes their success in school, access to post-secondary learning, and opportunities for competitive employment (Biacarosa & Snow, 2004; Kamil et al., 2008). Nationally, recent NAEP data indicated that approximately 22% of middle grade readers performed below Basic levels of literacy, suggesting they are not able to connect ideas, form inferences, and make generalizations when reading grade level texts (NCES, 2013).
Reviews of Individual Studies K 3
Improving Mathematics Learning of Kindergarten Students through Computer-Assisted Instruction (2016)
This study evaluated the effects of a mathematics software program, the Building Blocks software suite, on young children's mathematics performance. Participants included 247 Kindergartners from 37 classrooms in 9 schools located in low-income communities. Children within classrooms were randomly assigned to receive 21 weeks of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in mathematics with Building Blocks or in literacy with Earobics Step 1. Children in the Building Blocks condition evidenced higher posttest scores on tests of numeracy and Applied Problems after controlling for beginning-of-year numeracy scores and classroom nesting. These findings, together with a review of earlier CAI, provide guidance for future work on CAI aiming to improve mathematics performance of children from low-income backgrounds. [This paper was published in "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" (EJ1100307).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Randomized evaluation of peer support arrangements to support the inclusion of high school students with severe disabilities (2016)
Enhancing the social and learning experiences of students with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms has been a long-standing focus of research, legislative, and advocacy efforts. The authors used a randomized controlled experimental design to examine the efficacy of peer support arrangements to improve academic and social outcomes for 51 students with severe disabilities in high school general education classrooms. Paraprofessionals or special educators recruited, trained, and supported 106 peers to provide individualized academic and social assistance to students with severe disabilities throughout one semester. Compared to students exclusively receiving adult-delivered support (n = 48), students participating in peer support arrangements experienced increased interactions with peers, increased academic engagement, more progress on individualized social goals, increased social participation, and a greater number of new friendships. Moreover, an appreciable proportion of relationships lasted one and two semesters later after the intervention had concluded. These findings challenge prevailing practices for supporting inclusive education and establish the efficacy and social validity of peer support arrangements as a promising alternative to individually assigned paraprofessional support.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 3
An Examination of the Promise of the NumberShire Level 1 Gaming Intervention for Improving Student Mathematics Outcomes (2016)
The purpose of this study was to test the promise of the NumberShire Level 1 Gaming Intervention (NS1) to accelerate math learning for first-grade students with or at risk for math difficulties. The NS1 intervention was developed through the Institute of Education Sciences, Small Business Innovation Research Program (Gause, Fien, Baker, & Clarke, 2011 Gause, M., Fien, H., Baker, S. K., & Clarke, B. (2011). Project NumberShire I: A game-based integrated learning and assessment system to target whole number concepts. This study used a randomized controlled trial design to test the promise of the NS1 intervention. In total, 250 first-grade students were randomly assigned within classrooms to the treatment condition or a control condition. Results indicate significant effects favoring the treatment group on proximal measures of whole-number concepts and skills. Intervention effects were not statistically significant for distal outcome measures. Treatment effects were not moderated by special education or English learner status; however, the condition by initial skill level interaction approached significance. Additionally, there was no relationship between dosage variables and students' response to the intervention. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. [This paper was published in "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness" (EJ1115268).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 3
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a School-Implemented School–Home Intervention for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Impairment (2016)
Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel psychosocial intervention (Collaborative Life Skills, CLS) for primary-school students with ADHD symptoms. CLS is a 12-week program consisting of integrated school, parent, and student treatments delivered by school-based mental health providers. Using a cluster randomized design, CLS was compared to usual school/community services on psychopathology and functional outcomes. Methods: Schools within a large urban public school district were randomly assigned to CLS (12 schools) or usual services (11 schools). Approximately six students participated at each school (N = 135, mean age = 8.4 years, grade range = 2nd-5th, 71% boys). Using PROC GENMOD (SAS 9.4) the difference between the means of CLS and usual services for each outcome at post-treatment was tested. To account for clustering effects by school, the Generalized Estimating Equation method was used. Results: Students from schools assigned to CLS, relative to those assigned to usual services, had significantly greater improvement on parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptom severity and organizational functioning, teacher-rated academic performance and parent ratings of ODD symptoms and social/interpersonal skills. Conclusions: These results support the efficacy of CLS relative to typical school and community practices for reducing ADHD and ODD symptoms and improving key areas of functional impairment. They further suggest that existing school-based mental health resources can be re-deployed from non-empirically supported practices to those with documented efficacy. This model holds promise for improving access to efficient, evidence-based treatment for inattentive and disruptive behavior beyond the clinic setting. [This article was published in the "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry," v55 p762-770 2016.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 3
The Benefits of Computer-Generated Feedback for Mathematics Problem Solving (2016)
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. In a randomized experiment, second-grade children (N = 75) received instruction on a correct problem-solving strategy and then solved a set of relevant problems. Children were assigned to receive no feedback, immediate feedback, or summative feedback from the computer. On a posttest the following day, feedback resulted in higher scores relative to no feedback for children who started with low prior knowledge. Immediate feedback was particularly effective, facilitating mastery of the material for children with both low and high prior knowledge. Results suggest that minimal computer-generated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 3
The Benefits of Computer-Generated Feedback for Mathematics Problem Solving (2016)
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. In a randomized experiment, second-grade children (N = 75) received instruction on a correct problem-solving strategy and then solved a set of relevant problems. Children were assigned to receive no feedback, immediate feedback, or summative feedback from the computer. On a posttest the following day, feedback resulted in higher scores relative to no feedback for children who started with low prior knowledge. Immediate feedback was particularly effective, facilitating mastery of the material for children with both low and high prior knowledge. Results suggest that minimal computer-generated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 3
The Effect of Tutoring with Nonstandard Equations for Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2015)
Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equal-sign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, second-grade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and no-tutoring control. Combined tutoring students demonstrated greater gains on equation-solving assessments and equal-sign tasks compared to the other two conditions. Standard tutoring students demonstrated improved skill on equation solving over control students, but combined tutoring students' performance gains were significantly larger. Results indicate that exposure to and practice with nonstandard equations positively influence student understanding of the equal sign.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 3
Does teacher evaluation improve school performance? Experimental evidence from Chicago’s Excellence in Teaching Project (2015)
Chicago Public Schools initiated the Excellence in Teaching Project, a teacher evaluation program designed to increase student learning by improving classroom instruction through structured principal-teacher dialogue. The pilot began in forty-four elementary schools in 2008-09 (cohort 1) and scaled up to include an additional forty-eight elementary schools in 2009-10 (cohort 2). Leveraging the experimental design of the roll-out, cohort 1 schools performed better in reading and math than cohort 2 schools at the end of the first year, though the math effects are not statistically significant. We find the initial improvement for cohort 1 schools remains even after cohort 2 schools adopted the program. Moreover, the pilot differentially impacted schools with different characteristics. Higher-achieving and lower-poverty schools were the primary beneficiaries, suggesting the intervention was most successful in more advantaged schools. These findings are relevant for policy makers and school leaders who are implementing evaluation systems that incorporate classroom observations.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
The Quantum Opportunities Program: A randomized control evaluation (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Effects of Multimedia Vocabulary Instruction on Adolescents with Learning Disabilities (2015)
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 3
Results from a three-year i3 impact evaluation of the Children’s Literacy Initiative (CLI): Implementation and impact findings of an intensive professional development and coaching program. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 3
Interleaved Practice Improves Mathematics Learning (2015)
A typical mathematics assignment consists primarily of practice problems requiring the strategy introduced in the immediately preceding lesson (e.g., a dozen problems that are solved by using the Pythagorean Theorem). This means that students know which strategy is needed to solve each problem before they read the problem. In an alternative approach known as "interleaved practice," problems from the course are rearranged so that a portion of each assignment includes different kinds of problems in an interleaved order. Interleaved practice requires students to choose a strategy on the basis of the problem itself, as they must do when they encounter a problem during a comprehensive examination or subsequent course. In the experiment reported here, 126 seventh-grade students received the same practice problems over a three-month period, but the problems were arranged so that skills were learned by interleaved practice or by the usual blocked approach. The practice phase concluded with a review session, followed 1 or 30 days later by an unannounced test. Compared to blocked practice, interleaved practice produced higher scores on both the immediate and delayed tests (Cohen's d = 0.42 and 0.79, respectively). Two appendices include: (1) Serial Position of Each Graph and Slope Problem in the Assignments (table); and (2) Frequency of Responses of Three Teachers to Statements About Interleaved Practice (table). [Note: This article was "in press" at the time of submission. No citation information is available at this time.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-12 3
FLIGHT final evaluation report: Facilitating long-term improvements in graduation and higher education for tomorrow. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 3
The effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness (REL 2015-096) (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 3
A randomized study of literacy integrated science intervention for low SES middle school students: Findings from first year implementation. (2014)
This paper presents the findings from a randomized control trial study of reading/literacy-integrated science inquiry intervention after 1 year of implementation and the treatment effect on 5th-grade low-socio-economic African-American and Hispanic students' achievement in science and English reading. A total of 94 treatment students and 194 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted of ongoing professional development and specific instructional science lessons with inquiry-based learning, direct and explicit vocabulary instruction, and integration of reading and writing. Results suggested that (a) there was a significantly positive treatment effect as reflected in students' higher performance in district-wide curriculum-based tests of science and reading and standardized tests of science, reading, and English reading fluency; (b) males and females did not differ significantly from participating in science inquiry instruction; (c) African-American students had lower chance of sufficiently mastering the science concepts and achieving above the state standards when compared with Hispanic students across gender and condition, and (d) below-poverty African-American females are the most vulnerable group in science learning. Our study confirmed that even a modest amount of literacy integration in inquiry-based science instruction can promote students' science and reading achievement. Therefore, we call for more experimental research that focus on the quality of literacy-integrated science instruction from which middle grade students, particularly low-socio-economic status students, can benefit.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
A delayed treatment control group design study of an after-school online tutoring program in reading. (2014)
This chapter concerns a year-long, United States federally-funded evaluation of Educate Online, an online, at home, 1:1 tutoring program aimed at improving reading performance for middle school students who are below grade level. Participating students receive after-school instruction from teachers in real-time over Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) connections. The researcher discusses study findings, the methodological challenges of conducting research on online tutoring, the multiple perspectives for understanding the effectiveness of a tutoring program, and areas for additional research. The chapter examines a key aspect of the evaluation, a delayed treatment control group design study to determine the effect that involvement in the tutoring program has upon student academic achievement in reading. [This chapter was published in: F. J. García-Peñalvo, A. M. Seoane Pardo (Eds.), "Online Tutor 2.0: Methodologies and Case Studies for Successful Learning," (pp. 264-279). Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2014. (978-1-4666-5832-5 / 2326-8905).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 3
Preliminary Evaluation of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention for First-Grade Students: Using a Theory of Change to Guide Formative Evaluation Activities (2014)
This pilot study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 first-grade mathematics intervention program targeting whole-number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. The study used a randomized block design. Students (N = 89) were randomly assigned to treatment (Fusion) or control (standard district practice) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. A series of random-effects models were estimated to compare gains between treatment and control conditions. Gain scores of intervention students were significantly greater than those of control peers on a proximal measure of mathematics achievement. The role of a strong theory-of-change model in the development and evaluation of mathematics interventions is articulated. Implications for researchers and educators designing and delivering instruction for at-risk students in a response-to-intervention model are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Effects of Cognitive Strategy Interventions and Cognitive Moderators on Word Problem Solving in Children at Risk for Problem Solving Difficulties (2013)
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and cognitive abilities on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Elementary school children (N = 120) with and without MD were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: general-heuristic (e.g., underline question sentence), visual-schematic presentation (diagrams), general-heuristic + visual-schematic, and an untreated control. When compared to the control condition that included children with MD, an advantage at posttest was found for children with MD for the visual-schematic-alone condition on measures of problem solving and calculation accuracy, whereas all strategy conditions facilitated posttest performance in correctly identifying problem solving components. The results also suggested that strategy conditions drew upon different cognitive resources. The General-heuristic condition drew primarily upon the executive component of working memory (WM), Visual-schematic condition drew upon the visual component of WM and the combined strategies condition drew upon number processing skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Four methods of identifying change in the context of a multiple component reading intervention for struggling middle school readers (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 3
The effects of response to intervention on the mathematics achievement of seventh and eighth grade students (Doctoral dissertation) (2013)
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of a system-wide Response to Intervention (RTI) program on the mathematical achievement of seventh and eighth grade students. The study consisted of five district schools with a total of 502 participants. The students were identified as belonging to one of two tiers, which differed in regard to amount of intervention. The first tier (Tier 1) of students only received the regular classroom instruction while the second tier (Tier 2/3) received an additional thirty minutes of intervention strategies. The students receiving interventions, the Tier 2/3 students, were divided into two groups. One group received primarily teacher-directed instruction (TDI) as an intervention while the other group received computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as an intervention. For the purpose of this study, the CAI intervention involved the use of the commercial program, Odyssey Math. The students were benchmark tested at the beginning and end of the 2010-2011 school year using the STAR Math assessment program and also progress monitored on a regular basis. In an attempt to determine the effectiveness of the RTI program, a gain score ANOVA was conducted using the scaled scores of the two tiers from the beginning and the end of the school year. The analysis indicated that Tier 2/3 students did demonstrate greater growth than the students in Tier 1. The gain scores of the two groups of Tier 2/3 students were also used in a gain score ANOVA to measure differences in growth. An additional analysis of their mean scores was also conducted using ANCOVA. Both analyses indicated that the CAI group demonstrated greater gains. A third analysis was conducted in order to determine how accurately the STAR Math assessment program could predict student success (reaching either a Proficient or Advanced level) on the state assessment. While the STAR Math program did not accurately predict the students' level in every case, the logistic regression analysis did indicate that the program was successful in identifying struggling students. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 3
Improving reading comprehension and social studies knowledge in middle school. (2013)
This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content acquisition and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade social studies teachers. Using a within-teacher design, the eighth-grade teachers' social studies classes were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. Teachers (n = 5) taught the same instructional content to both treatment and comparison classes, but the treatment classes used instructional practices focused on teaching essential words, text as a source for reading and discussion, and team-based learning approaches. Students in the treatment conditions (n = 261) scored statistically higher than students in the comparison conditions (n = 158) on all three outcomes: content acquisition (ES = 0.17), content reading comprehension (ES = 0.29), and standardized reading comprehension (ES = 0.20). Findings are interpreted as demonstrating support for the treatment in improving both knowledge acquisition and reading comprehension within content area instruction. (Contains 8 tables, 1 figure, and 1 note.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-11 3
Experimental study of a self-determination intervention for youth in foster care (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 3
Live webcam coaching to help early elementary classroom teachers provide effective literacy instruction for struggling readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention. (2013)
This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly assigned to the experimental or control condition. Five struggling readers and 5 non-struggling readers were randomly selected from eligible children in each classroom. There were 75 classrooms and 631 children in the study. Teachers in experimental schools used the TRI in one-on-one sessions with 1 struggling reader in the regular classroom for 15 min a day until that struggler made rapid reading progress. Teachers then moved on to another struggling reader until all 5 struggling readers in the class received the TRI during the year. Biweekly webcam coaching sessions between the coach and teacher allowed the coach to see and hear the teacher as she instructed a struggling reader in a TRI session, and the teacher and child could see and hear the coach. In this way the classroom teacher was able to receive real-time feedback from the coach. Three-level hierarchical linear models suggested that struggling readers in the intervention schools significantly outperformed the struggling readers in the control schools, with effect sizes from 0.36 to 0.63 on 4 individualized achievement tests. Results suggested that struggling readers were gaining at the same rate as the non-struggling readers, but they were not catching up with their non-struggling peers.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 3
Summer school effects in a randomized field trial. (2012)
This field-based randomized trial examined the effect of assignment to and participation in summer school for two moderately at-risk samples of struggling readers. Application of multiple regression models to difference scores capturing the change in summer reading fluency revealed that kindergarten students randomly assigned to summer school outperformed their control group peers by 0.60 of a standard deviation in an intent-to-treat analysis. For the first grade sample, the intent-to-treat estimate was over three quarters of a standard deviation. The contrast in performance was greater when the comparison was focused more specifically on the change in literacy between treatment participants (i.e., randomly assigned students who actually attended summer school) and students randomly assigned to the control group and in analyses that explicitly adjusted for non-compliance with treatment assignment. These results support the experiential intuition of school district personnel regarding the benefits of summer school and suggest that targeted summer instruction can be a useful strategy to support student learning over the summer months. (Contains 2 figures and 3 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 10-12 3
My life: Effects of a longitudinal, randomized study of self-determination enhancement on the transition outcomes of youth in foster care and special education. (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 3
Benefits of Practicing 4 = 2 + 2: Nontraditional Problem Formats Facilitate Children's Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence (2011)
This study examined whether practice with arithmetic problems presented in a nontraditional problem format improves understanding of mathematical equivalence. Children (M age = 8;0; N = 90) were randomly assigned to practice addition in one of three conditions: (a) traditional, in which problems were presented in the traditional "operations on left side" format (e.g., 9 + 8 = 17); (b) nontraditional, in which problems were presented in a nontraditional format (e.g., 17 = 9 + 8); or (c) no extra practice. Children developed a better understanding of mathematical equivalence after receiving nontraditional practice than after receiving traditional practice or no extra practice. Results suggest that minor differences in early input can yield substantial differences in children's understanding of fundamental concepts.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 3
The impact of curriculum-based professional development on science instruction: Results from a cluster-randomized trial. (2011)
This research is part of a larger, IES-funded study titled: "Measuring the Efficacy and Student Achievement of Research-based Instructional Materials in High School Multidisciplinary Science" (Award # R305K060142). The larger study seeks to use a cluster-randomized trial design, with schools as the unit of assignment, to make causal inferences about the effect of treatment on both students and teachers. The research described in this report addresses the following research question associated with path "a" in Figure 1: (1) What is the mean difference in teacher outcome (i.e., instruction) across the treatment groups? (a) What is the effect size (practical significance)? (b) Is the difference statistically significant at the alpha = 0.05 level?; and (2) If practically or statistically significant differences in instruction exist across treatment groups, to what extent can the differences be attributed to the treatment (instructional materials and PD)? The research takes place in both suburban and rural high schools in the state of Washington. In particular, the suburban schools are clustered near Seattle/Tacoma and the rural schools are clustered near Yakima. The data from this analysis suggest that the PD treatment was more effective in fostering reform-oriented science instruction, on average, than was the extant PD experienced by the business-as-usual comparison group. This difference was both statistically and practically significant. Applying this result to the authors' hypothesis of mediation, they now have confidence that one of the causal paths (path a) that are necessary to argue mediation is trustworthy. Further study of path b is necessary to understand whether instruction is serving as a mediator of the treatment effect. That said, there is evidence in the literature suggesting that the possibility of a significant b path is quite real. For example, Hedges and Hedberg (2007) found that in school-level interventions, a considerable amount of the variance in outcomes was attributable to teacher and /or classroom effects. Threats to internal validity that are noteworthy include limitations in the authors' confidence that the post-intervention differences in RTOP scores were not pre-existing (i.e., not attributable to the treatment). Unfortunately, they did not have a baseline RTOP measure that could have served as a covariate in the main effect analysis of treatment. Use of such a covariate would have likely provided a more precise estimate of the treatment effect. Further, because the comparison group received business-as-usual PD, this experience was highly variable across teachers. The research team has only cursory knowledge of the nature and duration of extant PD experienced by the comparison group. As such, there is limited clarity in the PD experiences to which the treatment is being compared. In the context of an efficacy trial, external validity (i.e., generalizability) of findings is not paramount. However, it should be noted again that the authors' sampling approach was not random. Therefore, they are cautious not to suggest that their treatment effect estimates would generalize far beyond their sample of rural and suburban schools in Washington state. (Contains 1 figure and 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Reorganizing the instructional reading components: Could there be a better way to design remedial reading programs to maximize middle school students with reading disabilities’ response to treatment? (2010)
The primary purpose of this study was to explore if there could be a more beneficial method in organizing the individual instructional reading components (phonological decoding, spelling, fluency, and reading comprehension) within a remedial reading program to increase sensitivity to instruction for middle school students with reading disabilities (RD). Three different modules (Alternating, Integrated, and Additive) of the Reading Achievement Multi-Modular Program were implemented with 90 middle school (sixth to eighth grades) students with reading disabilities. Instruction occurred 45 min a day, 5 days a week, for 26 weeks, for approximately 97 h of remedial reading instruction. To assess gains, reading subtests of the Woodcock Johnson-III, the Gray Silent Reading Test, and Oral Reading Fluency passages were administered. Results showed that students in the Additive module outperformed students in the Alternating and Integrated modules on phonological decoding and spelling and students in the Integrated module on comprehension skills. Findings for the two oral reading fluency measures demonstrated a differential pattern of results across modules. Results are discussed in regards to the effect of the organization of each module on the responsiveness of middle school students with RD to instruction.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 3
Response to intervention for middle school students with reading difficulties: Effects of a primary and secondary intervention. (2010)
This study examined the effectiveness of a yearlong, researcher-provided, Tier 2 (secondary) intervention with a group of sixth-graders. The intervention emphasized word recognition, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. Participants scored below a proficiency level on their state accountability test and were compared to a similar group of struggling readers receiving school-provided instruction. All students received the benefits of content area teachers who participated in researcher-provided professional development designed to integrate vocabulary and comprehension practices throughout the school day (Tier 1). Students who participated in the Tier 2 intervention showed gains on measures of decoding, fluency, and comprehension, but differences relative to students in the comparison group were small (median d = +0.16). Students who received the researcher-provided intervention scored significantly higher than students who received comparison intervention on measures of word attack, spelling, the state accountability measure, passage comprehension, and phonemic decoding efficiency, although most often in particular subgroups. (Contains 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-4 3
A final report for the evaluation of Renaissance Learning’s Accelerated Reader Program. (2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-6 3
A randomized experiment of a mixed-methods literacy intervention for struggling readers in grades 4–6: Effects on word reading efficiency, reading comprehension and vocabulary, and oral reading fluency. (2010)
The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the causal effects of READ 180, a mixed-methods literacy intervention, on measures of word reading efficiency, reading comprehension and vocabulary, and oral reading fluency and (2) to examine whether print exposure among children in the experimental condition explained variance in posttest reading scores. A total of 294 children in Grades 4-6 were randomly assigned to READ 180 or a district after-school program. Both programs were implemented 4 days per week over 23 weeks. Children in the READ 180 intervention participated in three 20-min literacy activities, including (1) individualized computer-assisted reading instruction with videos, leveled text, and word study activities, (2) independent and modeled reading practice with leveled books, and (3) teacher-directed reading lessons tailored to the reading level of children in small groups. Children in the district after-school program participated in a 60-min program in which teachers were able to select from 16 different enrichment activities that were designed to improve student attendance. There was no significant difference between children in READ 180 and the district after-school program on norm-referenced measures of word reading efficiency, reading comprehension, and vocabulary. Although READ 180 had a positive impact on oral reading fluency and attendance, these effects were restricted to children in Grade 4. Print exposure, as measured by the number of words children read on the READ 180 computer lessons, explained 4% of the variance in vocabulary and 2% of the variance in word reading efficiency after all pretest reading scores were partialed out.
Reviews of Individual Studies 10-12 3
The Advanced Placement Teacher Training Incentive Program (APTIP): Estimating the impact of an incentive and training program on students. (2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 3
A tiered intervention model for early vocabulary instruction: The effects of tiered instruction for young students at risk for reading disability. (2010)
Vocabulary knowledge at school entry is a robust predictor of later reading achievement. Many children begin formal reading instruction at a significant disadvantage due to low levels of vocabulary. Until recently, relatively few research studies examined the efficacy of vocabulary interventions for children in the early primary grades (e.g., before fourth grade), and even fewer addressed vocabulary intervention for students at increased risk for reading failure. In more recent work, researchers have begun to explore ways in which to diminish the "meaningful differences" in language achievement noted among children as they enter formal schooling. This article provides a review of a particularly effective model of vocabulary intervention based on shared storybook reading and situates this model in a context of tiered intervention, an emerging model of instructional design in the field of special education. In addition, we describe a quasi-experimental posttest-only study that examines the feasibility and effectiveness of the model for first-grade students. Participants were 224 first-grade students of whom 98 were identified as at risk for reading disability based on low levels of vocabulary. Results of a multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences on measures of target vocabulary knowledge at the receptive and context level, suggesting that students at risk for reading failure benefit significantly from a second tier of vocabulary instruction. Implications for classroom practice as well as future research are provided.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 3
Computer-assisted instruction to prevent early reading difficulties in students at risk for dyslexia: Outcomes from two instructional approaches. (2010)
The relative effectiveness of two computer-assisted instructional programs designed to provide instruction and practice in foundational reading skills was examined. First-grade students at risk for reading disabilities received approximately 80 h of small-group instruction in four 50-min sessions per week from October through May. Approximately half of the instruction was delivered by specially trained teachers to prepare students for their work on the computer, and half was delivered by the computer programs. At the end of first grade, there were no differences in student reading performance between students assigned to the different intervention conditions, but the combined-intervention students performed significantly better than control students who had been exposed to their school's normal reading program. Significant differences were obtained for phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, reading accuracy, rapid automatic naming, and reading comprehension. A follow-up test at the end of second grade showed a similar pattern of differences, although only differences in phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, and rapid naming remained statistically reliable.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Empirical evaluation of Read Naturally effects: A randomized control trial (RCT) (Unpublished journal article). (2009)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 3
A randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention: Demonstration of program efficacy outcomes in a diverse, urban school district. (2009)
This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It consists of three modular components (screening, school intervention, parent training); lasts approximately 3 months; and is initially set up, delivered, and coordinated by a behavioral coach (e.g., school counselor, behavior specialist, social worker). Project Year 1 of this efficacy trial was devoted to gearing-up activities (e.g., hiring, training, planning, logistical arrangements); Years 2 and 3 each involved implementing First Step with approximately 100 behaviorally at-risk students. Students, teachers, and classrooms were randomly assigned to either intervention or usual care comparison conditions. Year 4 activities focused on conducting long-term, follow-up assessments and implementing sustainability procedures to preserve achieved gains. Pre-post teacher and parent ratings of student behavior and social skills showed moderately robust effect sizes, ranging from 0.54 to 0.87, that favored the intervention group. Direct measures of academic performance (oral reading fluency, letter-word identification) were not sensitive to the intervention. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Effects of teaching syllable skills instruction on reading achievement in struggling middle school readers. (2009)
Direct, explicit, and systematic instruction of critical skills has been a hallmark of effective teaching for many years. In this study, we implemented a quasi-experimental pre-/post-test design with nonequivalent groups to determine the effectiveness of syllable skills instruction on reading achievement. Classes were randomly assigned to control or treatment groups. Participants included middle-school students with high incidence disabilities, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their peers at risk for reading failure. The syllable skills intervention included instruction in syllable patterns, syllabication steps and rules, and accenting patterns. Students practiced skills by decoding and encoding nonsense and low-frequency mono- and multisyllabic words. Statistically significant differences were evident between pre-test and post-test scores for three dependent measures: (a) word identification, (b) word attack, and (c) reading comprehension. The treatment group demonstrated greater increase from pre-test to post-test on word identification, word attack, and reading comprehension; and the gap in fluency performance between the groups decreased. We discuss these outcomes with regard to their implications for practice and future research. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Same-Language-Subtitling (SLS): Using subtitled music video for reading growth. (2009)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Cognitive Tutor Algebra I: Evaluation of results (1993–1994). (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 3
Reading comprehension: Effects of individualized, integrated language arts as a reading approach with struggling readers (2008)
This study examined the effects of individualized, integrated language arts as a reading approach on struggling readers' comprehension scores obtained from oral narrative, silent narrative, and silent expository passages at three levels: below-grade, on-grade, and above-grade levels. Students (N = 93) in grades four through eight, who were reading below grade level, participated in the study. Treatment group students (n = 51) received individualized, integrated language arts as a reading approach once a week in place of basal reading instruction. Comparison group students (n = 42) received basal reading instruction for the duration of the study. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze posttest Analytical Reading Inventory (ARI) comprehension scores. Several statistically significant (p less than 0.001) differences in comprehension performance were found for on-grade-level scores and for above-grade-level scores, but few differences were found between treatment and comparison groups on below-grade-level scores. All statistically significant differences favored students in the treatment group. The findings of the study strongly suggest that the use of individualized, integrated language arts as a method for teaching reading is an effective approach for improving the reading comprehension performance of struggling readers. (Contains 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
The effects of Read Naturally on grade 3 reading. (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-4 3
Learning science in grades 3–8 using probeware and computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II project. (2008)
The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquiry-based instructional science units for teaching in grades 3-8. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of real-world phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or pressure) or, in one case, virtual environments based on mathematical models. TEEMSS units were used in more than 100 classrooms by over 60 teachers and thousands of students. This paper reports on cases in which groups of teachers taught science topics without TEEMSS materials in school year 2004-2005 and then the same teachers taught those topics using TEEMSS materials in 2005-2006. There are eight TEEMSS units for which such comparison data are available. Students showed significant learning gains for all eight. In four cases (sound and electricity, both for grades 3-4; temperature, grades 5-6; and motion, grades 7-8) there were significant differences in science learning favoring the students who used the TEEMSS materials. The effect sizes are 0.58, 0.94, 1.54, and 0.49, respectively. For the other four units there were no significant differences in science learning between TEEMSS and non-TEEMSS students. We discuss the implications of these results for science education.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 3
Benefits of repeated reading intervention for low-achieving fourth- and fifth-grade students. (2008)
Many students have difficulty achieving reading fluency, and nearly half of fourth graders are not fluent readers in grade-level texts. Intensive and focused reading practice is recommended to help close the gap between students with poor fluency and their average reading peers. In this study, the "Quick Reads" fluency program was used as a supplemental fluency intervention for fourth and fifth graders with below-grade-level reading skills. "Quick Reads" prescribes a repeated reading procedure with short nonfiction texts written on grade-appropriate science and social science topics. Text characteristics are designed to promote word recognition skills. Students were randomly assigned to "Quick Reads" instruction that was implemented by trained paraeducator tutors with pairs of students for 30 minutes per day, 4 days per week, for 18 weeks. At posttest, "Quick Reads" students significantly outperformed classroom controls in vocabulary, word comprehension, and passage comprehension. Fluency rates for both treatment and control groups remained below grade level at posttest. (Contains 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 10-11 3
The effect of a test preparation course on the SAT scores of students at Saint Joseph Academy (Doctoral dissertation). (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 3
Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. (2007)
Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory) predicted a flat trajectory. A mediational model including learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and causal attributions and strategies was tested. In Study 2, an intervention teaching an incremental theory to 7th graders (N=48) promoted positive change in classroom motivation, compared with a control group (N=43). Simultaneously, students in the control group displayed a continuing downward trajectory in grades, while this decline was reversed for students in the experimental group.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 3
Effect of a combined repeated reading and question generation intervention on reading achievement. (2006)
Research was conducted to ascertain if a combined repeated reading and question generation intervention was effective at improving the reading achievement of fourth through eighth grade students with learning disabilities or who were at risk for reading failure. Students were assigned to a treatment or control group via a stratified random sampling. Instructional components and training were based on best practices reported in the literature. Students receiving intervention significantly improved their reading speed and ability to answer inferential comprehension questions on passages that were reread. Compared to the control group, students in the intervention group also made significant gains in oral reading fluency on independent passages.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 3
A pilot evaluation of small group Challenging Horizons Program (CHP): A randomized trial. (2006)
This study examined the efficacy of an after-school program, the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP), that met four days a week and focused on improving organization, academic skills, and classroom behavior. The CHP was compared with a community control that included involvement in a district-run after-school program that met one to three days a week and focused on preparation for standardized testing. Participants were 48 middle-school youth, referred as experiencing a combination of learning and behavior problems, randomly assigned to either the CHP or the control. Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral and academic functioning were collected at the beginning of the academic year and again after one semester of intervention. Relative to the control, participants in the CHP made significant improvements in parent rated academic progress, self-esteem, and overall severity of problem. While teacher ratings did not reach significance, CHP participants made medium effect size improvements in academic progress and small improvements in overall severity. Core class grades and discipline records were also examined to provide a broad picture of functioning beyond rating scale data.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 3
Code-oriented instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties: A randomized field trial with paraeducator implementers. (2006)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, nearly 4 in 10 fourth graders read below the basic level. These literacy problems get worse as students advance through school and are exposed to progressively more complex concepts and courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of four remedial reading programs in improving the reading skills of 3rd and 5th graders, whether the impacts of the programs vary across students with difference baseline characteristics, and to what extent can this instruction close the reading gap and bring struggling readers within the normal range--relative to the instruction normally provided by their schools. The study took place in elementary schools in 27 districts of the Allegheny Intermediate Unit outside Pittsburgh, PA during the 2003-04 school year. Within each of 50 schools, 3rd and 5th grade students were identified as struggling readers by their teachers. These students were tested and were eligible for the study if they scored at or below the 30th percentile on a word-level reading test and at or above the 5th percentile on a vocabulary test. The final sample contains a total of 742 students. There are 335 3rd graders ? 208 treatment and 127 control students. There are 407 5th graders ? 228 treatment and 179 control students. Four existing programs were used: Spell Read P.A.T., Corrective Reading, Wilson Reading, and Failure Free Reading. Corrective Reading and Wilson Reading were modified to focus only on word-level skills. Spell Read P.A.T. and Failure Free Reading were intended to focus equally on word-level skills and reading comprehension/vocabulary. Teachers received 70 hours of professional development and support during the year. Instruction was delivered in small groups of 3 students, 5 days a week, for a total of 90 hours. Seven measures of reading skill were administered at the beginning and end of the school year to assess student progress: Word Attack, Word Identification Comprehension (Woodcock Reading Mastery Test); Phonemic Decoding Efficiency and Sight Word Efficiency (Test of Word Reading Efficiency); Oral Reading Fluency (Edformation); and Passage Comprehension (Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation). After one year of instruction, there were significant impacts on phonemic decoding, word reading accuracy and fluency, and comprehension for 3rd graders, but not for 5th graders. For third graders in the reading programs, the gap in word attach skills between struggling readers and average readers was reduced by about two-thirds. It was found that reading skills of 3rd graders can be significantly improved through instruction in word-level skills, but not the reading skills of 5th graders. The following are appended: (1) Details of Study Design and Implementation; (2) Data Collection; (3) Weighting Adjustment and Missing Data; (4) Details of Statistical Methods; (5) Intervention Impacts on Spelling and Calculation; (6) Instructional Group Clustering; (7) Parent Survey; (8) Teacher Survey and Behavioral Rating Forms; (9) Instructional Group Clustering; (10) Videotape Coding Guidelines for Each Reading Program; (11) Supporting Tables; (12) Sample Test Items; (13) Impact Estimate Standard Errors and P-Values; (14) Association between Instructional Group Heterogeneity and The Outcome; (15) Teacher Rating Form; (16) School Survey; and (17) Scientific Advisory Board. [This report was produced by the Corporation for the Advancement of Policy Evaluation. Additional support provided by the Barksdale Reading Institute, and the Haan Foundation for Children.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 3
Progress report of the randomized trial of Positive Action in Hawaii: End of third year of intervention. (2006)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Effects of mathematical word problem-solving instruction on middle school students with learning problems. (2005)
This study investigated the differential effects of two problem-solving instructional approaches--schema-based instruction (SBI) and general strategy instruction (GSI)--on the mathematical word problem-solving performance of 22 middle school students who had learning disabilities or were at risk for mathematics failure. Results indicated that the SBI group significantly outperformed the GSI group on immediate and delayed posttests as well as the transfer test. Implications of the study are discussed within the context of the new IDEA amendment and access to the general education curriculum.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-10 3
Help with English Language Proficiency &ldquo;HELP&rdquo; program evaluation of sheltered instruction multimedia lessons. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 3
Improved early reading skills by students in three districts who used Fast ForWord® to Reading 1. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 3
The Teacher Advancement Program report two: Year three results from Arizona and year one results from South Carolina TAP schools. (2004)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-6 3
Long-Term Effects of the Positive Action Program. (2003)
Used a matched-schools design, school-level achievement, and disciplinary data to evaluate the effectiveness of the elementary-level Positive Action program on students' performance and behavior over time. Results indicated that program participation improved student behavior, school involvement, and academic achievement into high school. The program had equally strong behavioral effects in higher risk schools. There was a clear dose-response relationship for most outcomes. (SM)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 3
The impact of a computer-based training system on strengthening phonemic awareness and increasing reading ability level (Doctoral dissertation). (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
When schools close: Effects on displaced students in Chicago public schools. (October 2009)
Few decisions by a school district are more controversial than the decision to close a school. School staff, students and their families, and even the local community all bear a substantial burden once the decision is made to close a school. Since 2001, Chicago Public Schools (CPS) has closed 44 schools for reasons of poor academic performance or underutilization. Despite the attention that school closings have received in the past few years, very little is known about how displaced students fare after their schools are closed. This report examines the impact that closing schools had on the students who attended these schools. The authors focus on regular elementary schools that were closed between 2001 and 2006 for underutilization or low performance and ask whether students who were forced to leave these schools and enroll elsewhere experienced any positive or negative effects from this type of school move. They look at a number of student outcomes, including reading and math achievement, special education referrals, retentions, summer school attendance, mobility, and high school performance. They also examine characteristics of the receiving schools and ask whether differences in these schools had any impact on the learning experiences of students who transferred into them. The authors report six major findings: (1) Most students who transferred out of closing schools reenrolled in schools that were academically weak; (2) The largest negative impact of school closings on students' reading and math achievement occurred in the year before the schools were closed; (3) Once students left schools slated for closing, on average the additional effects on their learning were neither negative nor positive; (4) Although the school closing policy had only a small overall effect on student test scores, it did affect summer school enrollment and subsequent school mobility; (5) When displaced students reached high school, their on-track rates to graduate were no different than the rates of students who attended schools similar to those that closed; and (6) The learning outcomes of displaced students depended on the characteristics of receiving schools. Overall, they found few effects, either positive or negative, of school closings on the achievement of displaced students. Appended are: (1) School Closings and New Openings; and (2) Data, Analytic Methods, and Variables Used. (Contains 5 tables, 12 figures and 53 endnotes.)[For the (What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Quick Review of this report, see ED510790.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-11 -1
Unconditional Education Year 1 Evaluation Report. (n.d.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Report to NETWORK Steering Committee and the USDOE Office of Innovation and Improvement as part of the Investing in Innovation (i3) Grant Program Evaluation: Analysis and Summary (Five Year) (N.D.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-12 -1
Multiple choice: Charter school performance in 16 states. (June 2009)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
Charter school performance in New York City. (January 2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
Blended learning as a tool for international transfer of instructional practices. (in press)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 -1