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Practice Guide PK 1
Preparing Young Children for School (August 2022)
This new practice guide, developed by the What Works Clearinghouse™ (WWC) in conjunction with an expert panel, distills contemporary early childhood and preschool education research into seven easily comprehensible and practical recommendations that preschool educators can use to prepare young children for school. The seven recommendations in this practice guide will also be useful for administrators along with parents, caregivers, and guardians.
Practice Guide PK-K 2
Teaching Math to Young Children (November 2013)
This practice guide provides five recommendations for teaching math to children in preschool, prekindergarten, and kindergarten. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to build a strong foundation for later math learning.
Intervention Report PK 3
Phonological Awareness Training (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (June 2012)
Phonological Awareness Training is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children’s phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning and is considered a precursor to reading. Phonological Awareness Training can involve various training activities that focus on teaching children to identify, detect, delete, segment, or blend segments of spoken words (i.e., words, syllables, onsets and rimes, phonemes) or that focus on teaching children to detect, identify, or produce rhyme or alliteration.
Intervention Report PK 3
Dialogic Reading (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (April 2010)
Dialogic Reading is an interactive shared picture book reading practice designed to enhance young children’s language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and questioner.
Intervention Report PK 3
Headsprout® Early Reading (Early Childhood Education) (October 2009)
Headsprout Early Reading is an online supplemental early literacy curriculum consisting of eighty 20-minute animated episodes. The episodes are designed to teach phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. The program adapts to a child’s responses, providing additional instruction and review if a child does not choose the correct answer. Teachers may use stories based on the episodes to reinforce instruction provided in the lessons.
Intervention Report PK 3
Building Blocks for Math (SRA Real Math) (Early Childhood Education) (July 2007)
Building Blocks for Math is a supplemental mathematics curriculum designed to develop preschool children’s early mathematical knowledge through various individual and small- and large-group activities. It uses Building Blocks for Math PreK software, manipulatives, and print material. Building Blocks for Math embeds mathematical learning in children’s daily activities, ranging from designated math activities to circle and story time, with the goal of helping children relate their informal math knowledge to more formal mathematical concepts.
Intervention Report PK 3
Phonological Awareness Training (Early Childhood Education) (December 2006)
Phonological Awareness Training is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children’s phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning and is considered a precursor to reading. Phonological Awareness Training can involve various training activities that focus on teaching children to identify, detect, delete, segment, or blend segments of spoken words (i.e., words, syllables, onsets and rimes, phonemes) or that focus on teaching children to detect, identify, or produce rhyme or alliteration.
Intervention Report PK-1 3
DaisyQuest (Beginning Reading) (September 2006)
DaisyQuest is a software bundle that offers computer-assisted instruction in phonological awareness, targeting children 3–7 years old (or preschool to grade 2). The instructional activities, framed in a fairy tale involving a search for a friendly dragon named Daisy, teach children how to recognize words that rhyme; words that have the same beginning, middle, and ending sounds; and words that can be formed from a series of phonemes presented separately. Activities also teach children how to count the number of sounds in words.
Intervention Report PK-1 3
DaisyQuest (Early Childhood Education) (September 2006)
DaisyQuest is a software bundle that offers computer-assisted instruction in phonological awareness, targeting children 3–7 years old (or preschool to grade 2). The instructional activities, framed in a fairy tale involving a search for a friendly dragon named Daisy, teach children how to recognize words that rhyme; words that have the same beginning, middle, and ending sounds; and words that can be formed from a series of phonemes presented separately. Activities also teach children how to count the number of sounds in words.
Intervention Report PK -1
Pivotal Response Training (December 2016)
Pivotal response training (PRT) is an intervention designed for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This practice focuses on pivotal (core) areas affected by autism, such as communication and responding to environmental stimuli. PRT sessions typically begin with a parent or teacher providing clear instructions to a child, having the child help choose a stimulus (such as a toy), and focusing the child’s attention. The parent or teacher then encourages the desired behavior (for example, asking for the toy or choosing “toy” from a list of words) by providing rewards if the child implements or attempts to implement the desired behavior. Parents and teachers often model the appropriate behavior or use the stimulus with the child. Activities that maintain existing behaviors are interspersed with activities eliciting new behaviors. The complexity of the required responses increases as training progresses. Parents, teachers, and peers collaboratively implement the practice at school, at home, and in the community. PRT can be used with autistic children aged 2–18. PRT is also known as Pivotal Response Therapy, Pivotal Response Treatment®, or Natural Language Paradigm.
Intervention Report PK -1
Head Start (Early Childhood Education) (July 2015)
Head Start is a national, federally-funded program that provides services to promote school readiness for children from birth to age 5 from predominantly low-income families. These services are provided to both children and their families and include education, health and nutrition, family engagement, and other social services. Head Start program administrators are given the flexibility to design service delivery to be responsive to cultural, linguistic, and other contextual needs of local communities, leading to considerable variability in the services offered. Head Start service models also vary according to family needs, such that children and families may be served through center-based or family child care, home visits, or a combination of programs that operate full or half days for 8–12 months per year.
Intervention Report PK-12 -1
TAP: The System for Teacher and Student Advancement (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (July 2015)
TAP™ (formerly known as the Teacher Advancement Program) is a comprehensive educator effectiveness program that aims to improve student achievement through supports and incentives that attract, retain, develop, and motivate effective teachers. The program provides teachers with leadership opportunities and associated salary increases; ongoing, school-based professional development; rigorous evaluations; and annual performance bonuses based on a combination of teacher value added to student achievement and observations of their classroom teaching.
Intervention Report PK -1
Shared Book Reading (Early Childhood Education) (April 2015)
Shared Book Reading encompasses practices that adults can use when reading with young children to enhance language and literacy skills. During shared book reading, an adult reads a book to an individual child or to a group of children and uses one or more planned or structured interactive techniques to actively engage the children in the text. The adult may direct the children’s attention to illustrations, print, or word meanings. The adult may engage children in discussions focused on understanding the meaning or sequence of events in a story or on understanding an expository passage. Adults may ask children questions, give explanations, and draw connections between events in the text and those in the children’s own lives as a way of expanding on the text and scaffolding children’s learning experiences to support language development, emergent reading, and comprehension. Importantly, the adult engages in one or more interactive techniques to draw attention to aspects of the text being read.
Intervention Report PK -1
Pre-K Mathematics (Early Childhood Education) (December 2013)
Pre-K Mathematics is a supplemental curriculum designed to develop informal mathematical knowledge and skills in preschool children. Mathematical content is organized into seven units. Specific mathematical concepts and skills from each unit are taught in the classroom through teacher-guided, small-group activities with concrete manipulatives. Take-home activities with materials that parallel the small-group classroom activities are designed to help parents support their children’s mathematical development at home.
Intervention Report PK -1
Let's Begin with the Letter People® (Early Childhood Education) (June 2013)
Let’s Begin with the Letter People® is an early education curriculum that uses thematic units to develop children’s language and literacy skills. A major focus is phonological awareness, including rhyming, word play, alliteration, and segmentation. Children are encouraged to learn in individual, small group, and whole-class settings. Both cognitive and socio-emotional development are presented as keys to learning.
Intervention Report PK -1
Doors to Discovery (Early Childhood Education) (June 2013)
Doors to Discovery™ is a preschool literacy curriculum that uses eight thematic units of activities to help children build fundamental early literacy skills in oral language, phonological awareness, concepts of print, alphabet knowledge, writing, and comprehension. The eight thematic units cover topics such as nature, friendship, communities, society, and health. Each unit is available as a kit that includes various teacher resources.
Intervention Report PK -1
Bright Beginnings (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
Bright Beginnings is an early childhood curriculum, based in part on High/Scope and Creative Curriculum, with an additional emphasis on literacy skills. The curriculum consists of nine thematic units designed to enhance children’s cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. Each unit includes concept maps, literacy lessons, early childhood center activities, and home activities. Special emphasis is placed on the development of early language and literacy skills. Parent involvement is a key component of the program.
Intervention Report PK -1
The Creative Curriculum® for Preschool, Fourth Edition (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
The Creative Curriculum® for Preschool, Fourth Edition, is an early childhood curriculum that focuses on project-based investigations as a means for children to apply skills. It addresses four areas of development: social/emotional, physical, cognitive, and language. The curriculum is designed to foster development of the whole child through teacher-led small and large group activities centered around 11 interest areas (blocks, dramatic play, toys and games, art, library, discovery, sand and water, music and movement, cooking, computers, and outdoors).
Intervention Report PK-K -1
Ladders to Literacy (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
Ladders to Literacy is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book. The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds. The activities are organized into three sections with about 20 activities each: print awareness, phonological awareness skills, and oral language skills.
Intervention Report PK -1
Social Skills Training (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (February 2013)

Social skills training is not a specific curriculum, but rather a collection of practices that utilize a behavioral approach to teaching preschool children age-appropriate social skills and competencies, including communication, problem solving, decision making, self-management, and peer relations. Social skills training can occur in both regular and special education classrooms.

 

Intervention Report PK -1
Milieu Teaching (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (April 2012)
Milieu teaching is a practice that involves manipulating or arranging stimuli in a preschool child’s natural environment to create a setting that encourages them to engage in a targeted behavior. For example, a teacher might place a desirable toy in a setting to encourage a child to request that toy (where requesting a toy is the desired target behavior). Typically, milieu teaching involves four strategies that a teacher will utilize to encourage a child to demonstrate a target behavior: modeling, mand-modeling, incidental teaching, and time-delay. Through adult modeling and functional consequences associated with child requests, targeted language behaviors can be improved in children who may have language delays or disabilities.
Intervention Report PK-2 -1
The Incredible Years (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (November 2011)
The Incredible Years is composed of training programs for children, parents, and teachers. The child program is designed for children (ages 0–12) with challenging behaviors and focuses on building social and emotional skills. Lessons can be delivered to children referred for difficult behavior or to an entire classroom as a preventative measure. The program consists of 20- to 30-minute lessons 2–3 times a week; these lessons are reinforced by small-group activities, practicing skills throughout the day, and communicating with parents. Lessons cover recognizing and understanding feelings, getting along with friends, anger management, problem solving, and behavior at school. Parent training programs focus on positive discipline, promoting learning and development, and involvement in children’s life at school.
Intervention Report PK -1
Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (August 2010)
The Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis is a type of behavioral therapy that initially focuses on discrete trials: brief periods of one-on-one instruction, during which a teacher cues a behavior, prompts the appropriate response, and provides reinforcement to the child. Children in the program receive an average of 35–40 hours of intervention per week that consists of in-home one-to-one instruction, facilitated peer play, inclusion and support in regular education classrooms, and generalization activities for transfer of skills to natural environments. In addition, parents are trained in instructional techniques. The intervention generally lasts about 3 years.
Intervention Report PK -1
Literacy Express (Early Childhood Education) (July 2010)
Literacy Express is a preschool curriculum designed for three- to five-year-old children. It is structured around units on oral language, emergent literacy, basic math, science, general knowledge, and socioemotional development. It can be used in half-or full-day programs with typically developing children and children with special needs. It provides professional development opportunities for staff; teaching materials; suggested activities; and recommendations for room arrangement, daily schedules, and classroom management.
Intervention Report PK -1
Curiosity Corner (Early Childhood Education) (January 2009)
Curiosity Corner is a comprehensive early childhood curriculum designed to help children at risk of school failure because of poverty. The program offers children experiences that develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary for later school success, with a special emphasis on children’s language and literacy skills. Curiosity Corner has two sets of 38 weekly thematic units, one set for 3-year-olds and one set for 4-year-olds. Each day, the program staff present children with learning experiences through sequential daily activities. The program provides training, support, and teaching materials for teaching staff and administrators. Parents are encouraged to participate in children’s learning through activities in and out of the classroom.
Intervention Report PK -1
Ready, Set, Leap!® (Early Childhood Education) (October 2008)
Ready, Set, Leap!® is a comprehensive preschool curriculum that focuses on early reading skills, such as phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, and letter-sound correspondence using multi-sensory technology that incorporates touch, sight, and sound. Teachers may adopt either a theme-based or a literature-based teaching approach. For each approach, the curriculum provides lesson plans, learning objectives, and assessment tools.
Intervention Report PK -1
Tools of the Mind (Early Childhood Education) (September 2008)
Tools of the Mind is an early childhood curriculum for preschool and kindergarten children. The curriculum is designed to foster children’s executive function, which involves developing self-regulation, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Many activities emphasize both executive functioning and academic skills.
Intervention Report PK-K -1
Ladders to Literacy (Beginning Reading) (August 2007)
Ladders to Literacy is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book. The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds. The activities are organized into three sections with about 20 activities each: print awareness, phonological awareness skills, and oral language skills.
Intervention Report PK -1
Waterford Early Reading Level One (Early Childhood Education) (July 2007)
Waterford Early Reading Level One™ is an emergent literacy curriculum that uses computer-based technology to prepare children for reading. It begins with a tutorial to familiarize the child with the computer and mouse and a reading placement evaluation to assess and determine whether a child should work on Level One objectives: capital letters, lowercase letters, or beginning decoding skills. The computerized instruction is supplemented by activities for phonological and phonemic awareness, letter recognition, knowledge of story and print concepts, and general readiness skills.
Intervention Report PK-K -1
Direct Instruction (Early Childhood Education) (May 2007)
Direct Instruction refers to a family of interventions that includes all Direct Instruction products (DISTAR and Language for Learning), as well as to all versions past and present. Direct Instruction includes teaching techniques that are fast-paced, teacher-directed, and explicit with opportunities for student response and teacher reinforcement or correction.
Intervention Report PK -1
Sound Foundations (Early Childhood Education) (April 2007)
Sound Foundations, a literacy curriculum designed to teach phonological awareness to preliterate children, focuses exclusively on phoneme identity (that is, different words can start and end with the same sound). It works from the principle that phonemic awareness is necessary but not sufficient to reading. The curriculum is self-contained and can be used by teachers, parents, or teaching assistants.
Intervention Report PK -1
Words and Concepts (Early Childhood Education) (March 2007)
Words and Concepts is a computer software program that focuses on building oral language skills related to vocabulary, comprehension, word relationships, and other concepts. The program is comprised of six units—vocabulary, categorization, word identification by function, word association, concept of same, and concept of different. It can be used by adults and children with varying special needs, including language-learning disabilities, developmental disabilities, physical impairments, hearing and vision impairments, and autism.
Intervention Report PK -1
Dialogic Reading (Early Childhood Education) (February 2007)
Dialogic Reading is an interactive shared picture book reading practice designed to enhance young children’s language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and questioner.
Intervention Report PK -1
Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training (Early Childhood Education) (December 2006)
Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children’s phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is considered to be a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness training (without letter knowledge training) can involve various training activities that focus on teaching children to identify, detect, delete, segment, or blend segments of spoken words (i.e., words, syllables, onsets and rimes, phonemes) or that focus on teaching children to detect, identify, or produce rhyme or alliteration. The added letter knowledge training component includes teaching children the letters of the alphabet and making an explicit link between letters and sounds.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Increasing preschoolers’ vocabulary development through a streamlined teacher professional development intervention (2020)
Preschool teachers from a high-poverty, urban school district were trained to implement Story Talk, a book reading intervention designed to increase children's vocabulary and language development using supportive materials and strategic individualized coaching. Thirty-five teachers were randomly assigned by site to the intervention (20) or the control condition (15). Teachers in the intervention were provided with training; one-to-one, bi-monthly coaching; and Story Maps that included target vocabulary, open-ended questions to promote conversations during book reading, and suggested extension activities that support use of target vocabulary. The results suggested that teachers in the intervention increased on the global quality of their instruction, as well as on their fidelity to the project's strategies and their use of target vocabulary words. In addition, children in the intervention classrooms performed significantly better on measures of taught vocabulary words, and HLM analyses found gains on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (d?=?0.19) and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (d?=?0.14), both standardized measures of vocabulary development. The results suggest that Story Talk holds promise as a relatively resource-conservative PD intervention that can be implemented with fidelity and can significantly improve children's vocabulary development, especially among children in high-poverty schools.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
A curriculum supplement that integrates transmedia to promote early math learning: A randomized controlled trial of a PBS KIDS intervention. (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
A study of the developing relations between self-regulation and mathematical knowledge in the context of an early math intervention (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Reducing child problem behaviors and improving teacher-child interactions and relationships: A randomized controlled trial of BEST in CLASS (2018)
Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic problem behaviors; however, Tier-2 interventions that can be delivered by teachers with fidelity in authentic settings are lacking. This study examined the effect of BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 intervention delivered by teachers, on child problem behavior, teacher-child interactions and teacher-child relationships using a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Participants were 465 children (3–5 year olds) identified at risk for the development of EBDs and their 185 teachers from early childhood programs located in two southeastern states. Significant effects were found across both teacher reported (ES ranging from 0.23 to 0.42) and observed child outcomes (ES ranging form 0.44–0.46), as well as teacher-child relationships (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.29) and observed teacher-children interactions (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.45), favoring the BEST in CLASS condition. Results suggest the promise of BEST in CLASS as a Tier-2 intervention for use in authentic early childhood classroom contexts and provide implications for future research on transactional models of teacher and child behavior.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
The sequential scale-up of an evidence-based intervention: A case study. (2018)
Policymakers face dilemmas when choosing a policy, program, or practice to implement. Researchers in education, public health, and other fields have proposed a sequential approach to identifying interventions worthy of broader adoption, involving pilot, efficacy, effectiveness, and scale-up studies. In this paper, we examine a scale-up of an early math intervention to the state level, using a cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention, "Pre-K Mathematics," has produced robust positive effects on children's math ability in prior pilot, efficacy, and effectiveness studies. In the current study, we ask if it remains effective at a larger scale in a heterogeneous collection of pre-K programs that plausibly represent all low-income families with a child of pre-K age who live in California. We find that "Pre-K Mathematics" remains effective at the state level, with positive and statistically significant effects (effect size = 0.30, p < 0.01). In addition, we develop a framework of the dimensions of scale-up to explain why effect sizes might decrease as scale increases. Using this framework, we compare the causal estimates from the present study to those from earlier, smaller studies. Consistent with our framework, we find that effect sizes have decreased over time. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our study for how we think about the external validity of causal relationships. [This is the online version of an article published in "Evaluation Review."]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Evaluating the Impact of the Investing in Innovation Fund (i3) UPSTART Project on Rural Preschoolers' Early Literacy Skills (2017)
UPSTART is a federally funded i3 validation project that uses a computer-based program to develop the school readiness skills of preschool children in rural Utah. Researchers used a randomized control trial design to evaluate the impact of the program in advancing children's early literacy skills. Preschoolers in the experimental group were randomly assigned to the UPSTART Reading software, while control group students were assigned to UPSTART Math. Standardized early literacy assessments were administered prior to program commencement and upon completion. Results revealed that there was a significant difference in children's mean scores on measures of letter knowledge and phonological awareness, after controlling for prior knowledge, missing pre-test data, and children's school district between those who participated in UPSTART Reading and those in the comparison group. There were no differences between the two groups on assessments measuring vocabulary and oral language or listening comprehension.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Evaluating the implementation of the Pyramid Model for promoting social-emotional competence in early childhood classrooms. (2016)
We conducted a potential efficacy trial examining the effects of classroom-wide implementation of the "Pyramid Model for Promoting Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence" on teachers' implementation of "Pyramid Model" practices and children's social-emotional skills and challenging behavior. Participants were 40 preschool teachers and 494 children. Using a randomized controlled design, 20 teachers received a professional development (PD) intervention to support their implementation of the practices. The 20 teachers in the control condition received workshops after all study-related data were collected. Teachers who received PD significantly improved their implementation of "Pyramid Model" practices relative to control teachers. Children in intervention teachers' classrooms were rated as having better social skills and fewer challenging behaviors relative to children in control teachers' classrooms. Exploratory analyses showed that children at elevated risk for behavior disorders in intervention teachers' classrooms had improvements in their observed social interaction skills relative to similar children in control teachers' classrooms.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Effects of tutorial interventions in mathematics and attention for low-performing preschool children. (2016)
Two intervention approaches designed to address the multifaceted academic and cognitive difficulties of low-income children who enter pre-K with very low math knowledge were tested in a randomized experiment. Blocking on classroom, children who met screening criteria were assigned to a Math + Attention condition in which the Pre-Kindergarten Mathematics Tutorial (PKMT) intervention was implemented (4 days/week for 24 weeks) in addition to 16 adaptive attention training sessions, a Math-Only condition using the PKMT intervention, or a business-as-usual condition. Five hundred eighteen children were assessed at pretest and posttest. There was a significant effect of the PKMT intervention on a broad measure of informal mathematical knowledge and a small but significant effect on a measure of numerical knowledge. Attention training was associated with small effects on attention, but did not provide additional benefit for mathematics. A main effect of state on math outcomes was associated with a stronger, numeracy-focused Tier 1 mathematics curriculum in one state. Findings are discussed with respect to increasing intensity of math-specific and domain-general interventions for young children at risk for mathematical learning difficulties.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Means comparison of children enrolled in UPSTART Reading and UPSTART Math on early literacy outcomes (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Preschool teachers can use a PBS KIDS Transmedia Curriculum Supplement to support young children's mathematics learning: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Summative evaluation of the CPB-PBS "Ready To Learn Initiative." (2013)
This report presents results from the "Ready To Learn" Prekindergarten Transmedia Mathematics Study, a principal part of the summative evaluation of "Ready To Learn," which is a partnership between the US Department of Education, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and PBS. Researchers found that preschool children who experienced a PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement developed essential early mathematics skills. The PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement was centered around public media videos and digital games, played on a selected set of learning technologies (interactive whiteboards and laptop computers). The important skills measure--counting; subitizing; recognizing numerals; recognizing, composing, and representing shapes; and patterning--increased significantly for the study's four- and five-year-old children, who were from traditionally economically disadvantaged communities where children are often less prepared for kindergarten than are their more socially and economically advantaged peers. Also important, preschool teachers who enacted the PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement reported significant changes in their confidence and comfort with early mathematics concepts and teaching with technology. [This report was co-produced by SRI's Center for Technology in Learning (CTL).]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K 1
Cluster (School) RCT of ParentCorps: Impact on kindergarten academic achievement. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Supplementing literacy instruction with a media-rich intervention: Results of a randomized controlled trial (2012)
This study investigates whether a curriculum supplement organized as a sequence of teacher-led literacy activities using digital content from public educational television programs can improve early literacy outcomes of low-income preschoolers. The study sample was 436 children in 80 preschool classrooms in California and New York. Preschool teachers were randomly assigned to implement either a 10-week media-rich early literacy intervention that employed clips from "Sesame Street", "Between the Lions", and "SuperWhy!" or to a comparison condition. The media-rich literacy supplement had positive impacts (+0.20 less than or equal to d less than or equal to +0.55) on children's ability to recognize letters, sounds of letters and initial sounds of words, and children's concepts of story and print. The study findings show the potential for incorporating literacy content from public media programming into curriculum supplements supported by professional development to impact early literacy outcomes of low-income children. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Mathematics learned by young children in an intervention based on learning trajectories: A large-scale cluster randomized trial. (2011)
This study employed a cluster randomized trial design to evaluate the effectiveness of a research-based intervention for improving the mathematics education of very young children. This intervention includes the "Building Blocks" mathematics curriculum, which is structured in research-based learning trajectories, and congruous professional development emphasizing teaching for understanding via learning trajectories and technology. A total of 42 schools serving low-resource communities were randomly selected and randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups using a randomized block design involving 1,375 preschoolers in 106 classrooms. Teachers implemented the intervention with adequate fidelity. Pre- to posttest scores revealed that the children in the Building Blocks group learned more mathematics than the children in the control group (effect size, g = 0.72). Specific components of a measure of the quantity and quality of classroom mathematics environments and teaching partially mediated the treatment effect. (Contains 5 tables and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Head Start impact study. (2010)
This report addresses the following four questions by reporting on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and 1st grade years: (1) What difference does Head Start make to key outcomes of development and learning (and in particular, the multiple domains of school readiness) for low-income children? (2) What difference does Head Start make to parental practices that contribute to children's school readiness? (3) Under what circumstances does Head Start achieve the greatest impact? What works for which children? (4) What Head Start services are most related to impact? The Head Start Impact Study was conducted with a nationally representative sample of 84 grantee/delegate agencies and included nearly 5,000 newly entering, eligible 3- and 4-year-old children who were randomly assigned to either: (1) a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or (2) a control group that did not have access to Head Start, but could enroll in other early childhood programs or non-Head Start services selected by their parents. The study was designed to separately examine two cohorts of children, newly entering 3-and 4-year-olds. This design reflects the hypothesis that different program impacts may be associated with different age of entry into Head Start. Differential impacts are of particular interest in light of a trend of increased enrollment of the 3-year-olds in some grantee/delegate agencies presumably due to the growing availability of preschool options for 4-year-olds. Consequently, the study included two separate samples: a newly entering 3-year-old group (to be studied through two years of Head Start participation i.e., Head Start year and age 4 year, kindergarten and 1st grade), and a newly entering 4-year-old group (to be studied through one year of Head Start participation, kindergarten and 1st grade). The study showed that the two age cohorts varied in demographic characteristics, making it even more appropriate to examine them separately. The racial/ethnic characteristics of newly entering children in the 3-year-old cohort were substantially different from the characteristics of children in the newly entering 4-year-old cohort. While the newly entering 3-year-olds were relatively evenly distributed between Black children and Hispanic children (Black children 32.8%, Hispanic children 37.4%, and White/other children 29.8%), about half of newly entering 4-year-olds were Hispanic children (Black children 17.5%, Hispanic children 51.6%, and White/other children 30.8%). The ethnic difference is also reflected in the age-group differences in child and parent language. This report presents the findings from the preschool years through children's 1st grade experience. This document consists of the Executive Summary and nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents the study background, including a literature review of related Head Start research and the study purpose and objectives. Chapter 2 provides details about the study design and implementation. It discusses the experimental design, sample selection prior to random assignment, data collection, and data analysis. To provide a context in which to understand the impact findings, Chapter 3 examines the impact of Head Start on the services and child care settings that children experience prior to starting school. It also provides the impact of Head Start on the educational and child care settings, setting characteristics, and services that children experience during kindergarten and 1st grade. Chapters 4 through 7 present the impact of Head Start on children's outcomes and parenting practices for the years before school and then for kindergarten and 1st grade. Chapter 4 presents the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive development, Chapter 5 presents the impact of Head Start on children's social-emotional development, Chapter 6 presents the impact of Head Start on children's health status and access to health services, and Chapter 7 presents the impact of Head Start on parenting practices in the areas of educational activities, discipline practices, and school involvement. Chapter 8 examines variation in impacts by child characteristics, parent and family characteristics, and community characteristics. Chapter 9 provides an overall summary of the findings, implications for the Head Start Program, and unanswered questions. Appendices in this volume include the Head Start Impact Study legislation, a list of the official Head Start Impact Study Advisory Committee members, the language decision form used to determine the language in which the child was assessed, and data tables that elaborate on the findings presented in the volume (e.g., Impact on Treated (IOT) findings). The findings from a sample of programs in Puerto Rico are also provided in an appendix. Programs in Puerto Rico were included in the study with the intent that data on children in these programs would be analyzed along with the data on children in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, once children reached school-age. (Contains 1 figure, 117 footnotes, and 114 exhibits.) [The ERIC version of this document contains the following supplementary materials: Head Start Impact Study Main Impact Tables, 2003 through 2006; and Head Start Impact Study Subgroup Impact Tables, 2003 through 2006. For the "Head Start Impact Study Technical Report," see ED507846. For the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report. Executive Summary," see ED507847.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Effective early literacy skill development for young spanish-speaking english language learners: An experimental study of two methods. (2009)
Ninety-four Spanish-speaking preschoolers (M age = 54.51 months, SD = 4.72; 43 girls) were randomly assigned to receive the High/Scope Curriculum (control n = 32) or the Literacy Express Preschool Curriculum in English-only (n = 31) or initially in Spanish transitioning to English (n = 31). Children's emergent literacy skills were assessed before and after the intervention in Spanish and English. Children in the English-only and transitional groups made significant gains in their emergent literacy skills in both Spanish and English compared to the control group, The English-only and transitional models were equally effective for English language outcomes, but for Spanish-language outcomes, only the transitional model was effective. The results suggest that a targeted early literacy intervention can improve Spanish-speaking preschoolers' preliteracy skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Effects of a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention: A randomized experiment. (2008)
Research indicates that a socioeconomic status-related gap in mathematical knowledge appears early and widens during early childhood. Young children from economically disadvantaged families receive less support for mathematical development both at home and in preschool. Consequently, children from different socioeconomic backgrounds enter elementary school at different levels of readiness to learn a standards-based mathematics curriculum. One approach to closing this gap is the development and implementation of effective mathematics curricula for public preschool programs enrolling economically disadvantaged children. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 Head Start and state preschool classrooms, with 278 children, to determine whether a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention was effective. Intervention teachers received training that enabled them to implement with fidelity, and a large majority of parents regularly used math activities teachers sent home. Intervention and control groups did not differ on math assessments at pretest; however, gain scores of intervention children were significantly greater than those of control children at posttest. Thus, the intervention reduced the gap in children's early mathematical knowledge. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Experimental evaluation of the effects of a research-based preschool mathematics curriculum. (2008)
A randomized-trials design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a preschool mathematics program based on a comprehensive model of research-based curricula development. Thirty-six preschool classrooms were assigned to experimental (Building Blocks), comparison (a different preschool mathematics curriculum), or control conditions. Children were individually pre- and posttested, participating in 26 weeks of instruction in between. Observational measures indicated that the curricula were implemented with fidelity, and the experimental condition had significant positive effects on classrooms' mathematics environment and teaching. The experimental group score increased significantly more than the comparison group score (effect size = 0.47) and the control group score (effect size = 1.07). Early interventions can increase the quality of the mathematics environment and help preschoolers develop a foundation of mathematics knowledge. (Contains 7 tables, 1 figure, and 1 note.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Promoting the development of preschool children’s emergent literacy skills: A randomized evaluation of a literacy-focused curriculum and two professional development models. (2005, April)
To date, there have been few causally interpretable evaluations of the impacts of preschool curricula on the skills of children at-risk for academic difficulties, and even fewer studies have demonstrated statistically significant or educationally meaningful effects. In this cluster-randomized study, we evaluated the impacts of a literacy-focused preschool curriculum and two types of professional development on the emergent literacy skills of preschool children at-risk for educational difficulties. Forty-eight preschools were randomly assigned to a business-as-usual control, a literacy-focused curriculum with workshop-only professional development, or a literacy-focused curriculum with workshop plus in-class mentoring professional development conditions. An ethnically diverse group of 739 preschool children was assessed on language and literacy outcomes. Results revealed significant and moderate effects for the curriculum and small, mostly nonsignificant, effects of professional development across child outcomes and classroom measures.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
Children's Literacy Initiative's Blueprint for Early Literacy: Year 2 Evaluation Report. (2018)
Research for Action's Year Two evaluation report indicates that most lead teachers demonstrated high fidelity to the key elements of the Blueprint approach in the classroom, though some teachers experienced issues related to differentiating instruction and the simultaneous implementation of Blueprint and Creative Curriculum. The authors found strong evidence of impact on teachers and students: multiple data sources demonstrated that teachers and children in Blueprint centers benefitted from the Blueprint curriculum and professional development. Children in Children's Literacy Initiative (CLI)-served classrooms made 2-3 months of additional progress in vocabulary development compared to children in similar classrooms not supported by CLI. Though less than a quarter of lead teachers in Blueprint classrooms in Spring 2018 received intended amount of training and coaching due to high turnover and variable attendance, most teachers had at least attended the Introduction to Blueprint 3.0 training and received at least one full year's worth of coaching (over 20 hours). This report is comprised of two studies that provide in-depth findings of Year Two Blueprint implementation (resources and activities) and impacts (teacher and student outcomes). Study 1: Blueprint Implementation is a descriptive study of the quality of implementation of Blueprint in 11 Philadelphia pre-K centers. This study also followed up on findings from Year One, including an in-depth exploration of challenges to implementation-- consistent attendance at trainings, finding time for coaching conferences, and coaching amidst high teacher turnover--and CLI strategies to address them. Study 2: Impact of Blueprint on Teachers and Students is a study that employed a mixed-methods quasi-experimental research design, involving 11 centers receiving Blueprint professional development and curriculum and 11 centers serving as a comparison group. [Additional funding for this report was provided by The 25th Century Foundation, The Caroline Alexander Buck Foundation, and The Capital Group Companies.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
A randomized control trial of a statewide voluntary prekindergarten program on children’s skills and behaviors through third grade (Research report). (2015)
In 2009, Vanderbilt University's Peabody Research Institute, in coordination with the Tennessee Department of Education's Division of Curriculum and Instruction, initiated a rigorous, independent evaluation of the state's Voluntary Prekindergarten program (TN- VPK). TN-VPK is a full-day prekindergarten program for four-year-old children expected to enter kindergarten the following school year. The program in each participating school district must meet standards set by the State Board of Education that require each classroom to have a teacher with a license in early childhood development and education, an adult-student ratio of no less than 1:10, a maximum class size of 20, and an approved age-appropriate curriculum. TN-VPK is an optional program focused on the neediest children in the state. It uses a tiered admission process, with children from low-income families who apply to the program admitted first. Any remaining seats in a given location are then allocated to otherwise at-risk children, including those with disabilities and limited English proficiency. The current report presents findings from this evaluation summarizing the longitudinal effects of TN-VPK on pre-kindergarten through third grade achievement and behavioral outcomes for an Intensive Substudy Sample of 1076 children, of which 773 were randomly assigned to attend TN-VPK classrooms and 303 were not admitted. Both groups have been followed since the beginning of the pre-k year.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
Scaling up the implementation of a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention in public preschool programs (Final Report: IES Grant R305K050004) (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K 2
Longitudinal evaluation of a scale-up model for teaching mathematics with trajectories and technologies. (2012)
We used a cluster randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a research-based model for scaling up educational interventions, focusing on the persistence of effects with and without a follow-through intervention. The instantiation of the Technology-enhanced, Research-based, Instruction, Assessment, and professional Development (TRIAD) model emphasized teaching early mathematics for understanding via learning trajectories and technology. The TRIAD implementation began in 42 schools in two city districts serving low-resource communities, randomly assigned to three conditions. In pre-kindergarten, the 2 experimental interventions were identical, but 1 included follow-through in the kindergarten year, including knowledge of the pre-K intervention and ways to build upon that knowledge using learning trajectories. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that students in both the follow-through condition (g = 0.33) and non-follow-through condition (g = 0.22) scored statistically significantly higher than children in the control condition. Both groups outperformed the control condition in treatment-on-the-treated analyses (g = 0.38, follow-through; g = 0.30 non-follow-through). Moderators and mediators were also analyzed. We conclude that the instantiation of the TRIAD model was successful and that follow through may contribute to the persistence of the effects of preschool interventions. (Contains 5 tables and 3 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
Pre-K Mathematics supplemented with DLM Early Childhood Express Math software: University of California, Berkeley and University at Buffalo, State University of New York. In Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 131–142) (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
National evaluation of Early Reading First: Final report (NCEE 2007–4007). (2007)
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 created the Early Reading First (ERF) program to enhance teacher practices, instructional content, and classroom environments in preschools and to help ensure that young children start school with the skills needed for academic success. This report to Congress describes the impacts of the Early Reading First program on the language and literacy skills of children and on the instructional content and practices in preschool classrooms. The main findings of the national evaluation of ERF show that the program had positive, statistically significant impacts on several classroom and teacher outcomes and on one of four child outcomes measured. The program had no effect on children's phonological awareness or oral language. This report contains an executive summary and eight chapters: (1) Introduction and Study Background; (2) Study Design; (3) Characteristics of Participating Children and Families; (4) Characteristics of Programs Receiving ERF Funding; (5) Professional Development, Instructional Practices, and Classroom Environments in ERF Preschools; (6) Impacts on Teachers and Classroom Practices; (7) Impact Findings: ERF Impacts on Children's Language and Literacy Skills and Social-Emotional Outcomes; and (8) Analysis of Mediators of ERF's Impacts on Classroom Instructional Practice and Children's Language and Literacy Skills. Appendices include: (A) Impact Analysis Methods and Sensitivity of Results; (B) Data-Collection Methods; (C) Assessment and Observation Measures Used for ERF Data Collection; (D) Supplementary Tables on the Impacts of ERF on Teachers and Classroom Environments; (E) ERF Impacts on Teacher and Classroom Outcomes; Subgroups Analyses; (F) ERF Impacts on Child Outcomes; Subgroups Analyses; and (G) Supplemental Descriptive Tables for Teacher Outcomes and Classroom Practice. (Contains 63 tables, 12 figures, and 5 exhibits.) [This report was produced by the National Center for Education Evaluation and RegionalAssistance, Institute of Education Sciences.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
The life cycle benefits of an influential early childhood program (December 2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Two May Be Better than One: Promoting Incidental Word Learning through Multiple Media (2021)
Previous studies have often compared and contrasted differences among media presentations, including traditional storybooks and videos and their potential for incidental word learning among preschoolers. Studies have shown that children learn words from a variety of media, and that repetition is an important source for incidental learning. Yet, to date, little is known about how repeated presentations of different media, and the possible additive effect of these presentations may affect incidental word learning. Conducted over three phases, 140 preschoolers viewed or listened to two stories, repeated either with a single medium (traditional book "or" video) or two media (book "and" video) to stories. Results indicated that gains in incidental word learning were significantly stronger when children viewed two different media of comparable content compared to two exposures to a single medium. However, neither condition affected children's comprehension of the story. Findings suggest that two media presentations of comparable stories may be more effective in promoting incidental word learning than repeated presentations of a single medium.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Efficacy Validation of the Revised First Step Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2020)
Disruptive behavior problems frequently emerge in the preschool years and are associated with numerous, long-term negative outcomes, including comorbid disorders. First Step is a psychosocial early intervention with substantial empirical evidence supporting its efficacy among young children. The present study reports on a validation study of the revised and updated First Step early intervention, called First Step Next, conducted within four preschool settings. One hundred sixty students at risk for school failure, and their teachers, were randomized to intervention and control conditions. Results indicated coach and teacher adherence to implementing the core components of the program was excellent. Teachers and parents had high satisfaction ratings. For the three First Step Next prosocial domains, Hedges’ g effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 0.34 to 0.91. For the problem behavior domain, children who received the First Step Next intervention had significant reductions in teacher- and parent-reported problem behavior as compared to children randomized to the control condition. For the problem behavior domain, Hedges’ g ESs ranged from 0.33 to 0.63, again favoring the intervention condition. All of the domains were statistically significant. This study builds on the evidence base supporting the First Step intervention in preschool settings.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Early Efficacy of Multitiered Dual-Language Instruction: Promoting Preschoolers’ Spanish and English Oral Language (2020)
The purpose of this cluster randomized group study was to investigate the effect of multitiered, dual-language instruction on children's oral language skills, including vocabulary, narrative retell, receptive and expressive language, and listening comprehension. The participants were 3- to 5-year-old children (n = 81) who were learning English and whose home language was Spanish. Across the school year, classroom teachers in the treatment group delivered large-group lessons in English to the whole class twice per week. For a Tier 2 intervention, the teachers delivered small-group lessons 4 days a week, alternating the language of intervention daily (first Spanish, then English). Group posttest differences were statistically significant, with moderate to large effect sizes favoring the treatment group on all the English proximal measures and on three of the four Spanish proximal measures. Treatment group advantages were observed on Spanish and English norm-referenced standardized measures of language (except vocabulary) and a distal measure of language comprehension. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED603565.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Evaluating the efficacy of a learning trajectory for early shape composition (2019)
Although basing instruction on learning trajectories (LTs) is often recommended, there is little direct evidence regarding the premise of a LT approach--that instruction should be presented (only) one LT level beyond a child's present level. We evaluated this hypothesis in the domain of early shape composition. One group of preschoolers, who were at least two levels below the target instructional LT level, received instruction based on an empirically validated LT. The counterfactual (skip-levels) group received an equal amount of instruction focused only on the target level. At posttest, children in the LT condition exhibited significantly greater learning than children in the skip-levels condition, mainly on near-transfer items; no child-level variables were significant moderators. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED594902.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Supporting Preschool Children with Developmental Concerns: Effects of the Getting Ready Intervention on School-Based Social Competencies and Relationships (2019)
The current study reports the results of a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of the Getting Ready parent engagement intervention on young children's social-emotional competencies and the quality of the student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships. Participants were 267 preschool-aged children and their parents, as well as 97 preschool teachers. All children attended publicly funded preschool programs and were low income. In addition, all were considered educationally at risk due to developmental concerns in the areas of language, cognition and/or social-emotional development. Parent and teacher surveys were administered twice per academic year (fall and spring) for two academic years. Findings indicated that children in the treatment group were rated by their teachers to have greater improvement in social skills over two years of preschool as compared to their peers in the comparison condition. Teachers in the treatment condition reported significantly greater increases in their relationships with children as compared to children in the comparison group. Teachers in the intervention group also reported significant increases in their overall relationships with parents. The current findings illustrate the efficacy of Getting Ready at improving the social skills and important relationships for preschool children experiencing developmental risk. [This paper was published in "Early Childhood Research Quarterly" v48 n3 p303-316 2019.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
The language of play: Developing preschool vocabulary through play following shared book-reading (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Efficacy of the ASAP Intervention for Preschoolers with ASD: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (2018)
The advancing social-communication and play (ASAP) intervention was designed as a classroom-based intervention, in which the educational teams serving preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder are trained to implement the intervention in order to improve these children's social-communication and play skills. In this 4-year, multi-site efficacy trial, classrooms were randomly assigned to ASAP or a business-as-usual control condition. A total of 78 classrooms, including 161 children, enrolled in this study. No significant group differences were found for the primary outcomes of children's social-communication and play. However, children in the ASAP group showed increased classroom engagement. Additionally, participation in ASAP seemed to have a protective effect for one indicator of teacher burnout. Implications for future research are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Contrasting approaches to the response-contingent learning of young children with significant delays and their social–emotional consequences (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Causal connections between mathematical language and mathematical knowledge: A dialogic reading intervention. (2017)
The acquisition of early mathematical knowledge is critical for successful long-term academic development. Mathematical language is one of the strongest predictors of children's early mathematical success. Findings from previous studies have provided correlational evidence supporting the importance of mathematical language to the development of children's mathematics skills, but there is limited causal evidence supporting this link. To address this research gap, 47 Head Start children were randomly assigned to a mathematical language intervention group or a business-as-usual group. Over the course of eight weeks, interventionists implemented a dialogic reading intervention focused on quantitative and spatial mathematical language. At posttest, students in the intervention group significantly outperformed the students in the comparison group not only on a mathematical language assessment, but on a mathematical knowledge assessment as well. These findings indicate that increasing children's exposure to mathematical language can positively affect their general mathematics skills. This study is an important first step in providing causal evidence of the importance of early mathematical language for children's general mathematical knowledge and the potential for mathematical language interventions to increase children's overall mathematics abilities.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Early childhood mental health consultation: Results of a statewide random-controlled evaluation. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Five minutes a day to improve comprehension monitoring in oral language contexts: An exploratory intervention study with prekindergartners from low-income families. (2016)
Comprehension monitoring has received substantial attention as a reading comprehension strategy. However, comprehension monitoring is not limited to the reading context, but applies to the oral context for children's listening comprehension, which is a critical foundation for reading comprehension. Therefore, a systematic and explicit instructional routine for comprehension monitoring in oral language contexts was developed for prekindergartners from low-income families. Instruction was provided in small groups for approximately 5 min a day for 4 days a week for 8 weeks. Results showed that children who received comprehension monitoring instruction were better at identifying inconsistencies in short stories than those who received typical instruction with a medium effect size (d = 0.57). These results suggest comprehension monitoring is malleable and can be taught in the oral language context to prereaders from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Furthermore, the instructional routine reported in this study is flexible for individual, small group, or whole class settings, and likely can be easily delivered by educators such as teachers and paraeducators.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Supporting vocabulary teaching and learning in prekindergarten: The role of educative curriculum materials. (2015)
The purpose of this study was to support teachers' child-directed language and student outcomes by enhancing the educative features of an intervention targeted to vocabulary, conceptual development and comprehension. Using a set of design heuristics (Davis & Krajcik, 2005), our goal was to support teachers' professional development within the curriculum materials. Ten pre-K classrooms with a total of 143 children were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Observations of teacher talk, including characteristics of lexically-rich and cognitively demanding language were conducted before and during the intervention. Measures of child outcomes, pre- and post-intervention included both standardized and curriculum-based assessments. Results indicated significant improvements in the quality of teachers' talk in the treatment compared to the control group, and significant gains for child outcomes. These results suggest that educative curriculum may be a promising approach to facilitate both teacher and student learning.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Easy as ABCABC: Abstract language facilitates performance on a concrete patterning task. (2015)
The labels used to describe patterns and relations can influence children's relational reasoning. In this study, 62 preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 4.4 years) solved and described eight pattern abstraction problems (i.e., recreated the relation in a model pattern using novel materials). Some children were exposed to concrete labels (e.g., blue-red-blue-red) and others were exposed to abstract labels (e.g., A-B-A-B). Children exposed to abstract labels solved more problems correctly than children exposed to concrete labels. Children's correct adoption of the abstract language into their own descriptions was particularly beneficial. Thus, using concrete learning materials in combination with abstract representations can enhance their utility for children's performance. Furthermore, abstract language may play a key role in the development of relational thinking.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
The effectiveness of teaching number relationships in preschool (2013)
Number relationships, which go far beyond counting skills, refer to the ability to represent a quantity in multiple, flexible ways. It is arguably among the most important mathematics concepts in number and quantity. The current study examined the effectiveness of number relationships instruction in preschool classrooms. Participants included 73 children and 4 teachers from a half-day preschool program in a local school district. For the intervention group, two teachers provided number relationships instruction to 37 of the children in their classrooms (four sections total). No treatment occurred for the control group consisting of the remaining 36 children taught by two teachers. Before and after the 12-week treatment period, the TEMA-3 (Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3rd Edition) was administered both as a pretest and a posttest to assess children's understanding of number and quantity. Results indicated that children in the intervention group who received mathematics instruction with the emphasis on teaching number relationships scored significantly higher on the posttest than their counterparts in the control group. However, results of the current study did not reveal any advantages by age group for number relationships instruction. Small sample size may have limited this analysis.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Family-based training program improves brain function, cognition, and behavior in lower socioeconomic status preschoolers. (2013)
Over the course of several years of research, the authors have employed psychophysics, electrophysiological (ERP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to study the development and neuroplasticity of the human brain. During this time, they observed that different brain systems and related functions display markedly different degrees or "profiles" of neuroplasticity. Most relevant for the application of research in cognitive neuroscience to the design of education interventions are results showing that some systems are highly modifiable by experience and are dependent on experience but only during particular time periods ("sensitive periods"). In such systems they also observed Systems that are most modifiable (i.e., display more neuroplasticity) display both enhancements in the deaf and blind, and greater vulnerability in those with or at risk for developmental disorders. One system that displays this profile is sustained selective attention. Considerable evidence documents the central role of selective attention in all aspects of learning and memory, and school readiness in particular (for review, see Stevens & Bavelier, 2012). Selective attention is a highly malleable system that is both enhanced in remaining modalities following sensory deprivation, shows deficits in developmental disorders and in typically developing children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds and that can be increased in both typically and non-typically developing children following computerized training (Stevens & Neville, 2009; Stevens, Lauinger, & Neville, 2009; Stevens, et al., 2008). Guided in part by these findings, the authors developed and assessed an eight-week, family-based training program designed to improve lower SES preschool children's academic readiness and, centrally, selective attention. 141 3-5 year-old children enrolled in Head Start (HS) and their parents participated in the current study which took place at the Brain Development Laboratory at the University of Oregon and Head Start sites in Lane County, Oregon. The training program, Parents and Children Making Connections: Highlighting Attention (PCMC-A), included both a child-directed component, as well as a family-based, parent directed component. Parents attended eight weekly, two-hour small-group classes that occurred in the evenings or on weekends at HS sites, and their children participated in concurrent small group training activities. Results show that a program that targets child attention using a family-based model involving children and their parents is highly effective in changing children's neurocognitive function as well as their parents' caregiving behaviors in the relatively short timeframe of eight weeks. The evidence presented here suggests that programs that target multiple pathways, including parents and the home environment, have the potential to narrow the large and growing gap in school readiness and academic achievement between higher and lower SES children. Two figures are appended.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Increasing young children’s contact with print during shared reading: Longitudinal effects on literacy achievement. (2012)
Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book readings 2 or 4 times per week during which their teachers verbally and nonverbally referenced print. Children in comparison classrooms experienced their teachers' typical book reading style. Longitudinal results (n = 356, 366) showed that use of print references had significant impacts on children's early literacy skills (reading, spelling, comprehension) for 2 years following the RCT's conclusion. Results indicate a causal relation between early print knowledge and later literacy skills and have important implications concerning the primary prevention of reading difficulties.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Reducing the gap in numerical knowledge between low- and middle-income preschoolers. (2011)
We compared the learning from playing a linear number board game of preschoolers from middle-income backgrounds to the learning of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Playing this game produced greater learning by both groups than engaging in other numerical activities for the same amount of time. The benefits were present on number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and arithmetic learning. Children with less initial knowledge generally learned more, and children from low-income backgrounds learned at least as much, and on several measures more, than preschoolers from middle-income backgrounds with comparable initial knowledge. The findings suggest a class of intervention that might be especially effective for reducing the gap between low-income and middle-income children's knowledge when they enter school.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
The effects of syllable instruction on phonemic awareness in preschoolers. (2011)
Purpose: Preschooler instruction for speech sound awareness typically teaches a progression of speech units from sentences to phonemes, ending at simple first phoneme activities. This study investigates the effects of teaching advanced tasks of phoneme blending and segmenting with and without the larger speech unit of the syllable. Method: Thirty-nine 4-5-year-old typically developing children received twice-weekly small-group instruction in three conditions: two weeks of syllable tasks then four weeks of multiple phoneme tasks (SP), four weeks of multiple phoneme tasks only (MP), or an active control condition of first phoneme instruction (FP). Results: The conditions SP and MP showed large significant gains on blending and segmenting and no significant differences on first phoneme isolating compared to the FP condition. A comparison of SP and MP did not show significant differences on phoneme blending and segmenting, but SP showed significantly more confusion during early sessions of phoneme instruction. Conclusion: This preliminary evidence suggests that preschoolers can improve understanding of phoneme blending and segmenting, without first being taught syllable blending and segmenting, and with no negative effects on first sound awareness. These findings support a more efficient way of teaching preschoolers awareness of the individual sounds of speech. Replication with a larger sample, including children at-risk for literacy difficulties, is recommended before firm conclusions should be drawn. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Randomized, controlled trial of the LEAP model of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders. (2011)
A clustered randomized design was used in which 28 inclusive preschool classrooms were randomly assigned to receive 2 years of training and coaching to fidelity in the LEAP (Learning Experiences and Alternative Program for Preschoolers and Their Parents) preschool model, and 28 inclusive classes were assigned to receive intervention manuals only. In total, 177 intervention classroom children and 117 comparison classroom children participated. Children were similar on all measures at start. After 2 years, experimental class children were found to have made significantly greater improvement than their comparison cohorts on measures of cognitive, language, social, and problem behavior, and autism symptoms. Behavior at entry did not predict outcome nor did family socioeconomic status. The fidelity with which teachers implemented LEAP strategies did predict outcomes. Finally, social validity measurement showed that procedures and outcomes were favorably viewed by intervention class teachers. (Contains 1 figure and 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Promoting effective parenting practices and preventing child behavior problems in school among ethnically diverse families from underserved, urban communities. (2011)
This study examines the efficacy of "ParentCorps" among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. "ParentCorps" includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health professionals. "ParentCorps" resulted in significant benefits on effective parenting practices and teacher ratings of child behavior problems in school. Intervention effects were of similar magnitude for families at different levels of risk and for Black and Latino families. The number of sessions attended was related to improvements in parenting. Study findings support investment in and further study of school-based family interventions for children from underserved, urban communities. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-Not reported 3
Developing vocabulary and conceptual knowledge for low-income preschoolers: A design experiment (2011)
The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected to participate in the World of Words, a 12-min daily supplemental vocabulary intervention; six classes (N = 89) served as a comparison group. Our questions addressed whether the difficulty of words influenced the acquisition and retention of words and whether learning words in taxonomies might support vocabulary development and inference generation. We addressed these questions in two design phases for a total intervention period of 16 weeks. Pre- and post-unit assessments measured children's expressive language gains, categorical development, and inference generation. Significant differences were recorded between treatment and comparison groups on word knowledge and category development. Furthermore, children in the treatment group demonstrated the ability to infer beyond what was specifically taught. These results suggest that instructional design features may work to accelerate word learning for low-income children. (Contains 2 notes, 6 tables, and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
The impact of instruction in text structure on listening comprehension in preschool age students (Doctoral dissertation). (2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
ELL preschoolers’ English vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading (2010)
This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to experimental or control groups. Eight books were selected and paired. Experimental participants heard books read three times over a 3-week period with rich explanations of target vocabulary. Controls heard stories read without explanations. Parents completed questionnaires about the frequency, content, and language of home reading practices. Rich explanation, initial L2 vocabulary, and frequency of home reading make significant contributions to sophisticated word learning from storyreading. Findings have important implications for L2 vocabulary acquisition in ELL preschoolers. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Does an activity-based learning strategy improve preschool children's memory for narrative passages? (2010)
Contemporary embodiment theory's indexical hypothesis predicts that engaging in text-relevant activity while listening to a story will: (1) enhance memory for enacted story content; and, (2) result in relatively greater memory enhancement for enacted atypical events than for typical ones ([Glenberg and Robertson, 1999] and [Glenberg and Robertson, 2000]). To date, indexical hypothesis predictions and applications have been examined only with adults and elementary school-aged children. The present study extended previous research by comparing an activity-based listening strategy to a listening-only strategy with 56 preschool children. The first hypothesis was supported in that children in the activity-based condition recalled more story actions than children in the listening-only condition. At the same time, this effect was relatively greater for children who were initially better at remembering story content than for initially poorer story rememberers. Consistent with previous research findings, no statistical differences between conditions were observed on memory for nonaction story content. The second hypothesis--that children in the activity-based strategy would exhibit comparatively greater memory enhancement for atypical story events relative to typical ones--was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Effective early literacy skill development for young Spanish-speaking English language learners: An experimental study of two methods (2009)
Ninety-four Spanish-speaking preschoolers (M age = 54.51 months, SD = 4.72; 43 girls) were randomly assigned to receive the High/Scope Curriculum (control n = 32) or the Literacy Express Preschool Curriculum in English-only (n = 31) or initially in Spanish transitioning to English (n = 31). Children's emergent literacy skills were assessed before and after the intervention in Spanish and English. Children in the English-only and transitional groups made significant gains in their emergent literacy skills in both Spanish and English compared to the control group, The English-only and transitional models were equally effective for English language outcomes, but for Spanish-language outcomes, only the transitional model was effective. The results suggest that a targeted early literacy intervention can improve Spanish-speaking preschoolers' preliteracy skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Playing linear number board games—but not circular ones—improves low-income preschoolers’ numerical understanding (2009)
A theoretical analysis of the development of numerical representations indicated that playing linear number board games should enhance preschoolers' numerical knowledge and ability to acquire new numerical knowledge. The effect on knowledge of numerical magnitudes was predicted to be larger when the game was played with a linear board than with a circular board because of a more direct mapping between the linear board and the desired mental representation. As predicted, playing the linear board game for roughly 1 hr increased low-income preschoolers' proficiency on the 2 tasks that directly measured understanding of numerical magnitudes--numerical magnitude comparison and number line estimation--more than playing the game with a circular board or engaging in other numerical activities. Also as predicted, children who had played the linear number board game generated more correct answers and better quality errors in response to subsequent training on arithmetic problems, a task hypothesized to be influenced by knowledge of numerical magnitudes. Thus, playing linear number board games not only increases preschoolers' numerical knowledge but also helps them learn from future numerical experiences. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Shared book reading: When and how questions affect young children’s word learning. (2009)
Shared book reading, and the conversation that accompanies it, can facilitate young children's vocabulary growth. To identify the features of extratextual questions that help 3-year-olds learn unfamiliar words during shared book reading, two experiments explored the impact of cognitive demand level, placement, and an approximation to scaffolding. Asking questions about target words improved children's comprehension and production of word-referent associations, and children with larger vocabularies learned more than children with smaller vocabularies. Neither the demand level nor placement of questions differentially affected word learning. However, an approximation to scaffolding, in which adults asked low demand questions when words first appeared and high demand questions later, did facilitate children's deeper understanding of word meanings as assessed with a definition task. These results are unique in experimentally demonstrating the value for word learning of shifting from less to more challenging input over time. Discussion focuses on why a scaffolding-like procedure improves children's acquisition of elaborated word meanings. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Promoting academic and social-emotional school readiness: The Head Start REDI program (2008)
Forty-four Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to enriched intervention (Head Start REDI—Research-based, Developmentally Informed) or “usual practice” conditions. The intervention involved brief lessons, “hands-on” extension activities, and specific teaching strategies linked empirically with the promotion of: (a) social-emotional competencies and (b) language development and emergent literacy skills. Take-home materials were provided to parents to enhance skill development at home. Multimethod assessments of three hundred and fifty-six 4-year-old children tracked their progress over the course of the 1-year program. Results revealed significant differences favoring children in the enriched intervention classrooms on measures of vocabulary, emergent literacy, emotional understanding, social problem solving, social behavior, and learning engagement. Implications are discussed for developmental models of school readiness and for early educational programs and policies.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Promoting broad and stable improvements in low-income children’s numerical knowledge through playing number board games. (2008)
Theoretical analyses of the development of numerical representations suggest that playing linear number board games should enhance young children's numerical knowledge. Consistent with this prediction, playing such a game for roughly 1 hr increased low-income preschoolers' (mean age = 5.4 years) proficiency on 4 diverse numerical tasks: numerical magnitude comparison, number line estimation, counting, and numeral identification. The gains remained 9 weeks later. Classmates who played an identical game, except for the squares varying in color rather than number, did not improve on any measure. Also as predicted, home experience playing number board games correlated positively with numerical knowledge. Thus, playing number board games with children from low-income backgrounds may increase their numerical knowledge at the outset of school.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Playing linear numerical board games promotes low-income children’s numerical development. (2008)
The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of preschoolers from low-income families lagged behind that of peers from more affluent backgrounds. Experiment 2 indicated that playing a simple numerical board game for four 15-minute sessions eliminated the differences in numerical estimation proficiency. Playing games that substituted colors for numbers did not have this effect. Thus, playing numerical board games offers an inexpensive means for reducing the gap in numerical knowledge that separates less and more affluent children when they begin school.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Evaluation of curricular approaches to enhance preschool early literacy skills. (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
The effects of a well-designed literacy program on young children’s language and literacy development. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Helping Preschoolers Learn Math: The Impact of Emphasizing the Patterns in Objects and Numbers (2021)
Preschoolers' repeating patterning knowledge is predictive of their concurrent and later math and numeracy knowledge, but strong experimental evidence is needed to determine if these relations are causal. The purpose of the current Study was to examine the causal effects of repeating patterning and numeracy tutoring on repeating patterning, numeracy, and general mathematics knowledge in the year before kindergarten (i.e., pre-K). Children in pre-K (N = 211) were randomly assigned to receive five sessions of researcher-delivered tutoring (a) on repeating patterns and numeracy or (b) on numeracy (and literacy as an active control), or received no tutoring and business as usual classroom instruction(control). Children who received tutoring in repeating patterning and numeracy improved in their repeating patterning knowledge the most. However, children's general math and numeracy knowledge improved similarly across conditions, and a specific aspect of numeracy emphasized during the tutoring did not improve. Children's repeating patterning knowledge is malleable, but this initial attempt to demonstrate causal links between repeating patterning and math knowledge was not successful. Results parallel mixed success in research training other skills, such as working memory or spatial skills, for improving mathematics knowledge. Findings are discussed in terms of the relations between patterning, numeracy, and general math knowledge in preschoolers. [This paper will be published in "Journal of Educational Psychology."]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Impacts of an Early Childhood Mathematics and Science Intervention on Teaching Practices and Child Outcomes (2020)
This randomized controlled trial examined effects of the MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science intervention on the quality and quantity of teachers' mathematics and science instruction, and children's mathematics and science outcomes in 140 pre-kindergarten classrooms. Teachers participated in the intervention for two years with consecutive cohorts of children. Results from Year 1 are considered experimental, however due to high levels of attrition, results from Year 2 are considered quasi-experimental. Across both years, intervention teachers exhibited higher quality and quantity of instruction. In Year 1, there were no significant effects of the intervention on children's outcomes. In Year 2, children in intervention classrooms made greater gains in teachers' ratings of mathematics and science skills and performed better on a spring assessment of science skills. These results have implications for designing and evaluating professional development aimed at supporting children's mathematics and science knowledge and skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The impact of a supplementary preschool mathematics curriculum on children's early mathematics learning (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Preschoolers with developmental speech and/or language impairment: Efficacy of the Teaching Early Literacy and Language (TELL) curriculum (2020)
Young children with developmental speech and/or language impairment (DSLI) often fail to develop oral language and early literacy skills that are foundational for subsequent schooling and reading success. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the efficacy of the Teaching Early Literacy and Language (TELL) curriculum and associated evidence-based teaching practices. Participants included 91 preschool classroom teachers and 202 male and 87 female preschoolers with DSLI who were enrolled in their classes. Children ranged in age from 43 to 63 months. In this cluster RCT, classroom teachers were randomly assigned to implement the TELL curriculum or to continue with their business-as-usual (BAU) curriculum. Proximal outcomes were assessed with investigator developed curriculum-based measures (CBMs) administered six times over the school year. Distal tests (pre-post) of oral language and early literacy skills included an investigator-developed pre-post expressive and receptive vocabulary test, two additional standardized measures (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool 2nd Edition, the Test of Preschool Early Literacy). A benchmarked early literacy assessment, the Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening PreK, was also administered. Results indicated a significant TELL effect for all CBMs at later measurement points with Cohen’s ds in the medium (0.43) to very large (1.25) range. TELL effects were also noted for the distal vocabulary measure with small to medium between-group effect sizes (Cohen’s f2ˆ range from 0.02 to 0.44). There were no significant TELL effects for the standardized distal measures. Based on progress measures, the TELL curriculum was effective for improving the oral language and early literacy skills of young children with DSLI.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
START-Play Physical Therapy Intervention Impacts Motor and Cognitive Outcomes in Infants with Neuromotor Disorders: A Multisite Randomized Clinical Trial (2020)
Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the Sitting Together and Reaching to Play (START-Play) intervention in young infants with neuromotor disorders. Method: This randomized controlled trial compared usual care-early intervention (UC-EI) with START-Play plus UC-EI. Analyses included 112 infants with motor delay (55 UC-EI, 57 START-Play) recruited at 7 to 16 months of age across 5 sites. START-Play included twice-weekly home visits with the infant and caregiver for 12 weeks provided by physical therapists trained in the START-Play intervention; UC-EI was not disrupted. Outcome measures were the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley); the Gross Motor Function Measure; reaching frequency; and the Assessment of Problem Solving in Play (APSP). Comparisons for the full group as well as separate comparisons for infants with mild motor delay and infants with significant motor delay were done. Piecewise linear mixed modeling estimated short- and long-term effects. Results: For infants with significant motor delay, positive effects of START-Play were observed at 3 months for Bayley cognition Bayley fine motor, and APSP and at 12 months for Bayley fine motor and reaching frequency outcomes. For infants with mild motor delay, positive effects of START-Play for the Bayley receptive communication outcome were found. For the UC-EI group, the only difference between groups was a positive effect for the APSP outcome, observed at 3 months. Conclusions: START-Play may advance reaching, problem-solving, cognitive, and fine motor skills for young infants with significant motor delay over UC-EI in the short term. START-Play in addition to UC-EI may not improve motor/cognitive outcomes for infants with milder motor delays over and above usual care. Impact: Concepts of embodied cognition, applied to early intervention in the START-Play intervention, may serve to advance cognition and motor skills in young infants with significant motor delays over usual care early intervention. Lay Summary: If you have a young infant with significant delays in motor skills, your physical therapist can work with you to develop play opportunities to enhance your child's problem-solving, such as that used in the START-Play intervention, in addition to usual care in order to help your child advance cognitive and motor skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Read It Again! in early childhood special education classrooms as compared to regular shared book reading (2020)
Read It Again! PreK (RIA) is a whole-class, teacher-implemented intervention that embeds explicit language and literacy instruction within the context of shared book reading and has prior evidence of supporting the language and literacy skills of preschool children. We conducted a conceptual replication to test its efficacy when implemented in early childhood special education classrooms relative to regular shared book reading. The randomized controlled trial involved 109 teachers and 726 children (341 with disabilities and 385 peers). Compared to the rigorous counterfactual condition, RIA significantly increased teachers’ provision of explicit instruction targeting phonological awareness, print knowledge, narrative, and vocabulary during shared book readings but had limited impact on children’s language and literacy skills. Findings underscore the need to conduct replication studies to identify interventions that realize effects for specific populations of interest, such as children with disabilities served in early childhood special education classrooms.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of teacher-delivered book reading and play on vocabulary learning and self-regulation among low-income preschool children. (2019)
There is a need for empirically based educational practices shown to support learning, yet validation tends to require a high degree of experimental control that can limit ecological validity and translation to classrooms. We describe our iterative intervention design to support preschoolers' vocabulary through book reading coupled with playful learning, including the process of translating research-based methods to an authentic teacher-delivered intervention. Effectiveness of the teacher-implemented intervention was examined by comparing book reading alone versus book reading plus play in supporting vocabulary development in preschoolers (N = 227) from low-income families with diverse backgrounds. Teachers used definitions, gestures, and pictures to teach vocabulary. During play, teachers led play with story-related figurines while using target vocabulary. Ten teachers read books and engaged children in play (read + play [R + P]), and 6 used only book reading (read-only [RO]). For children in both the R + P and RO conditions, within-subjects analyses of gains on taught versus control words revealed large effects on receptive (R + P, d = 1.08; RO, d = 0.92) and expressive vocabulary (R + P, d = 1.41; RO, d =1.23). Read-only had a statistically significant effect (d = 0.20) on a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary, but there were no statistically significant differences between conditions. Moderate to large effects were found using an expressive task when words were tested 4 months after they were taught. Implications for curriculum design and the potential benefits of enhancing children's vocabulary through book reading and playful learning are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
A randomized efficacy trial of the second step early learning (SSEL) curriculum (2019)
A classroom randomized efficacy trial conducted over four years in 7 community-based preschool and 6 Head Start programs investigated effects of the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum on end of preschool executive functioning (EF) and social-emotional (SE) skills in low-income children. Outcomes are reported for n=770 four-year-olds independently assessed for EF and SE by study staff in fall and spring of the prekindergarten year. Main outcomes were analyzed using two, three- level hierarchical linear models, one each for EF and SE skills. A significant effect (effect size of 0.15) for EF and a nonsignificant effect for SE were found. Secondary analyses found no significant differences on pre-academic skills. SSEL appears to have a meaningful impact on at-risk children's EF skills that supports its continued dissemination.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Preschool Instruction in Letter Names and Sounds: Does Contextualized or Decontextualized Instruction Matter? (2019)
This study investigated the influence of teaching letter names and sounds in isolation or in the context of storybook reading on preschool children's early literacy learning and engagement during instruction. Alphabet instruction incorporated paired associate learning of correspondences between letter names and sounds. In Decontextualized treatment activities, children practiced saying the letter names and sounds that matched printed single letters presented on cards and in letter books, and speeded recognition of taught letters. In Contextualized treatment activities, letter names and sounds were taught and practiced during oral reading of storybooks, recognizing letters in children's printed names, and speeded recognition of taught letters in words. Subjects were 127 preschool children in five public schools with low-income eligibility thresholds, including 48 dual language learners (DLLs). Children were randomly assigned within classroom to small groups randomly assigned to one of the two treatments. Research assistants provided 10 weeks of instruction, 12-15 minutes/day, and four days/week. Both groups made significant growth from pretest to posttest on measures of alphabet learning and phoneme awareness. Children in the Decontextualized treatment small groups had significantly higher gains than children in the Contextualized treatment small groups on taught letter sounds and phonemic awareness measured by identification of initial sounds in spoken words. There were no treatment differences between DLL and non-DLL children. Children's engagement during instruction was significantly higher in the Decontextualized treatment. Findings support explicit decontextualized alphabet instruction emphasizing the relationship between verbal letter labels and letter forms that enlists PAL processes. [This paper is published in "Reading Research Quarterly."]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-3 -1
The Effects of Enrolling in Oversubscribed Prekindergarten Programs through Third Grade (2019)
This study leverages naturally occurring lotteries for oversubscribed Boston Public Schools prekindergarten program sites between 2007 and 2011, for 3,182 children (M = 4.5 years old) to estimate the impacts of winning a first choice lottery and enrolling in Boston prekindergarten versus losing a first choice lottery and not enrolling on children's enrollment and persistence in district schools, grade retention, special education placement, and third-grade test scores. There are large effects on enrollment and persistence, but no effects on other examined outcomes for this subsample. Importantly, children who competed for oversubscribed seats were not representative of all appliers and almost all control-group children attended center-based preschool. Findings contribute to the larger evidence base and raise important considerations for future prekindergarten lottery-based studies. [This is the online version of an article published in "Child Development" (ISSN 0009-3920).]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Using strategic pauses during shared reading with preschoolers: Time for prediction is better than time for reflection when learning new words (2019)
Preschoolers can learn vocabulary through shared book reading, especially when given the opportunity to predict and/or reflect on the novel words encountered in the story. Readers often pause and encourage children to guess or repeat novel words during shared reading, and prior research has suggested a positive correlation between how much readers dramatically pause and how well words are later retained. This experimental study of 60 3- to 5-year-olds compared the effects of placing pauses before target words to encourage predictions, placing pauses after target words to encourage reflection, or not pausing at all on children's retention of novel monster names in a rhymed storybook. Children who heard dramatic pauses that invited prediction before the monsters were named identified more at test than children who heard either post-target pauses or the story read verbatim. In addition, there was an interaction between pre- vs. post-target pausing and whether the pauses were silent or replaced with an eliciting question, such that silent pauses were more effective before the target words, while eliciting questions were more effective after. Overall, dramatic silent pauses before new words in a story were found to best help children attend to and remember those new words.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-1 -1
Literacy and Academic Success for English Learners Through Science LASErS Evaluation Report (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-12 -1
Parents at the Center: Final Parent Leadership Institute Evaluation Report (2019)
The Parent Leadership Institute (PLI) of Children's Aid (CA), funded via a 2013 Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant operated between the 2014-15 through 2018-19 school years. Key goals of the PLI included: (1) improving the capacity of parents to effectively engage in the school community in support of their child; and (2) increasing the capacity of school staff to create and support environments which are welcoming to and supportive of the active engagement of parents as key members of the school community. Through implementation of the PLI, CA expanded its partnership with six schools located in the South Bronx community of Morrisania, an area characterized by high levels of poverty, health disparities, and crime, and low levels of academic achievement and attainment among both children and adults. This report serves as the final report on this phase of the PLI and includes an exploration of implementation during year 4 (2016-17 school year) and analyses of quantitative data on student academic performance. [This report was prepared for Children's Aid New York.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Web-Based Support for Data-Based Decision Making: Effect of Intervention Implementation on Infant–Toddler Communication (2018)
Programs serving infants and toddlers are expected to use child data to inform decisions about intervention services; however, few tools exist to support these efforts. The Making Online Decisions (MOD) system is an adaptive intervention that guides early educators’ data-based intervention decision making for infants and toddlers at risk for language delay. Using a cluster randomized design to test the effect of the MOD, home visitors (HVs) were assigned to either use the MOD or not across 13 Early Head Start programs. Both groups used the Early Communication Indicator (ECI) for progress monitoring and a parent-mediated language promotion intervention. Children from both groups demonstrated significant growth in expressive communication. However, children whose HVs fully implemented the MOD grew significantly more than the group that did not use the MOD, even after statistically controlling for parent and HV variables. Implications for designing effective and usable systems to promote the use of data-based decision-making practices by infant–toddler service providers are discussed, as well as limitations of the current study.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Narrowing the early mathematics gap: A play-based intervention to promote low-income preschoolers’ number skills (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Mindfulness plus reflection training: Effects on executive function in early childhood (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Mindfulness plus reflection training: Effects on executive function in early childhood (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Preschoolers’ alphabet learning: Letter name and sound instruction, cognitive processes, and English proficiency (2018)
This study investigated: 1) the influence of alphabet instructional content (letter names, letter sounds, or both) on alphabet learning and engagement of English only and dual language learner (DLL) children, and 2) the relation between children's initial status and growth in three underlying cognitive learning processes (paired-associate, articulation referencing, and orthographic learning) and growth in alphabet learning. Subjects were 83 preschool children in six public preschool classrooms with low-income eligibility thresholds, including 30 DLLs. Children were screened for alphabet knowledge and randomly assigned to small groups and one of four conditions: experimental letter names or letter sounds only, experimental letter names+sounds (LN+LS), or typical LN+LS. Research assistants provided nine weeks of instruction in each treatment, in 10-minute sessions, four days/week. Irrespective of language status, children in the four groups made significant growth from pretest to posttest on measures of alphabet learning. The single-focus letter name or letter sound conditions led to significantly greater growth on taught alphabet content. The experimental LN+LS condition led to greater growth in taught letter names and sounds content compared to the typical LN+LS condition. Pretest vocabulary and alphabet knowledge did not moderate growth, and only limited evidence of differential response to instruction among DLLs was found. Paired associate and articulation referencing learning processes were related to alphabetic growth. Engagement during learning was high in all four treatments. Findings support the benefits of explicit alphabet instruction that enlists cognitive learning processes required for alphabet learning. [This article was published in "Early Childhood Research Quarterly," v44 p257-274 3rd Quarter 2018.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The Chicago School Readiness Project: Examining the Long-Term Impacts of an Early Childhood Intervention (2018)
The current paper reports long-term treatment impact estimates for a randomized evaluation of an early childhood intervention designed to promote children's developmental outcomes and improve the quality of Head Start centers serving high-violence and high-crime areas in inner-city Chicago. Initial evaluations of end-of-preschool data reported that the program led to reductions in child behavioral problems and gains in measures of executive function and academic achievement. For this report, we analyzed adolescent follow-up data taken 10 to 11 years after program completion. We found evidence that the program had positive long-term effects on students' executive function and grades, though effects were somewhat imprecise and dependent on the inclusion of baseline covariates. Results also indicated that treated children had heightened sensitivity to emotional stimuli, and we found no evidence of long-run effects on measures of behavioral problems. These findings raise the possibility that developing programs that improve on the Head Start model could carry long-run benefits for affected children. [This paper was published in "PLOS ONE" Jul 2018.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Does theatre-in-education promote early childhood development?: The effect of drama on language, perspective-taking, and imagination (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Efficacy trial of the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum: Preliminary outcomes (2017)
A classroom randomized trial (n = 31 classrooms) was conducted using the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum compared to usual curricula. Head Start and community preschool classrooms enrolling low income children were randomly assigned to deliver SSEL (n = 16) or usual curricula (n = 15). Data are reported for four year olds independently assessed for executive functioning (EF) and social-emotional skills (SE) in fall and spring of the preschool year. Analyses used three level Hierarchical Linear Modeling, including two EF tasks or two SE tasks as level 1, child as level 2, and classroom as level 3. Controlling for baseline EF, SE, cognitive ability, parent income, child sex, age, and ethnicity, children receiving the SSEL curriculum had significantly better end of preschool EF skills and marginally significantly better end of preschool SE skills. The curriculum is thus promising in its potential to improve at-risk preschool children's EF and SE.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Literate language intervention with high-need prekindergarten children: A randomized trial (2016)
Purpose: The present article reports on the implementation and results of a randomized intervention trial targeting the literate language skills of prekindergarten children without identified language disorders but with low oral language skills. Method: Children (N = 82; 45 boys and 37 girls) were screened-in and randomized to a business-as-usual control or to the pull-out treatment groups in which they received 4 instructional units addressing different sentence-level syntactic and semantic features: prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs, and negations. The intervention was delivered by paraprofessionals in small groups in the form of 20-min lessons 4 times a week for 12 weeks. Results: Overall, children receiving the supplemental instruction showed educationally meaningful gains in their oral language skills, relative to children in the control group. Significant group differences were found on researcher-designed oral language measures, with moderate to large effect sizes ranging from 0.44 to 0.88 on these measures. Conclusions: The intervention holds the potential to positively affect understanding and production of syntax and semantic features, such as prepositions and conjunctions, in young children with weak oral language skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The Ounce PDI Study: Development evaluation of a job-embedded professional development initiative for early childhood professionals. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-2 -1
Independent evaluation of the Midwest CPC Expansion Project: Final report (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K -1
Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays (2016)
Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d = 0.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (ß = 0.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills. [This paper was published in "Journal of School Psychology" v57 p15-27 2016.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K -1
Randomized, controlled trial of a comprehensive program for young students with autism spectrum disorder (2016)
This randomized, controlled trial, comparing the Comprehensive Autism Program (CAP) and business as usual programs, studied outcomes for 3-5 year old students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 84 teachers and 302 students with ASD and their parents. CAP utilized specialized curricula and training components to implement specific evidence-based practices both at school and home. A comprehensive set of outcome areas was studied. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate the treatment impact. CAP had small positive impacts on the students' receptive language (effect size of 0.13) and on their social skills as rated by teachers (effect size of 0.19). Treatment effects were moderated by severity of ASD.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-5 -1
Impacts of the Teach for America Investing in Innovation scale-up. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-3 -1
Evaluation of the Florida Master Teacher Initiative: Final evaluation findings. (2015)
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Florida Master Teacher Initiative (FMTI)--an i3-funded early learning program aimed at improving the quality of teaching and student outcomes in grades PreK through third grade in high need schools. The FMTI schools participated in four program components: (1) a job-embedded graduate degree program with an early childhood specialization, (2) a Teacher Fellows program through which teachers engage in yearlong inquiry projects around their practice, (3) a Principal Fellows program during which principals work together to strengthen their facilitative leadership skills, and (4) Summer Leadership Institutes to review data and engage in action planning. The impact evaluation had two primary goals: (1) to assess the school-level impact of FMTI on teachers and students; and (2) to assess the impact of FMTI on teachers enrolled in the job-embedded early childhood graduate degree program and their students. To achieve the first goal, the evaluation used a cluster random assignment design, in which 40 Miami-Dade County Title I public elementary schools were randomly assigned to the FMTI program or a status-quo control condition. To achieve the second goal, the evaluation used an embedded quasi-experimental design using propensity score matching and difference-in-differences approaches. SRI International administered schoolwide surveys at baseline and in the final year of the grant in both intervention and control schools; conducted classroom observations of job-embedded graduate program teachers and a matched comparison group using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) early in the teachers' first year of the graduate program and a follow-up observation occurred after or near the end of the program, with program teachers and sample of comparison teachers; and gathered student reading and math achievement data on children in kindergarten through fifth grade who were at the 40 study schools at the time of random assignment for a total of more than 10,000 students in the FMTI schools and a similar number of students in the control schools. The study did not find school-level impacts on student achievement or on the majority of outcomes measured through the teacher survey. Analysis of the impact of the job-embedded graduate degree program found a positive difference of 1.7 points for participating teachers in the instructional quality domain of the CLASS compared to matched comparison teachers. The evaluation also found positive and statistically significant results for the graduate program teachers compared to comparison teachers on the teacher survey in the areas of engagement in leadership activities, engagement in governance activities, engagement in outreach activities, self-reported early childhood knowledge, and self-reported general instructional knowledge. No significant differences in math or reading achievement were found for students of the graduate program teachers compared to students of a matched sample of teachers in control schools. The implementation of the FMTI program was not sufficiently robust to definitively determine its effectiveness. FMTI treatment schools that achieved medium or high fidelity of implementation across the three years experienced more positive outcomes. The evaluation has illuminated lessons about how to effectively provide job-embedded professional development to support teacher quality improvement. The following are appended: (1) Methods; (2) Implementation Fidelity; and (3) Impact Estimates.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Instructional guidance and realism of manipulatives influence preschool children's mathematics learning. (2015)
Educators often use manipulatives when teaching mathematics because manipulatives are assumed to promote learning. However, research indicates that instructional variables impact the effectiveness of manipulatives. In this article, the authors consider the relations between two instructional characteristics: (a) level of instructional guidance and (b) perceptual qualities of manipulatives. Results from the randomized experiment with preschoolers (N = 72) suggest that learning is improved when instruction is conducted with high levels of instructional guidance and is impacted by the perceptual qualities of manipulatives. Perceptually rich manipulatives decreased learner performance on outcomes associated with conceptual knowledge and improved performance on transfer of learning. In addition, transfer was positively affected by perceptually rich manipulatives when low levels of instructional guidance were present.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Implementing a pivotal response social skills intervention with Korean American children with autism. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Print-focused read-alouds in early childhood special education programs (2015)
The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of print-focused read-alouds, implemented by early childhood special education (ECSE) teachers alone or in conjunction with caregivers, on the print knowledge of children with language impairment (LI). Using random assignment to conditions, children with LI were exposed, over an academic year of preschool, to one of three conditions specifying the way in which teachers and caregivers were to read storybooks with them. Based on a print-knowledge composite, children whose teachers used print-focused read-alouds had significantly better print knowledge (d = .21) in spring of the year compared to children whose teachers used their typical reading practices. When teachers and caregivers implemented print-focused read-alouds simultaneously, children’s Spring print knowledge was modestly higher (d = .11) than that of children whose teachers and parents used their typical reading practices, but the effect was not statistically significant. Examination of intervention moderators showed that children with lower levels of nonverbal cognition benefited substantially from exposure to the intervention. Educational implications are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Promoting prosocial behavior and self-regulatory skills in preschool children through a mindfulness-based kindness curriculum (2015)
Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function, self-regulation, and prosocial behavior in a sample of 68 preschool children. The KC intervention group showed greater improvements in social competence and earned higher report card grades in domains of learning, health, and social-emotional development, whereas the control group exhibited more selfish behavior over time. Interpretation of effect sizes overall indicate small to medium effects favoring the KC group on measures of cognitive flexibility and delay of gratification. Baseline functioning was found to moderate treatment effects with KC children initially lower in social competence and executive functioning demonstrating larger gains in social competence relative to the control group. These findings, observed over a relatively short intervention period, support the promise of this program for promoting self-regulation and prosocial behavior in young children. They also support the need for future investigation of program implementation across diverse settings.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
A randomized controlled trial of Pivotal Response Treatment Group for parents of children with autism. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
“MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science Pre-Kindergarten Curricula and Teacher Supports: Associations with Children's Mathematics and Science Learning.” (2014)
"MyTeachingPartner--Math/Science" ("MTP-MS") is a system of two curricula (math and science) plus teacher supports designed to improve the quality of instructional interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms and to scaffold children's development in mathematics and science. The program includes year-long curricula in these domains, and a teacher support system (web-based supports and in-person workshops) designed to foster high-quality curricular implementation. This study examined the impacts of the intervention on the development of mathematics and science skills of 444 children during pre-kindergarten, via school-level random assignment to two intervention conditions ("Basic: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula, and "Plus: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula plus related teacher support system) and a Business-as-Usual control condition ("BaU"). There were intervention effects for children's knowledge and skills in geometry and measurement as well as number sense and place value: Children in "Plus" classrooms made greater gains in geometry and measurement, compared with those in "BaU" classrooms. Children in "Plus" classrooms also performed better on the number sense and place value assessment than did those in "Basic" or "BaU" classrooms. We describe the implications of these results for supporting the development of children's knowledge and skills in early childhood and for developing and providing teachers with professional development to support these outcomes.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
“MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science Pre-Kindergarten Curricula and Teacher Supports: Associations with Children's Mathematics and Science Learning.” (2014)
"MyTeachingPartner--Math/Science" ("MTP-MS") is a system of two curricula (math and science) plus teacher supports designed to improve the quality of instructional interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms and to scaffold children's development in mathematics and science. The program includes year-long curricula in these domains, and a teacher support system (web-based supports and in-person workshops) designed to foster high-quality curricular implementation. This study examined the impacts of the intervention on the development of mathematics and science skills of 444 children during pre-kindergarten, via school-level random assignment to two intervention conditions ("Basic: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula, and "Plus: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula plus related teacher support system) and a Business-as-Usual control condition ("BaU"). There were intervention effects for children's knowledge and skills in geometry and measurement as well as number sense and place value: Children in "Plus" classrooms made greater gains in geometry and measurement, compared with those in "BaU" classrooms. Children in "Plus" classrooms also performed better on the number sense and place value assessment than did those in "Basic" or "BaU" classrooms. We describe the implications of these results for supporting the development of children's knowledge and skills in early childhood and for developing and providing teachers with professional development to support these outcomes.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
A randomized trial comparison of the effects of verbal and pictorial naturalistic communication strategies on spoken language for young children with autism. (2014)
Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (=9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science pre-kindergarten curricula and teacher supports: Associations with children's mathematics and science learning (2014)
"MyTeachingPartner--Math/Science" ("MTP-MS") is a system of two curricula (math and science) plus teacher supports designed to improve the quality of instructional interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms and to scaffold children's development in mathematics and science. The program includes year-long curricula in these domains, and a teacher support system (web-based supports and in-person workshops) designed to foster high-quality curricular implementation. This study examined the impacts of the intervention on the development of mathematics and science skills of 444 children during pre-kindergarten, via school-level random assignment to two intervention conditions ("Basic: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula, and "Plus: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula plus related teacher support system) and a Business-as-Usual control condition ("BaU"). There were intervention effects for children's knowledge and skills in geometry and measurement as well as number sense and place value: Children in "Plus" classrooms made greater gains in geometry and measurement, compared with those in "BaU" classrooms. Children in "Plus" classrooms also performed better on the number sense and place value assessment than did those in "Basic" or "BaU" classrooms. We describe the implications of these results for supporting the development of children's knowledge and skills in early childhood and for developing and providing teachers with professional development to support these outcomes.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Immediate effects of a school readiness intervention for children in foster care (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-12 -1
Findings from a two-year examination of teacher engagement in TAP schools across Louisiana. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Training paraprofessionals to facilitate social interactions between children with autism and their typically developing peers. (2012)
To support children with autism in inclusive classrooms, schools are increasingly utilizing paraprofessionals. However, research suggests that paraprofessionals often lack sufficient training and may inadvertently hinder the social interactions between children with disabilities and their peers. This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to empirically investigate whether paraprofessionals could learn to implement social facilitation procedures based on Pivotal Response Treatment. Results indicated that the paraprofessionals learned to utilize the social facilitation procedures with fidelity and generalized the techniques to untrained activities. Furthermore, once the paraprofessionals met the fidelity criteria, decreases in hovering and uninvolved behavior and increases in social facilitation and monitoring were observed. Likewise, the reciprocal social behavior of the children with autism increased rapidly. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Promoting social and emotional learning in preschool students: A study of Strong Start Pre-K. (2012)
The inclusion of social and emotional learning (SEL) curricula in preschools may help prevent emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated the effects of a SEL curriculum, "Strong Start Pre-K," on the social and emotional competence of 52 preschool students using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Teachers rated students' emotional regulation, internalizing behaviors, and the quality of the student-teacher relationship. Results indicated a significant decrease of internalizing behaviors and more improvement in the student-teacher relationship in the treatment conditions. Results also supported the use of the optional booster lessons contained in the curriculum. Treatment integrity and social validity ratings of "Strong Start Pre-K" were high. Limitations and implications of this study are addressed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The effects of an intensive shared book-reading intervention for preschool children at risk for vocabulary delay. (2011)
This study examined the effects of an intensive shared book-reading intervention on the vocabulary development of preschool children who were at risk for vocabulary delay. The participants were 125 children, who the researchers stratified by classroom and randomly assigned to one of two shared book-reading conditions (i.e., the experimental, Words of Oral Reading and Language Development [WORLD] intervention; or typical practice). Results on researcher-developed measures showed statistically and practically significant effects for the WORLD intervention with no differential effects for children with higher versus lower entry level vocabulary knowledge. The researchers detected no statistically significant differences on standardized measures. Results suggest that a combination of instructional factors may be necessary to enhance the efficacy of shared book reading for children with early vocabulary difficulties. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Direct and indirect effects of stimulating phoneme awareness vs. (2011)
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated phoneme awareness/speech intervention in comparison to an alternating speech/morphosyntax intervention for specific areas targeted by the different interventions, as well as the extent of indirect gains in nontargeted areas. Method: A total of 30 children with co-occurring speech sound disorder and language impairment, average age 4;5, participated in the study, 18 from the United States and 12 from New Zealand. Children from matched pairs were randomly assigned to the 2 proven efficacious treatments, which were delivered in 6-week blocks separated by a 6-week break. Phoneme awareness, speech sound production, and oral language outcome measures were collected pretreatment and after each intervention block. Results and Conclusions: Both intervention groups made statistically significant gains in all measures, with the exception of a morpheme measure only approaching significance. There were clear trends in favor of the specificity of the interventions suggesting increased sample size might have led to some significant intervention differences. Results further implicate the need for early intervention that integrates oral language and phoneme awareness/early literacy skills for children with multiple deficits. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K -1
School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: Effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups. (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-12 -1
Toward reduced poverty across generations: Early findings from New York City's conditional cash transfer program. (2010)
Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, Family Rewards ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities and outcomes thought to be critical to families' short- and long-term success in the areas of children's education, family preventive health care, and parents' employment. The purpose of this project is to experimentally evaluate the effects of this three-year innovative holistic conditional cash transfer (CCT) initiative. This paper presents initial findings from an ongoing and comprehensive evaluation of Family Rewards. It examines the program's implementation in the field and families' responses to it during the first two of its three years of operations, and early findings on the program's impacts on children's educational processes and outcomes. More specifically, this paper addresses the following questions: (1) What are the effects of ONYC-Family Rewards on family income, poverty, and financial hardship?; (2) What are the effects of ONYC-Family Rewards on use of health care and health insurance?; (3) What are the effects of ONYC-Family Rewards on parents' employment and educational attainment?; and (4) What are the effects of ONYC-Family Rewards on children's educational outcomes? Overall, this study shows that, despite an extraordinarily rapid start-up, the program was operating largely as intended by its second year. Although many families struggled with the complexity of the program, most were substantially engaged with it and received a large amount of money for meeting the conditions it established. Specifically, nearly all families (98 percent) earned at least some rewards in both program years, with payments averaging more than $6,000 during the first two program years combined. The program reduced current poverty and hardship; increased savings; increased families' continuous use of health insurance coverage and increased their receipt of medical care; and increased employment in jobs that are not covered by the unemployment insurance (UI) system but reduced employment in UI-covered jobs. The program has had mixed success in improving children's academic performance specifically. Contrary to expectations, Family Rewards did not affect school attendance or annual standardized test scores in Math and English Language Arts (ELA) for either group of youngest children, but did lead to notable gains for a group of more academically prepared high school students. The program also had important effects on several key proposed mediators of the intervention. However, these effects vary by parents with different age groups of children. Appended are: (1) References; and (2) Tables and Figures. (Contains 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Print-focused read-alouds in preschool classrooms: Intervention effectiveness and moderators of child outcomes. (2010)
Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of teachers' use of a print-referencing style during whole-class read-alouds with respect to accelerating 4- and 5-year-old children's print-knowledge development. It also examined 8 specific child- and setting-level moderators to determine whether these influenced the relation between teachers' use of a print-referencing style and children's print-knowledge development. Method: In this randomized controlled trial, 59 teachers were randomly assigned to 2 conditions. Teachers in the experimental group (n = 31) integrated explicit references to specified print targets within each of 120 read-aloud sessions conducted in their classrooms over a 30-week period; comparison teachers (n = 28) read the same set of book titles along the same schedule but read using their business-as-usual reading style. Children's gains over the 30-week period on a composite measure of print knowledge were compared for a subset of children who were randomly selected from the experimental (n = 201) and comparison (n = 178) classrooms. Results: When controlling for fall print knowledge, child age, and classroom quality, children who experienced a print-referencing style of reading had significantly higher print knowledge scores in the spring than did children in the comparison classroom. None of the child-level (age, initial literacy skills, language ability) or setting-level characteristics (program type, instructional quality, average level of classroom socioeconomic status, teachers' education level, teachers' experience) significantly moderated intervention effects. Clinical Implications: Considered in tandem with prior study findings concerning this approach to emergent literacy intervention, print-focused read-alouds appear to constitute an evidence-based practice with net positive impacts on children's literacy development.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Learning letter names and sounds: Effects of instruction, letter type, and phonological processing skill (2010)
Preschool-age children (N = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children's phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Novel word learning of preschoolers enrolled in Head Start regular and bilingual classrooms: Impact of adult vocabulary noneliciting questions during shared storybook reading (Doctoral dissertation). (2010)
This dissertation study employed quantitative methods to investigate the impact of adult questioning styles on children's novel vocabulary acquisition during shared storybook reading. In an effort to examine adult qualitative variations in shared storybook readings, two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of noneliciting questions during shared storybook reading on children's receptive and expressive novel vocabulary learning. The sociocultural perspective was the theoretical framework of this dissertation study and maintains that learning is due to socially meaningful activity of the child within the environment (e.g., Bruner, 1983; Vygotsky, 1978). In the first experiment, 45 children enrolled in monolingual Head Start classrooms were ranked by general vocabulary scores and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: vocabulary noneliciting questions, vocabulary eliciting questions, and no questions (control). In the second experiment, the novel vocabulary learning of 54 children enrolled in a bilingual English-Spanish Head Start program was investigated. In the second experiment, participants were ranked by Spanish general vocabulary scores and randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) Spanish vocabulary noneliciting questioning, (2) English vocabulary noneliciting questioning, (3) Spanish labels, and (4) English labels. Experiment 1 utilized the methodological framework employed in previous experimental work on storybook reading: pretest, intervention, and posttest with the addition of a delayed posttest in Experiment 1. Vocabulary noneliciting questions, eliciting questions, and no questions appear to be equally effective. There was no decay of the words learned as determined by delayed post-test. Experiment 2's methodological framework resembles that utilized by Justice (2002) conducted with a monolingual sample. Experiment 2 also utilized other methodological considerations from the existing literature to examine the effects of noneliciting questions on the novel vocabulary learning of bilingual preschoolers. Experiment 2 revealed that English labels are more effective than English noneliciting questions for receptive knowledge. Spanish noneliciting questions lead to greater expressive word learning than Spanish labels. This study has a number of major impacts, including comparison of Experiment 1's results to the extant literature which is instructive; and, while there is a preponderance of literature with monolingual populations, research with bilingual populations is limited, thus Experiment 2 helps to close that gap. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Preschoolers’ use of count information to judge relative quantity (2009)
We examined preschool children's use of count information in making quantity judgments. Study 1 involved 35 children 3-5 years old using a balance-scale task to judge relative quantity with or without count information provided. Study 2 replicated and extended the exploration as 54 children 3-4 years old judged relative quantity in multiple counting contexts. Children who were given count information successfully used count information in quantity evaluation when visual cues were not useful. Limited experience of counting skills, strategy choice, and limited processing capacity are each discussed as potential explanations. Implications for early childhood practice and teacher education, as well as directions for future research are explored. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Summative evaluation of the Ready to Learn initiative. (2009)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The impact of professional development and coaching on early language and literacy instructional practices. (2009)
This study examines the impact of professional development on teacher knowledge and quality early language and literacy practices in center- and home-based care settings. Participants from 291 sites (177 centers; 114 home-based) in four cities were randomly selected to: Group 1, 3-credit course in early language and literacy; Group 2, course plus ongoing coaching; Group 3, control group. Analysis of covariance indicated no significant differences between groups on teacher knowledge. However, there were statistically significant improvements in language and literacy practices for teachers who received coursework plus coaching with substantial effect sizes for both center- and home-based providers. Professional development alone had negligible effects on improvements in quality practices. Coursework and coaching may represent a promising quality investment in early childhood. (Contains 5 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effective early literacy skill development for young Spanish-speaking English language learners: An experimental study of two methods (2009)
Ninety-four Spanish-speaking preschoolers (M age = 54.51 months, SD = 4.72; 43 girls) were randomly assigned to receive the High/Scope Curriculum (control n = 32) or the Literacy Express Preschool Curriculum in English-only (n = 31) or initially in Spanish transitioning to English (n = 31). Children's emergent literacy skills were assessed before and after the intervention in Spanish and English. Children in the English-only and transitional groups made significant gains in their emergent literacy skills in both Spanish and English compared to the control group, The English-only and transitional models were equally effective for English language outcomes, but for Spanish-language outcomes, only the transitional model was effective. The results suggest that a targeted early literacy intervention can improve Spanish-speaking preschoolers' preliteracy skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of a preschool music and movement curriculum on children's language skills (2009)
This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a supplementary preschool classroom music and movement curriculum on Head Start children's language skills. The curriculum consisted of sequenced music and movement activities conducted by outside interventionists. The evaluation compared the language skills of children attending either intervention or comparison classrooms. Results revealed that children receiving the intervention made greater gains in teacher-rated communication skills than children in the comparison group. Results for receptive language and phonological awareness indicated no significant differences between groups. These findings provide limited support for the beneficial effects of offering specialized music and movement curricula to preschool-age children. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Brief report: Toward refinement of a predictive behavioral profile for treatment outcome in children with autism. (2009)
Previously researchers identified a behavioral profile that predicted treatment response of children with autism to a specific behavioral intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT). This preliminary investigation sought to refine this profile by obtaining six participants matching the original nonresponder profile on all but one of the profile behaviors (toy contact or avoidance) and then assessing their response to PRT. In addition, participants received a course of Discrete Trial Training (DTT) to determine whether the profile predicted child response to this intervention. Altering the original profile behavior of toy contact led to improved response to PRT while, altering the profile behavior of high avoidance had little impact on treatment response, and the profile was not predictive of response to DTT. (Contains 4 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
An intervention for relational and physical aggression in early childhood: A preliminary study (2009)
A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of analysis and both observations and teacher-reports were obtained at pre- and post-test. Focus groups were used to develop the initial program. The 6-week program consisted of developmentally appropriate puppet shows, active participatory sessions, passive concept activities and in vivo reinforcement periods. Preliminary findings suggest that the "Early Childhood Friendship Project" tended to reduce physical and relational aggression, as well as physical and relational victimization and tended to increase prosocial behavior more for intervention than control classrooms. Teachers and interventionists provided positive evaluations of the program and there is evidence for appropriate program implementation. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Using positive behavior support procedures in Head Start classrooms to improve school readiness: A group training and behavioral coaching model (2009)
Social-emotional competence is an important determinant of school readiness. School readiness, in turn, sets the stage for school success. There is clear longitudinal evidence that school success, attachment and bonding to the schooling process, and full engagement of schooling can, in combination, operate as a protective factor against a host of long-term health risk behaviors and negative outcomes. Herein, we describe an experimental study of an evidence-based model of early intervention. Head Start teachers and assistants in 13 centers participated in the study. Centers were randomly assigned either to a wait-list control condition or the intervention. This universal intervention was based, respectively, upon the emerging bodies of knowledge in Positive Behavior Support and Behavioral Coaching. The intervention program's application was associated with medium to large effect size improvements in participating students' overall social competence (as an essential school readiness skill) as measured through (a) enhancements in their ratings of adaptive student behavior and (b) corresponding decreases in student levels of challenging behavior and aggression as reflected on teacher rating scales. Feedback from participating teachers indicated they viewed their experiences with the intervention quite positively. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Chapter 2: Bright Beginnings and Creative Curriculum: Vanderbilt University. In Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 41–54, Appendix C, and Appendix D) (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Chapter 3: Creative Curriculum: University of North Carolina at Charlotte. In Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 55–64). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education. (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Chapter 5: curiosity corner: Success for all foundation. Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 75-83) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Creative Curriculum with Ladders to Literacy: University of New Hampshire. In Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 65–73) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness (NCER 2008-2009) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness (NCER 2008-2009) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness (NCER 2008-2009) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness (NCER 2008-2009) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (NCER 2008-2009). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Educational effects of the Tools of the Mind curriculum: A randomized trial (2008)
The effectiveness of the "Tools of the Mind (Tools)" curriculum in improving the education of 3- and 4-year-old children was evaluated by means of a randomized trial. The "Tools" curriculum, based on the work of Vygotsky, focuses on the development of self-regulation at the same time as teaching literacy and mathematics skills in a way that is socially mediated by peers and teachers and with a focus on play. The control group experienced an established district-created model described as a "balanced literacy curriculum with themes." Teachers and students were randomly assigned to either treatment or control classrooms. Children (88 "Tools" and 122 control) were compared on social behavior, language, and literacy growth. The "Tools" curriculum was found to improve classroom quality and children's executive function as indicated by lower scores on a problem behavior scale. There were indications that Tools also improved children's language development, but these effects were smaller and did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance in multi-level models or after adjustments for multiple comparisons. Our findings indicate that a developmentally appropriate curriculum with a strong emphasis on play can enhance learning and development so as to improve both the social and academic success of young children. Moreover, it is suggested that to the extent child care commonly increases behavior problems this outcome may be reversed through the use of more appropriate curricula that actually enhance self-regulation. (Contains 8 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of a preschool mathematics curriculum: Summative research on the Building Blocks project (2007)
This study evaluated the efficacy of a preschool mathematics program based on a comprehensive model of developing research-based software and print curricula. Building Blocks, funded by the National Science Foundation, is a curriculum development project focused on creating research-based, technology-enhanced mathematics materials for pre-K through grade 2. In this article, we describe the underlying principles, development, and initial summative evaluation of the first set of resulting materials as they were used in classrooms with children at risk for later school failure. Experimental and comparison classrooms included two principal types of public preschool programs serving low-income families: state funded and Head Start prekindergarten programs. The experimental treatment group score increased significantly more than the comparison group score; achievement gains of the experimental group approached the sought-after 2-sigma effect of individual tutoring. This study contributes to research showing that focused early mathematical interventions help young children develop a foundation of informal mathematics knowledge, especially for children at risk for later school failure.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
An evaluation of curriculum, setting, and mentoring on the performance of children enrolled in pre-kindergarten (2007)
An alarming number of American pre-school children lack sufficient language and literacy skills to succeed in kindergarten. The type of curriculum that is available within pre-kindergarten settings can impact children's academic readiness. This work presents results from an evaluation of two language and literacy curricula (i.e., Let's Begin with the Letter People and Doors to Discovery) from a random assignment study that occurred within three settings (i.e., Head Start, Title 1, and universal pre-kindergarten) and included a control group. The design included a mentoring and non-mentoring condition that was balanced across sites in either curriculum condition. A pre and post-test design was utilized in the analyses, with children (n = 603) tested before the intervention and at the end of the year. Multilevel growth curve modeling, where the child outcomes (dependent measures) are modeled as a function of the child's level of performance and rate of growth between pre and post-testing, was used for all analyses. Results indicated that in many key language/literacy areas, the skills of children in classrooms using either one of the target curricula grew at greater rates than children in control classrooms. This was especially true in the Head Start programs. The findings from this study indicate that at-risk children can benefit from a well-specified curriculum. Additionally, findings demonstrate that a well-detailed curriculum appeared to be less important for children from higher income families. The impact of mentoring was less clear and seemed dependent on the type of skill being measured and type of program. Pre- and post-test means, standard deviations, and sample sizes for standardized child outcome variables are appended. (Contains 2 tables and 4 figures).
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
An evaluation of curriculum, setting, and mentoring on the performance of children enrolled in pre-kindergarten (2007)
An alarming number of American pre-school children lack sufficient language and literacy skills to succeed in kindergarten. The type of curriculum that is available within pre-kindergarten settings can impact children's academic readiness. This work presents results from an evaluation of two language and literacy curricula (i.e., Let's Begin with the Letter People and Doors to Discovery) from a random assignment study that occurred within three settings (i.e., Head Start, Title 1, and universal pre-kindergarten) and included a control group. The design included a mentoring and non-mentoring condition that was balanced across sites in either curriculum condition. A pre and post-test design was utilized in the analyses, with children (n = 603) tested before the intervention and at the end of the year. Multilevel growth curve modeling, where the child outcomes (dependent measures) are modeled as a function of the child's level of performance and rate of growth between pre and post-testing, was used for all analyses. Results indicated that in many key language/literacy areas, the skills of children in classrooms using either one of the target curricula grew at greater rates than children in control classrooms. This was especially true in the Head Start programs. The findings from this study indicate that at-risk children can benefit from a well-specified curriculum. Additionally, findings demonstrate that a well-detailed curriculum appeared to be less important for children from higher income families. The impact of mentoring was less clear and seemed dependent on the type of skill being measured and type of program. Pre- and post-test means, standard deviations, and sample sizes for standardized child outcome variables are appended. (Contains 2 tables and 4 figures).
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-12 -1
The impact of supplemental educational services participation on student achievement: 2005-06. (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Scaling up the implementation of a pre-kindergarten mathematics curriculum: The Building Blocks curriculum. (2006, June)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The effects of a creative dance and movement program on the social competence of head start preschoolers (2006)
The effects of an eight-week instructional program in creative dance/movement on the social competence of low-income preschool children were assessed in this study utilizing a scientifically rigorous design. Forty preschool children from a large Head Start program were randomly assigned to participate in either an experimental dance program or an attention control group. Teachers and parents, blind to the children's group membership, rated children's social competence both before and after the program, using English and Spanish versions of the Social Competence Behavior Evaluation: Preschool Edition. The results revealed significantly greater positive gains over time in the children's social competence and both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems for the experimental group compared with the control group. Small-group creative dance instruction for at-risk preschoolers appears to be an excellent mechanism for enhancing social competence and improving behavior. The implications for early childhood education and intervention are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The effects of an Internet-based program on the early reading and oral language skills of at-risk preschool students and their teachers’ perceptions of the program. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: Four-year outcome and predictors. (2005)
Twenty-four children with autism were randomly assigned to a clinic-directed group, replicating the parameters of the early intensive behavioral treatment developed at UCLA, or to a parent-directed group that received intensive hours but less supervision by equally well-trained supervisors. Outcome after 4 years of treatment, including cognitive, language, adaptive, social, and academic measures, was similar for both groups. After combining groups, we found that 48% of all children showed rapid learning, achieved average posttreatment scores, and at age 7, were succeeding in regular education classrooms. Treatment outcome was best predicted by pretreatment imitation, language, and social responsiveness. These results are consistent with those reported by Lovaas and colleagues (Lovaas, 1987; McEachin, Smith, & Lovaas, 1993).
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Individual behavioral profiles and predictors of treatment effectiveness for children with autism. (2005)
Differential responsiveness to intervention programs suggests the inadequacy of a single treatment approach for all children with autism. One method for reducing outcome variability is to identify participant characteristics associated with different outcomes for a specific intervention. In this investigation, an analysis of archival data yielded 2 distinct behavioral profiles for responders and nonresponders to a widely used behavioral intervention, pivotal response training (PRT). In a prospective study, these profiles were used to select 6 children (3 predicted responders and 3 predicted nonresponders) who received PRT. Children with pretreatment responder profiles evidenced positive changes on a range of outcome variables. Children with pretreatment nonresponder profiles did not exhibit improvements. These results offer promise for the development of individualized treatment protocols for children with autism.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
An investigation of preschool oral language improvements through Ladders to Literacy. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Relationships among preschool English language learners' oral proficiency in English, instructional experience and literacy development. (2004)
Thirty-three preschool children who were learning English as a second language participated in 16 weeks of either comprehension-oriented or letter/rhyme-focused small group instruction. Pretests and posttests of book vocabulary, story comprehension, print concepts, letter naming, writing, rhyming, and English oral proficiency were given. Children who participated in comprehension instruction outperformed letter/rhyme children on vocabulary and print concepts. Letter/rhyme instruction children outperformed comprehension children on letter naming and letter writing. English oral proficiency was more strongly correlated with the linguistic comprehension domain of early literacy than with the decoding-related domain. There was clear evidence that children at the very initial stages of English acquisition could learn both linguistic comprehension and decoding-related components of early literacy from explicit small group instruction.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-2 -1
Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. (2004)
Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT + TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT + CT + TT); or a waiting list control. Reports and independent observations were collected at home and school. Following the 6-month intervention, all treatments resulted in significantly fewer conduct problems with mothers, teachers, and peers compared to controls. Children's negative behavior with fathers was lower in the 3 PT conditions than in control. Children showed more prosocial skills with peers in the CT conditions than in control. All PT conditions resulted in less negative and more positive parenting for mothers and less negative parenting for fathers than in control. Mothers and teachers were also less negative than controls when children received CT. Adding TT to PT or CT improved treatment outcome in terms of teacher behavior management in the classroom and in reports of behavior problems.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Ready, Set, Leap! program: Newark prekindergarten study 2002-2003 final report. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Outcomes of different speech and language goal attack strategies. (2003)
The purpose of this study was to assess phonological and morphosyntactic change in children with co-occurring speech and language impairments using different goal attack strategies. Participants included 47 preschoolers, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 5;11, with impairments in both speech and language: 40 children in the experimental group and 7 in a no-treatment control group. Children in the experimental group were assigned at random to each of 4 different goal attack strategies: (a) in the phonology first condition, children received a 12-week block of phonological intervention followed by 12 weeks of work on morphosyntax; (b) the morphosyntax first condition was the same as phonology first, with the order of interventions reversed; (c) the alternating condition involved intervention on phonology and morphosyntax goals that alternated domains weekly; and (d) the simultaneous condition addressed phonological and morphosyntactic goals each session. Data were collected pretreatment, after the first intervention block, and posttreatment (after 24 weeks). For the control group, data were collected at the beginning and end of a period equivalent to 1 intervention block. Change in a finite morpheme composite and target generalization phoneme composite was assessed. Results showed that morphosyntactic change was greatest for children receiving the alternating strategy after 24 weeks of intervention. No single goal attack strategy was superior in facilitating gains in phonological performance. These results provide preliminary evidence that alternating phonological and morphosyntactic goals may be preferable when children have co-occurring deficits in these domains; further research regarding cross-domain intervention outcomes is necessary.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Comparing the effects of morphosyntax and phonology intervention on final consonant clusters in finite morphemes and final consonant inventories. (2003)

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