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Practice Guide PK 1
Preparing Young Children for School (August 2022)
This new practice guide, developed by the What Works Clearinghouse™ (WWC) in conjunction with an expert panel, distills contemporary early childhood and preschool education research into seven easily comprehensible and practical recommendations that preschool educators can use to prepare young children for school. The seven recommendations in this practice guide will also be useful for administrators along with parents, caregivers, and guardians.
Practice Guide K-6 1
Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Intervention in the Elementary Grades (March 2021)
This practice guide provides evidence-based practices that can help teachers tailor their instructional approaches and/or their mathematics intervention programs to meet the needs of their students.
Practice Guide 4-8 1
Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8 (May 2012)
This practice guide provides five recommendations for improving students’ mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8. This guide is geared toward teachers, math coaches, other educators, and curriculum developers who want to improve the mathematical problem solving of students.
Practice Guide 6-12 2
Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students (April 2015)
This practice guide provides three recommendations for teaching algebra to students in middle school and high school. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ algebra knowledge.
Practice Guide PK-K 2
Teaching Math to Young Children (November 2013)
This practice guide provides five recommendations for teaching math to children in preschool, prekindergarten, and kindergarten. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to build a strong foundation for later math learning.
Practice Guide K-8 3
Developing Effective Fractions Instruction for Kindergarten Through 8th Grade (September 2010)
This practice guide presents five recommendations intended to help educators improve students’ understanding of fractions. Recommendations include strategies to develop young children’s understanding of early fraction concepts and ideas for helping older children understand the meaning of fractions and the computations involved. The guide also highlights ways to build on students’ existing strategies to solve problems involving ratios, rates, and proportions.
Practice Guide 1-8 3
Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools (April 2009)
Taking early action may be key to helping students struggling with mathematics.
Practice Guide K-PS 3
Encouraging Girls in Math and Science (September 2007)
The objective of this guide is to provide teachers with specific recommendations that can be carried out in the classroom without requiring systemic change.
Intervention Report 5-12 1
Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) (Charter Schools) (January 2018)
The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is a nonprofit network of more than 200 public charter schools educating early childhood, elementary, middle, and high school students. Every KIPP school obtains approval to operate from a charter school authorizer. Students, parents, and teachers must sign a commitment to abide by a set of responsibilities, including high behavioral and disciplinary expectations. KIPP also has an active alumni network and set of partnerships with scholarship organizations to help guide former students through college. KIPP schools have an extended school day and an extended school year compared with traditional public schools. When demand for enrollment exceeds enrollment capacity at a KIPP school, student admission is based upon a lottery. Funding for KIPP schools comes primarily through public federal, state, and local finances, along with supplemental funding through charitable donations from foundations and individuals.
Intervention Report K-12 1
Teach for America (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (August 2016)
Teach For America (TFA) is a highly selective route to teacher certification that aims to place non-traditionally trained teachers in high-need public schools. Many TFA teachers hold bachelors’ degrees from selective colleges and universities, in fields outside of education. TFA teachers commit to teach for at least 2 years. TFA teachers receive 5–7 weeks of in-person training over the summer before they begin teaching, then continue to receive professional development and one-on-one coaching from TFA while teaching, in addition to support provided by their schools and districts. As full-time employees of the public schools where they work, TFA teachers receive the same salary and benefits as other first- or second-year teachers in their school or district.
Intervention Report 8-PS 1
Cognitive Tutor® Algebra I (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor®, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.
Intervention Report PK 1
Pre-K Mathematics (Early Childhood Education) (December 2013)
Pre-K Mathematics is a supplemental curriculum designed to develop informal mathematical knowledge and skills in preschool children. Mathematical content is organized into seven units. Specific mathematical concepts and skills from each unit are taught in the classroom through teacher-guided, small-group activities with concrete manipulatives. Take-home activities with materials that parallel the small-group classroom activities are designed to help parents support their children’s mathematical development at home.
Intervention Report PK 1
Literacy Express (Early Childhood Education) (July 2010)
Literacy Express is a preschool curriculum designed for three- to five-year-old children. It is structured around units on oral language, emergent literacy, basic math, science, general knowledge, and socioemotional development. It can be used in half-or full-day programs with typically developing children and children with special needs. It provides professional development opportunities for staff; teaching materials; suggested activities; and recommendations for room arrangement, daily schedules, and classroom management.
Intervention Report 7-12 2
Reading Apprenticeship® (Study Review Protocol) (January 2023)
Reading Apprenticeship® is a professional development program that aims to help teachers improve their students’ literacy skills. The program also aims to improve student social-emotional learning outcomes such as belonging, social awareness, growth mindset, and self-efficacy. Reading Apprenticeship® trains teachers to model reading comprehension strategies and help students practice these strategies in their classrooms.
Intervention Report PK 2
Red Light, Purple Light! (RLPL) (Preparing Young Children for School) (December 2022)
A classroom-based, self-regulation intervention consisting of music- and movement-based circle time games designed to systematically increase in cognitive complexity.
Intervention Report K-8 2
Dual Language Programs (Systematic Review Protocol for English Language Arts Interventions) (December 2022)
Dual language programs are long-term instructional programs that provide content and literacy instruction to all students through two languages—English and a partner language—with the goals of promoting academic achievement, bilingualism and biliteracy, and sociocultural competence. Dual language programs can be implemented with students from one language group (in one-way programs) or with students from two language groups (in two-way programs).
Intervention Report 4-8 2
eMINTS Comprehensive Program (Teacher Excellence Review Protocol ) (April 2020)
The eMINTS Comprehensive Program aims to help teachers improve their practice and the outcomes of their students by offering structured professional development, coaching, and support for integrating technology into the classroom. The program’s goals include supporting teachers in using classroom technology to implement high-quality, inquiry-based learning, in which students develop understanding and knowledge of content matter by engaging in meaningful investigations that require reasoning, judgement, and decision making. The intervention can provide support to teachers in any subject area, including math, literacy, and science.
Intervention Report 4-8 2
Odyssey® Math (Primary Mathematics) (January 2017)
Odyssey® Math is a web-based program developed by Compass Learning® for mathematics instruction in grades K–8. The online program includes a mathematics curriculum and formative assessments designed to support differentiated and data-driven instruction. Based on assessment results, the program generates an individualized sequence of mathematics topics and skills—a “learning path.” Odyssey® Math is often used as a prescriptive tool, where students can start by taking a diagnostic assessment aligned with local or state standards. Teachers can modify learning paths to match their lesson plans or to align them with district scopes and sequences.
Intervention Report PK 2
Doors to Discovery (Early Childhood Education) (June 2013)
Doors to Discovery™ is a preschool literacy curriculum that uses eight thematic units of activities to help children build fundamental early literacy skills in oral language, phonological awareness, concepts of print, alphabet knowledge, writing, and comprehension. The eight thematic units cover topics such as nature, friendship, communities, society, and health. Each unit is available as a kit that includes various teacher resources.
Intervention Report K-6 2
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (Beginning Reading) (May 2012)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report 4-5 3
Science Teachers Learning through Lesson Analysis (STeLLA) Professional Development (Science) (May 2021)
Science Teachers Learning through Lesson Analysis (STeLLA®) is a professional development program, developed by BSCS Science Learning, that aims to improve students’ science achievement by improving teachers’ science content knowledge and their abilities to (a) explain science concepts to students, (b) clearly identify to students the science concepts used in student learning activities, and (c) engage students in thinking about science.
Intervention Report 4 3
Fraction Face-Off! (Primary Mathematics) (March 2020)
Fraction Face-Off! is a supplemental math program developed to support fourth-grade students who need assistance solving fraction problems. Teachers use program materials with individual students or small groups to promote understanding of the magnitude of fractions, to compare two fractions, to put three fractions in order, and to place fractions on a number line.
Intervention Report 9-12 3
Green Dot Public Schools (Charter Schools) (January 2018)
Green Dot Public Schools is a nonprofit organization that operates more than 20 public charter middle and high schools in California, Tennessee, and Washington. The Green Dot Public Schools are regulated and monitored by the local school district, but operate outside of the district’s direct control. The Green Dot Public Schools model emphasizes high quality teaching, strong school leadership, a curriculum that prepares students for college, and partnerships with the community. Any student may enroll in a Green Dot Public School if there is space available. Many Green Dot Public Schools operate with unionized teachers and staff. Several of the Green Dot Public Schools were chartered in existing public schools which were performing below district or community expectations. Funding for Green Dot Public Schools operations comes through public federal, state, and local finances, while some transformations of existing district-run schools into charter schools have been funded partly by private foundations.
Intervention Report 2-10 3
Self-Regulated Strategy Development (Students with a Specific Learning Disability) (November 2017)
Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is an intervention designed to improve students’ academic skills through a six-step process that teaches students specific academic strategies and self-regulation skills. The practice is especially appropriate for students with learning disabilities. The intervention begins with teacher direction and ends with students independently applying the strategy, such as planning and organizing ideas before writing an essay. More specifically, the six steps involve the teacher providing background knowledge, discussing the strategy with the student, modeling the strategy, helping the student memorize the strategy, supporting the strategy, and then watching as the student independently performs the strategy. A key part of the process is teaching self-regulation skills, such as goal-setting and self-monitoring, which aim to help students apply the strategy without guidance. The steps can be combined, changed, reordered, or repeated, depending on the needs of the student. The SRSD model can be used with students in grades 2 through 12 in individual, small group, or whole classroom settings.
Intervention Report 8 3
I CAN Learn®(Primary Mathematics) (August 2017)
I CAN Learn® is a computer-based math curriculum for students in middle school, high school, and college. It provides math instruction through a series of interactive lessons that students work on individually at their own computers. Students move at their own pace and must demonstrate mastery of each concept before progressing to the next one. Classroom teachers may provide individual, small-group, or whole-class instruction based on students’ performance on the software program.
Intervention Report 8 3
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra, designed to increase students’ skills in algebra, is appropriate for students in grades 7–10, depending on the students’ incoming knowledge. This 1-year course highlights applications, uses statistics and geometry to develop the algebra of linear equations and inequalities, and includes probability concepts in conjunction with algebraic fractions. The curriculum emphasizes graphing, delaying manipulation with rational algebraic expressions until later courses. This curriculum uses the UCSMP textbook.
Intervention Report 7-10 3
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Multiple Courses (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
UCSMP is a core mathematics curriculum that emphasizes problem solving, real-world applications, and the use of technology. The curriculum is based on a student-centered approach with a focus on active learning that incorporates reading and uses a flexible lesson organization.
Intervention Report 3-5 3
Everyday Mathematics® (Primary Mathematics) (November 2015)
Everyday Mathematics® is a core curriculum for students in prekindergarten through grade 6. At each grade level, the Everyday Mathematics® curriculum provides students with multiple opportunities to learn concepts and practice skills. Across grade levels, concepts are reviewed and extended in varying instructional contexts. The distinguishing features of Everyday Mathematics® are its focus on real-life problem solving, student communication of mathematical thinking, and appropriate use of technology. This curriculum also emphasizes balancing different types of instruction (including collaborative learning), using various methods for skills practice, and fostering parent involvement in student learning.
Intervention Report 1-4 3
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Beginning Reading) (November 2015)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.
Intervention Report PK 3
Head Start (Early Childhood Education) (July 2015)
Head Start is a national, federally-funded program that provides services to promote school readiness for children from birth to age 5 from predominantly low-income families. These services are provided to both children and their families and include education, health and nutrition, family engagement, and other social services. Head Start program administrators are given the flexibility to design service delivery to be responsive to cultural, linguistic, and other contextual needs of local communities, leading to considerable variability in the services offered. Head Start service models also vary according to family needs, such that children and families may be served through center-based or family child care, home visits, or a combination of programs that operate full or half days for 8–12 months per year.
Intervention Report 5-12 3
Repeated Reading (Students with Learning Disabilities) (May 2014)
Repeated reading is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. Repeated reading can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During repeated reading, a student sits in a quiet location with a teacher and reads a passage aloud at least three times. Typically, the teacher selects a passage of about 50 to 200 words in length. If the student misreads a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, the teacher reads the word aloud, and the student repeats the word correctly. If the student requests help with a word, the teacher reads the word aloud or provides the definition. The student rereads the passage until he or she achieves a satisfactory fluency level.
Intervention Report K-1 3
DreamBox Learning (Elementary School Mathematics) (December 2013)
DreamBox Learning is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K–5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The program aims to individualize instruction for each student using unique paths through the curriculum ihat match each student’s level of comprehension and learning style.
Intervention Report PK 3
Bright Beginnings (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
Bright Beginnings is an early childhood curriculum, based in part on High/Scope and Creative Curriculum, with an additional emphasis on literacy skills. The curriculum consists of nine thematic units designed to enhance children’s cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. Each unit includes concept maps, literacy lessons, early childhood center activities, and home activities. Special emphasis is placed on the development of early language and literacy skills. Parent involvement is a key component of the program.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (Students with Learning Disabilities) (June 2012)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report 4-5 3
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) Space Science Sequence (Science) (June 2012)
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) Space Science Sequence is an instructional curriculum for grades 3–5 that covers fundamental concepts, including planetary sizes and distance, the earth’s shape and movement, gravity, and moon phases and eclipses. Part of the GEMS® core curriculum, GEMS® Space Science Sequence uses the solar system as the focal point for learning. The sequence uses models, hands-on investigations, peer-to-peer discussions, reflection, and informational student readings. Students complete four units, each lasting between four and nine sessions. Each unit builds upon knowledge from previous units and can be used independently or in conjunction with one another for an overall learning progression.
Intervention Report 3-4 3
Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS) (Science) (May 2012)
Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science (TEEMSS) is a physical science curriculum for grades 3–8 that uses computers, sensors, and interactive models to support investigations of real-world phenomena. Through 15 inquiry-based instructional units, students interact with computers, gather and analyze data, and formulate ideas for further exploration. This information is managed by software in a handheld computer and transmitted to other students and to the teacher. The program includes a web-based teacher-reporting tool that allows teachers to review student portfolios and gather student responses for assessment and class discussion.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (Adolescent Literacy) (January 2012)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report K-6 3
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (English Language Learners) (September 2010)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report 9-10 3
Core-Plus Mathematics (High School Mathematics) (September 2010)
Core-Plus Mathematics is a 4-year curriculum that replaces the traditional sequence with courses that each feature interwoven strands of algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry and trigonometry, and discrete mathematics. The curriculum emphasizes mathematical modeling, using technology to emphasize reasoning with multiple representations (verbal, numerical, graphical, and symbolic) and to focus on goals in which mathematical thinking and problem solving are central. Instructional materials promote active learning and teaching centered around collaborative small-group investigations of problem situations, followed by teacher-led whole-class summarizing activities that lead to analysis, abstraction, and further application of underlying mathematical ideas.
Intervention Report 7-12 3
Reading Apprenticeship® (Adolescent Literacy) (July 2010)
Reading Apprenticeship® is a professional development program that aims to help teachers improve their students’ literacy skills. The program also aims to improve student social-emotional learning outcomes such as belonging, social awareness, growth mindset, and self-efficacy. Reading Apprenticeship® trains teachers to model reading comprehension strategies and help students practice these strategies in their classrooms.
Intervention Report 1-4 3
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Students with Learning Disabilities) (March 2010)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.
Intervention Report PK 3
Curiosity Corner (Early Childhood Education) (January 2009)
Curiosity Corner is a comprehensive early childhood curriculum designed to help children at risk of school failure because of poverty. The program offers children experiences that develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary for later school success, with a special emphasis on children’s language and literacy skills. Curiosity Corner has two sets of 38 weekly thematic units, one set for 3-year-olds and one set for 4-year-olds. Each day, the program staff present children with learning experiences through sequential daily activities. The program provides training, support, and teaching materials for teaching staff and administrators. Parents are encouraged to participate in children’s learning through activities in and out of the classroom.
Intervention Report PK 3
Ready, Set, Leap!® (Early Childhood Education) (October 2008)
Ready, Set, Leap!® is a comprehensive preschool curriculum that focuses on early reading skills, such as phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, and letter-sound correspondence using multi-sensory technology that incorporates touch, sight, and sound. Teachers may adopt either a theme-based or a literature-based teaching approach. For each approach, the curriculum provides lesson plans, learning objectives, and assessment tools.
Intervention Report PK-K 3
Ladders to Literacy (Beginning Reading) (August 2007)
Ladders to Literacy is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book. The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds. The activities are organized into three sections with about 20 activities each: print awareness, phonological awareness skills, and oral language skills.
Intervention Report PK 3
Building Blocks for Math (SRA Real Math) (Early Childhood Education) (July 2007)
Building Blocks for Math is a supplemental mathematics curriculum designed to develop preschool children’s early mathematical knowledge through various individual and small- and large-group activities. It uses Building Blocks for Math PreK software, manipulatives, and print material. Building Blocks for Math embeds mathematical learning in children’s daily activities, ranging from designated math activities to circle and story time, with the goal of helping children relate their informal math knowledge to more formal mathematical concepts.
Intervention Report 8 3
The Expert Mathematician (Middle School Mathematics) (October 2006)
The Expert Mathematician is designed to help middle school students develop the thinking processes for mathematical applications and communication. A 3-year program of instruction, The Expert Mathematician uses a software and print materials package with 196 lessons that teach the Logo programming language. Each lesson ranges from 40–120 minutes. A test of unit concepts is administered at the end of each instructional unit. The curriculum covers general mathematics, pre-algebra, and algebra I.
Intervention Report 3-8 -1
Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER) (Science) (September 2021)
The Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER) program is intended to build capacity for implementing inquiry-based science curricula in schools and districts. When participating in LASER, school or district teams attend leadership development institutes to plan the implementation of inquiry-based science curricula. These school or district teams receive support for key aspects of implementation such as professional development for teachers, access to instructional materials, and support for selecting appropriate assessments. LASER also helps schools and districts partner with scientists, science educators, and local business and community leaders who can promote and further support the implementation of inquiry-based science instruction.
Intervention Report 1-2 -1
Math Expressions (Primary Mathematics) (May 2021)
Math Expressions is a curriculum for students in prekindergarten through sixth grade that aims to build students’ conceptual understanding of mathematics and to develop fluency in mathematical problem solving and computation. The curriculum encourages student learning of mathematics through real-world situations, visual supports such as drawings and manipulatives, multiple approaches to solving problems, and opportunities for students to explain their mathematical thinking.
Intervention Report 6-9 -1
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Transitions/Pre-transitions Math (Primary Mathematics) (May 2021)
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) is a core mathematics curriculum that includes materials and a routinized instructional approach with an option for teacher training. The curriculum uses an inquiry-based approach with a focus on active learning where students frequently engage in hands-on activities and small-group activities. Pre-Transition Mathematics teaches arithmetic, algebra, geometry, probability, and statistics. Transition Mathematics teaches more advanced arithmetic, algebra, and geometry, and connects these areas to measurement, probability, and statistics.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) (Supportive Learning Environment Interventions Review Protocol ) (March 2021)
The Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) program is a curriculum that aims to promote emotional and social competencies and to reduce aggression and behavior problems in elementary school children. PATHS® is delivered through short lessons given two to three times a week over the school year. The program is based on the principle that understanding and regulating emotions are central to effective problem solving. The lessons focus on (1) self-control, (2) emotional literacy, (3) social competence, (4) positive peer relations, and (5) interpersonal problem-solving skills. There is a separate curriculum for each grade.
Intervention Report 3-8 -1
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) Certification (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (February 2018)
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) establishes standards for accomplished teachers and awards professional certification to teachers who can demonstrate that their teaching practices meet those standards. Educators and experts in child development and related fields established the organization, and these experts work to develop and refine the standards for accomplished teaching based on the knowledge and skills that effective teachers demonstrate. The standards reflect five core propositions: (1) effective teachers are committed to students and their learning, (2) effective teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students, (3) effective teachers manage and monitor student learning, (4) effective teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience, and (5) effective teachers are members of learning communities. Those seeking certification from the NBPTS must complete a computer-based assessment and three portfolio entries. The certification process can take 1 to 5 years.
Intervention Report 4 -1
System of Least Prompts (Children and Students with Intellectual Disability) (January 2018)
System of Least Prompts (SLP) is a practice that involves defining and implementing a hierarchy of prompts to assist students in learning a skill. A prompt is an action by the teacher or other practitioner—such as a verbal instruction to complete a task—that helps a student respond correctly during a learning activity. To use the procedure, the teacher or other practitioner systematically delivers the prompts to students in order, starting with the prompt that provides the least amount of assistance, and providing additional prompts with increasing levels of assistance until the student can correctly perform the task independently. For example, if a student does not independently complete a task following the initial instruction, a teacher may help the student by providing the least-intrusive prompt, such as restating the instruction. If the response still does not occur, the teacher may present the next most intrusive prompt, such as rephrasing the instruction. The teacher continues with more intrusive prompts, such as modeling how to do the task, until the desired response occurs reliably or all the prompts in the sequence have been used. The last prompt, often called the controlling prompt, should result in the student responding correctly. SLP is also known as “least-to-most prompting” or “least intrusive prompts.” SLP does not have a single developer that provides guidance or materials.
Intervention Report 2-9 -1
Accelerated Math® (Primary Mathematics) (December 2017)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progress-monitoring data.
Intervention Report 2-9 -1
Accelerated Math® (Secondary Mathematics) (December 2017)
Accelerated Math®, published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool that provides practice problems for students in grades K–12 and provides teachers with reports to monitor student progress. Accelerated Math® creates individualized student assignments, scores the assignments, and generates reports on student progress. The software is typically used with the math curriculum being used in the classroom to add practice for students and help teachers differentiate instruction through the program’s progress-monitoring data.
Intervention Report 8 -1
I CAN Learn® Algebra (Secondary Mathematics) (August 2017)
I CAN Learn® is a computer-based math curriculum for students in middle school, high school, and college. It provides math instruction through a series of interactive lessons that students work on individually at their own computers. Students move at their own pace and must demonstrate mastery of each concept before progressing to the next one. Classroom teachers may provide individual, small-group, or whole-class instruction based on students’ performance on the software program.
Intervention Report 6-12 -1
TNTP Teaching Fellows (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (June 2017)
TNTP Teaching Fellows is a highly selective route to teacher certification that aims to prepare people to teach in high-need public schools. The program recruits professionals seeking to change careers and recent college graduates who are not certified teachers. TNTP Teaching Fellows expects its participants to teach for many years, but does not require them to make a minimum time commitment to teaching. Program participants complete online coursework and receive 5–7 weeks of in-person training focused on foundational teaching skills during the summer before they begin teaching. They must demonstrate mastery of these core skills to be eligible to teach. They receive continued professional development and coaching from TNTP Teaching Fellows during their first year of teaching, and additional support provided by their schools and districts. As full-time employees of the public schools in which they work, new TNTP Teaching Fellows teachers receive the same salary and benefits as other beginning teachers in their school district.
Intervention Report 1-8 -1
Saxon Math (Primary Mathematics) (May 2017)
Saxon Math is a curriculum for students in grades K–12. The amount of new math content students receive each day is limited and students practice concepts every day. New concepts are developed, reviewed, and practiced cumulatively rather than in discrete chapters or units.
Intervention Report 6-8 -1
Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) (Primary Mathematics) (February 2017)
Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) is a math curriculum for students in grades 6–8. It uses interactive problems and everyday situations to explore mathematical ideas, with a goal of fostering a problem-centered, inquiry-based learning environment. At each grade level, the curriculum covers numbers, algebra, geometry/measurement, probability, and statistics.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Cognitive Tutor® Geometry (Secondary Mathematics) (June 2016)
Cognitive Tutor®, published by Carnegie Learning, is a math curricula that combines textbooks and interactive software.
Intervention Report 6-9 -1
Saxon Algebra I (Secondary Mathematics) (May 2016)
Saxon Math is a textbook series covering grades K–12 based on incremental development and continual review of mathematical concepts to give students time to learn and practice concepts throughout the year. The program is built on the premise that students learn best when instruction is incremental and explicit, previously learned concepts are continually reviewed, and assessment is frequent and cumulative. At each grade level, math concepts are introduced, reviewed, and practiced over time in order to move students from understanding to fluency.
Intervention Report 5-7 -1
SuccessMaker® (Adolescent Literacy) (November 2015)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.
Intervention Report PK-12 -1
TAP: The System for Teacher and Student Advancement (Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation) (July 2015)
TAP™ (formerly known as the Teacher Advancement Program) is a comprehensive educator effectiveness program that aims to improve student achievement through supports and incentives that attract, retain, develop, and motivate effective teachers. The program provides teachers with leadership opportunities and associated salary increases; ongoing, school-based professional development; rigorous evaluations; and annual performance bonuses based on a combination of teacher value added to student achievement and observations of their classroom teaching.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics (Elementary School Mathematics) (May 2013)
Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics is a core curriculum for students at all ability levels in kindergarten through grade 6. The program supports students’ understanding of key math concepts and skills, and it covers a range of mathematical content across grades. The curriculum focuses on questioning strategies, problem-solving skills, embedded assessment, and exercises tailored to students of different ability levels. The program provides explicit problem-solving instruction, hands-on activities, and opportunities to extend students’ mathematical understanding through reading and writing connections.
Intervention Report PK -1
The Creative Curriculum® for Preschool, Fourth Edition (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
The Creative Curriculum® for Preschool, Fourth Edition, is an early childhood curriculum that focuses on project-based investigations as a means for children to apply skills. It addresses four areas of development: social/emotional, physical, cognitive, and language. The curriculum is designed to foster development of the whole child through teacher-led small and large group activities centered around 11 interest areas (blocks, dramatic play, toys and games, art, library, discovery, sand and water, music and movement, cooking, computers, and outdoors).
Intervention Report PK-K -1
Ladders to Literacy (Early Childhood Education) (March 2013)
Ladders to Literacy is a supplemental early literacy curriculum published in Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book. The program targets children at different levels and from diverse cultural backgrounds. The activities are organized into three sections with about 20 activities each: print awareness, phonological awareness skills, and oral language skills.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Investigations in Number, Data, and Space® (Elementary School Mathematics) (February 2013)
Investigations in Number, Data, and Space is an activity-based, K–5 mathematics curriculum designed to help students understand number and operations, geometry, data, measurement, and early algebra. Each instructional unit focuses on a particular content area and lasts for 2–5.5 weeks. The curriculum encourages students to develop their own strategies for solving problems and engage in discussion about their reasoning and ideas. The lessons are activity-based in order to facilitate increased comprehension of basic math fundamentals. The curriculum is presented through a series of resource books called ”curriculum units” that provide teachers with guidance on implementation. One or more of the units for each year has a software program associated with it. Other materials include manipulatives, flash cards, overheads, and textbooks.
Intervention Report K-6 -1
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (Elementary School Mathematics) (January 2013)
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies is a peer-tutoring program for grades K–6 that aims to improve student proficiency in several disciplines. During the 30-35 minute peer-tutoring sessions, students take turns acting at the tutor, coaching and correcting one another as they work through problems. The designation of tutoring pairs and skill assignment is based on teacher judgement of student needs and abilities, and teachers reassign tutoring pairs regularly.  
Intervention Report 7 -1
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) The Real Reasons for Seasons (Science) (January 2013)
Great Explorations in Math and Science® (GEMS®) The Real Reasons for Seasons is a curriculum unit for grades 6–8 that focuses on the connections between the Sun and the Earth to teach students the scientific concepts behind the seasons. The unit utilizes models, hands-on investigations, peer-to-peer discussions, reflection, and informational student readings to help students understand science content and develop scientific investigation skills.
Intervention Report 6 -1
Astronomy Resources for Intercurricular Elementary Science (ARIES): Exploring Motion and Forces (Science) (May 2012)
ARIES: Exploring Motion and Forces is a physical science curriculum for students in grades 5–8 that employs 18 inquiry-centered, hands-on lessons called “explorations.” The curriculum draws upon students’ curiosity to explore phenomena, allowing for a discovery-based learning process. Group-centered lab work is designed to help students build an understanding of inertia, friction, gravity, speed, and acceleration. Students examine their prior ideas about the phenomena, formulate questions, build and use an apparatus to observe natural phenomena, make predictions, and gather data through structured experiments. Exploring Motion and Forces is part of the ARIES sequence of eight physical science units. The ARIES sequences can be used together for an overall curriculum or independently.
Intervention Report 8 -1
Chemistry That Applies (Science) (February 2012)
Chemistry That Applies is an instructional unit designed to help students in grades 8–10 understand the law of conservation of matter. It consists of 24 lessons organized in four clusters. Working in groups, students explore four chemical reactions: burning, rusting, the decomposition of water, and the reaction of baking soda and vinegar. As part of the unit, students conduct experiments in which they cause these reactions to happen, obtain and record data in individual notebooks, analyze the data, and use evidence-based arguments to explain the data. The instructional unit engages the students in a structured sequence of hands-on laboratory investigations interwoven with other forms of instruction.
Intervention Report 5-12 -1
Repeated Reading (Middle School Mathematics) (April 2011)
Repeated reading is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. Repeated reading can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During repeated reading, a student sits in a quiet location with a teacher and reads a passage aloud at least three times. Typically, the teacher selects a passage of about 50 to 200 words in length. If the student misreads a word or hesitates for longer than 5 seconds, the teacher reads the word aloud, and the student repeats the word correctly. If the student requests help with a word, the teacher reads the word aloud or provides the definition. The student rereads the passage until he or she achieves a satisfactory fluency level.
Intervention Report 6 -1
PLATO (Middle School Mathematics) (March 2010)
PLATO® Achieve Now is a software-based curriculum for the elementary and middle school grades that focuses on pre-algebraic concepts and includes content pertaining to rational numbers in related organizational patterns, proportion and percent, integers, probability, statistics, problem solving, geometry, measurement, and the foundational concepts of algebra I. Instructional content is delivered via the PlayStation Portable (PSP®) system, allowing students to access learning materials in various settings. Software-based assessments are used to customize individual instruction, allowing students to learn at their own pace with content appropriate for their skill level.
Intervention Report PK -1
Tools of the Mind (Early Childhood Education) (September 2008)
Tools of the Mind is an early childhood curriculum for preschool and kindergarten children. The curriculum is designed to foster children’s executive function, which involves developing self-regulation, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Many activities emphasize both executive functioning and academic skills.
Intervention Report 9-10 -1
Core-Plus Mathematics (Middle School Mathematics) (July 2007)
Core-Plus Mathematics is a 4-year curriculum that replaces the traditional sequence with courses that each feature interwoven strands of algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry and trigonometry, and discrete mathematics. The curriculum emphasizes mathematical modeling, using technology to emphasize reasoning with multiple representations (verbal, numerical, graphical, and symbolic) and to focus on goals in which mathematical thinking and problem solving are central. Instructional materials promote active learning and teaching centered around collaborative small-group investigations of problem situations, followed by teacher-led whole-class summarizing activities that lead to analysis, abstraction, and further application of underlying mathematical ideas.
Intervention Report 5-7 -1
SuccessMaker® (Beginning Reading) (July 2007)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.
Intervention Report 5-7 -1
SuccessMaker® (Elementary School Mathematics) (July 2007)
The SuccessMaker program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K–8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student’s reading level, SuccessMaker aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of print.
Intervention Report PK-K -1
Direct Instruction (Early Childhood Education) (May 2007)
Direct Instruction refers to a family of interventions that includes all Direct Instruction products (DISTAR and Language for Learning), as well as to all versions past and present. Direct Instruction includes teaching techniques that are fast-paced, teacher-directed, and explicit with opportunities for student response and teacher reinforcement or correction.
Intervention Report 1 -1
Progress in Mathematics © 2006 (Elementary School Mathematics) (April 2007)
Progress in Mathematics © 2006 is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 6. Progress in Mathematics © 2006 uses a sequence of systematic lesson plans to teach mathematical concepts and skills. It incorporates the following features at each grade level: explicit instruction of mathematics content; development of conceptual understanding through a three-step process that begins with hands-on activities (concrete thinking to visual thinking to symbol use); fluency in numerical computation; problem solving; development of mathematical vocabulary; practice and review; and different types of assessment. Student textbooks, student workbooks, and teacher’s editions are available for each grade level, as well as manipulatives and online practice exercises.
Intervention Report 2-5 -1
Houghton Mifflin Mathematics (Elementary School Mathematics) (April 2007)
Houghton Mifflin Mathematics is a core mathematics curriculum for students at all ability levels in kindergarten through grade 6. At each grade level, the program focuses on basic skills development, problem solving, and vocabulary expansion to help students master key math concepts. Students practice daily math lessons through instructional software, enrichment worksheets, manipulatives, and workbooks, in addition to student textbooks. The program incorporates assessments—including lesson-level interventions to meet the needs of all learners—to monitor students’ progress.
Intervention Report 7-9 -1
Transition Mathematics (Middle School Mathematics) (March 2007)
Transition Mathematics aims to increase applied arithmetic, pre-algebra, and pre-geometry skills in students in grades 7–12 . This 1-year curriculum also addresses general application to different wordings of problems, types of numbers, and contexts for problems and aims to promote mathematical reading skills. The curriculum uses the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) textbook. The sequence of the topics intends to assist the transition from arithmetic to algebra and geometry.
Intervention Report 1-4 -1
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) (Early Childhood Education) (December 2005)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words. LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’ needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths, subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Testing the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention: A Conceptual Replication Study (October 2016)
The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the counterfactual. Similar to the original investigation, however, the current study tested the same intervention, used the same outcome measures and statistical analyses, and involved the same population of learners. A total of 319 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 36 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Students who were randomly assigned to the treatment condition received the intervention in small-group formats, with 2 or 5 students per group. Control students participated in a no-treatment control condition. Significant effects on proximal and distal measures of mathematics achievement were found. Effect sizes obtained for all measures fell within or exceeded the upper bound of the effects reported in the initial study. Implications for systematically situating replication studies in larger frameworks of intervention research and reporting rates of treatment response across replication studies are discussed. [This paper was published in "Exceptional Children" (EJ1116305).]
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Integrating Literacy and Science Instruction in Kindergarten: Results from the Efficacy "Study of Zoology One" (2022)
This study examines the efficacy, cost, and implementation of an integrated science and literacy curriculum for kindergarten. The study was conducted in a large urban district and included 1,589 students in 71 classrooms in 21 schools. The research includes a multi-site cluster-randomized controlled trial and mixed-methods cost and implementation studies. Analysis revealed significant impacts on comprehension, letter-naming fluency, and motivation to read. No main impacts were observed on decoding, word identification, or writing; however, exploratory analysis revealed that students whose teachers implemented the treatment with fidelity performed statistically significantly better in writing and decoding. The cost to produce the observed effects was estimated at $480 per student, two-thirds of which was borne by the school. Despite this cost, treatment classrooms achieved savings by using an average of three fewer instructional programs than control classrooms. Teachers reported positive effects from the integrated curriculum on student engagement, learning, and behavior.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 1
Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Teacher Training Program on Elementary Children with Aggressive Behaviors (2020)
The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM), a universal classroom management intervention, on the outcomes of children with aggressive behavior in elementary school. Classroom management has been demonstrated as a factor in either escalating children's aggressive behavior or decreasing those problematic behaviors. Participants included 1,817 students (Grade K to 3) and 105 teachers from nine elementary schools in a large urban Midwestern school district. Teachers were randomly assigned to receive IY TCM or to a wait-list comparison group. The hypotheses were that baseline levels of aggression would moderate the relationship between intervention status and outcomes. Findings indicated the hypothesized moderation effect on several outcome variables; specifically, children with baseline aggression problems who were in IY TCM classrooms had significantly improved math achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviors, and observed aggression in comparison to similar peers in the control classrooms. Implications for practice and future research based on the findings are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 1
Distance Learning through Game-Based 3D Virtual Learning Environments: Mission Hydro Science. Evaluation Report for Mission HydroSci (2020)
Mission HydroSci (MHS) is a 3D game-based learning environment and curriculum that supports middle school student learning of water systems science and scientific argumentation. MHS is a rigorous, coherent and engaging 6 to 8-day curriculum with all learning activities and social interactions taking place in the virtual world and with teachers observing and supporting students through an online support system enhanced by analytics. MHS was evaluated in comparison to a high- quality alternative intervention developed by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) using a stratified randomized block experimental design where 'classroom' was the unit of random assignment, stratified by teacher. The comparison curriculum is called Earth's Water Systems (EWS) and is provided online using the Canvas learning management platform. Three measurable outcomes: (1) content knowledge, (2) competency in scientific argumentation, and (3) affect for science and technology were used in the pre- post-comparison of MHS with EWS. The findings of this randomized experiment showed that MHS achieved roughly equivalent water systems learning outcomes and significantly higher development of argumentation competencies when compared to the EWS curriculum. The impacts of both MHS and the EWS curriculum on affect for science and technology were equivalent and slightly negative. A secondary exploratory quasi-experimental design (QED) analysis was conducted that found significant positive effects for MHS in comparison to EWS on water systems understandings and stronger detected effects for students' argumentation.
Reviews of Individual Studies PS 1
Accelerating mathematics: Findings from the AMP-UP program at Bergen Community College. (2020)
In 2015, Bergen Community College (BCC) received a grant from the U.S. Department of Education First in the World Grant Program. The grant entitled Alternatives to Mathematics Education: An Unprecedented Program (AMP-UP), was awarded to conduct a randomized control trial on a corequisite approach to developmental math education. This study was conducted by researchers at the Education and Employment Research Center (EERC) at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. EERC investigated whether an accelerated delivery of developmental and college-level mathematics coursework would improve student retention, gateway course completion, credit accumulation, and degree completion over three years. The intervention group enrolled in accelerated developmental and college-level coursework; those in the group who placed into developmental arithmetic also participated in a self-paced Summer Bridge program. The comparison group followed the college's usual developmental mathematics sequence, generally enrolling in their first math course in the Fall term of their first year. The study found that both groups enrolled in a similar number of terms over three years. But in that period, intervention group students were 13 percentage points more likely to complete a developmental mathematics course and 30 percentage points more likely to complete a college-level mathematics course. The intervention group also earned 5.1 more credits and was 8 percentage points more likely to complete a degree in the study period. [This report was published by Rutgers' Education and Employment Research Center at the School of Management and Labor Relations.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PS 1
First in the World -- Amp-Up, Union County College: Final evaluation report. (2020)
In 2016, Union County College began a four-year experiment with corequisite developmental mathematics as part of a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's First in the World (FITW) program. In this experiment, students assessed as needing to take developmental mathematics courses would be eligible to receive a waiver from their developmental requirements and instead proceed to college-level mathematics courses. Students selected to receive a waiver would also be required to participate weekly in tutoring services offered by the college. The Education and Employment Research Center at Rutgers University served as the external evaluator for the study. The evaluation focuses on three key outcomes: continuous enrollment, passing college-level mathematics, and degree completion. The outcomes assessment found that students assigned to the intervention group -- those who had the immediate opportunity to proceed to college-level mathematics with support -- benefitted primarily from the intervention itself. In other words, intervention group students were substantially more likely to have passed a college-level mathematics course within three years than their counterparts in the comparison group, who would have had to first complete a developmental mathematics sequence prior to enrolling in college-level math. Assignment to the treatment group did not, however, have a measurable impact on either student persistence at the college or on degree completion in the study period. [This report was produced by Rutgers' Education and Employment Research Center.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 1
Aiming Higher: Assessing Higher Achievement's Out-of-School Expansion Efforts (2020)
Many talented students in under-resourced schools do not reach their full potential. Research shows that by sixth grade, children born into poverty have likely spent 6,000 fewer hours learning than their middle-class counterparts. Higher Achievement, an intensive summer and after-school program, aims to close that learning gap. It offers participants more than 500 hours of academic enrichment activities a year to help them meet the high academic standards expected of college-bound students. Known as "scholars"; Higher Achievement students enter the program during the summer before either fifth or sixth grade and commit to attending through eighth grade. The summer program consists of six weeks of morning classes in English Language Arts (ELA), math, science, and, in some centers, social studies, followed by enrichment activities in the afternoon, including chess, cooking, art, and soccer. During the school year, in addition to the program's regular study hall and enrichment activities, a cadre of mostly young professionals volunteer one day a week, delivering 75-minute ELA or math lessons to small groups of scholars. These volunteers receive detailed lesson plans and training so they can successfully execute the program's rigorous curricula. Part of what makes Higher Achievement affordable is its use of volunteers in this way. An earlier experimental evaluation of Metro DC, Higher Achievement's flagship affiliate in Washington, DC, and Alexandria, Virginia, found that the program was effective in improving academic performance two years after students applied. Since then, Higher Achievement has expanded to three new cities: Baltimore, Maryland; Richmond, Virginia; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Keenly aware that many effective flagship programs fail to be effective in new locations, the federal government funded an experimental validation study to examine the impacts at these expansion sites. Eligible students were randomly assigned either to a program group that could participate in Higher Achievement, or to a control group that could not enroll in the program. Comparing the two groups' outcomes provided an estimate of the program's impacts. The study found that the expansion sites experienced many of the implementation challenges common to school-based, out-of-school-time programs (for example, staff turnover, coordination with the host school, and lower-than-hoped-for attendance by middle school students), as well as those often seen in new programs (such as a lack of strong relationships with key partners and difficulty recruiting volunteers). Even so, Higher Achievement was found to be at least adequately implemented in all three cities. The study found that the program's detailed lesson plans, with scripted questions and student instructions, enabled the volunteers to deliver rigorous academic lessons. This report addresses the following questions: (1) How did the Higher Achievement centers operate during the study and what lessons are there for similar programs?; (2) Did scholars receive more academic enrichment over the two-year study period than they would have received without Higher Achievement?; and (3) How did Higher Achievement impact scholars' grades and test scores over the two years since they applied?
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Does an integrated focus on fractions and decimals improve at-risk students’ rational number magnitude performance? (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Does an integrated focus on fractions and decimals improve at-risk students’ rational number magnitude performance? (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 1
Investigating Causal Effects of Arts Education Experiences: Experimental Evidence from Houston's Arts Access Initiative (2019)
The recent wave of test-based accountability reforms has negatively impacted the provision of K-12 arts educational experiences. Advocates contend that, in addition to providing intrinsic benefits, the arts can positively influence academic and social development. However, the empirical evidence to support such claims is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 10,548 3rd-8th grade students who were enrolled in 42 schools that were assigned by lottery to receive substantial influxes of arts education experiences provided through school-community partnerships with local arts organizations, cultural institutions, and teaching-artists. We find that these increases in arts educational experiences significantly reduce the proportion of students receiving disciplinary infractions by 3.6 percentage points, improve STAAR writing achievement by 0.13 of a standard deviation, and increase students' compassion for others by 0.08 of a standard deviation. For students in elementary schools, which comprise 86 percent of the sample, we find that these arts educational experiences also significantly improve school engagement, college aspirations, and arts-facilitated empathy. These findings provide strong evidence that arts educational experiences can produce significant positive impacts on student academic and social development. Policymakers should consider these multifaceted educational benefits when assessing the role and value of the arts in K-12 schools.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Schema-based word-problem intervention with and without embedded language comprehension instruction (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Schema-based word-problem intervention with and without embedded language comprehension instruction (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
A study of the developing relations between self-regulation and mathematical knowledge in the context of an early math intervention (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
A curriculum supplement that integrates transmedia to promote early math learning: A randomized controlled trial of a PBS KIDS intervention. (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interleaved Mathematics Practice (2019)
We report the results of a preregistered, cluster randomized controlled trial of a mathematics learning intervention known as interleaved practice. Whereas most mathematics assignments consist of a block of problems devoted to the same skill or concept, an interleaved assignment is arranged so that no 2 consecutive problems require the same strategy. Previous small-scale studies found that practice assignments with a greater proportion of interleaved practice produced higher test scores. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy and feasibility of interleaved practice in a naturalistic setting with a large, diverse sample. Each of 54 7th-grade mathematics classes periodically completed interleaved or blocked assignments over a period of 4 months, and then both groups completed an interleaved review assignment. One month later, students took an unannounced test, and the interleaved group outscored the blocked group, 61% versus 38%, d 0.83. Teachers were able to implement the intervention without training, and they later expressed support for interleaved practice in an anonymous survey they completed before they knew the results of the study. Although important caveats remain, the results suggest that interleaved mathematics practice is effective and feasible.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
Improving Student Learning of Ratio, Proportion, and Percent: A Replication Study of Schema-Based Instruction (2019)
The purpose of this replication study was to provide replication evidence not currently available of the effects of a research-based mathematics program, schema-based instruction, on the mathematical problem-solving performance of 7th-grade students. The replication was implemented in 36 schools in 5 districts; 59 mathematics teachers and their students (N = 1,492) participated in the study. Multilevel hierarchical linear analyses revealed statistically significant differences between conditions on proximal and distal measures of mathematics problem solving, with effects sizes similar to those reported in Jitendra et al. (2015).
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
Building number sense among English learners: A multisite randomized controlled trial of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
A national experiment reveals where a growth mindset improves achievement. (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
Building Assets and Reducing Risks (BARR) Validation Study Final Report (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
The sequential scale-up of an evidence-based intervention: A case study. (2018)
Policymakers face dilemmas when choosing a policy, program, or practice to implement. Researchers in education, public health, and other fields have proposed a sequential approach to identifying interventions worthy of broader adoption, involving pilot, efficacy, effectiveness, and scale-up studies. In this paper, we examine a scale-up of an early math intervention to the state level, using a cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention, "Pre-K Mathematics," has produced robust positive effects on children's math ability in prior pilot, efficacy, and effectiveness studies. In the current study, we ask if it remains effective at a larger scale in a heterogeneous collection of pre-K programs that plausibly represent all low-income families with a child of pre-K age who live in California. We find that "Pre-K Mathematics" remains effective at the state level, with positive and statistically significant effects (effect size = 0.30, p < 0.01). In addition, we develop a framework of the dimensions of scale-up to explain why effect sizes might decrease as scale increases. Using this framework, we compare the causal estimates from the present study to those from earlier, smaller studies. Consistent with our framework, we find that effect sizes have decreased over time. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our study for how we think about the external validity of causal relationships. [This is the online version of an article published in "Evaluation Review."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 1
Impact of a tier 2 fractions intervention on 5th grade students’ fractions achievement: A technical report. (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
A Fraction Sense Intervention for Sixth Graders with or at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties (2018)
The efficacy of a research-based fraction sense intervention for sixth graders with or at risk for mathematics difficulties (N = 52) was examined. The intervention aimed to build understanding of fraction magnitudes on the number line. Key concepts were taught with a narrow range of denominators to develop deep understanding. The intervention was centered on a visual number line in the meaningful context of a color run race. Students were randomly assigned to the fraction sense intervention (n = 25) or a business-as-usual control group (n = 27). Students in the intervention condition received 21 lessons in small groups (45 min each) during their regular mathematics intervention period. Students in the intervention group performed significantly better than those in the control group on a measure of fraction number line estimation and a more general measure of fraction concepts, both at immediate posttest and delayed posttest, with large effect sizes; lesser effects were shown for fraction arithmetic. [This paper will be published in "Remedial and Special Education."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 1
The effect of an analysis-of-practice, video case-based, teacher professional development program on elementary students' science and achievement. (2017)
This article describes the effects of an analysis-of-practice professional development (PD) program on elementary school students' (Grades 4-6) science outcomes. The study design was a cluster-randomized trial with an analysis sample of 77 schools, 144 teachers and 2,823 students. Forty-two schools were randomly assigned to treatment, (88.5 hours) of integrated analysis-of-practice and content deepening PD (over the course of one year) while 35 schools were randomly assigned to receive an equal number of PD hours in science content deepening alone. Students' content knowledge, as measured by a project-specific test, was compared across treatment groups. The effect size for this comparison was 0.52 standard deviations in favor of students whose teachers participated in the PD that included analysis-of-practice. This effect compares favorably to that of other elementary school interventions whose effectiveness was studied with a narrowly focused outcome measure. Analysis of the demographics of the study schools suggests that the treatment effect could be relevant outside the local study context. Implications for future research include tests of mediation for teacher-level outcomes and efficacy tests of specific teaching strategies (intervention subcomponents).
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Evaluating the Impact of the Investing in Innovation Fund (i3) UPSTART Project on Rural Preschoolers' Early Literacy Skills (2017)
UPSTART is a federally funded i3 validation project that uses a computer-based program to develop the school readiness skills of preschool children in rural Utah. Researchers used a randomized control trial design to evaluate the impact of the program in advancing children's early literacy skills. Preschoolers in the experimental group were randomly assigned to the UPSTART Reading software, while control group students were assigned to UPSTART Math. Standardized early literacy assessments were administered prior to program commencement and upon completion. Results revealed that there was a significant difference in children's mean scores on measures of letter knowledge and phonological awareness, after controlling for prior knowledge, missing pre-test data, and children's school district between those who participated in UPSTART Reading and those in the comparison group. There were no differences between the two groups on assessments measuring vocabulary and oral language or listening comprehension.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 1
Effects of dual-language immersion programs on student achievement: Evidence from lottery data. (2017)
Effectively educating the large English learner population requires policymakers to ensure developmentally appropriate settings and services throughout the time students are learning English, as well as during their transition to fluent English proficient status--a process termed "reclassification." Using longitudinal student-level data from two U.S. states (N = 107,549), the authors implemented recent advances in multi-site regression discontinuity designs to assess the effects of reclassification policies across districts. They found that reclassification decisions are heavily influenced by state criteria; however, there is considerable variability across districts in the extent of state-level influence. The authors also found robust evidence of between-district heterogeneity in the effects of reclassification on subsequent achievement and graduation. They discuss the implications of these findings for reclassification policies and future research on the topic. Looking toward the next century of education research, the authors discuss ways that multi-site regression discontinuity designs can be combined with qualitative research to enable policymakers and practitioners to better understand variation in effects of policies across contexts as well as the mechanisms underlying those effects.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
I3 BARR Validation Study (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 1
Acquiring science and social studies knowledge in kindergarten through fourth grade: Conceptualization, design, implementation, and efficacy testing of content-area literacy instruction (CALI) (2017)
With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized) instructional program for kindergarteners through 4th graders to build science and social studies knowledge. We developed CALI to be implemented in general education classrooms, over multiple iterations (n = 230 students), using principles of design-based implementation research. The aims were to develop CALI as a usable and feasible instructional program that would, potentially, improve science and social studies knowledge, and could be implemented during the literacy block without negatively affecting students' reading gains (i.e., no opportunity cost). We then evaluated the efficacy of CALI in a randomized controlled field trial with 418 students in kindergarten through 4th grade. Results reveal that CALI demonstrates promise as a usable and feasible instructional individualized general education program, and is efficacious in improving social studies (d = 2.2) and science (d = 2.1) knowledge, with some evidence of improving oral and reading comprehension skills (d = 0.125).
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
i3 BARR validation study impact findings: Cohort 1. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
Online mathematics homework increases student achievement (2016)
In a randomized field trial with 2,850 seventh-grade mathematics students, we evaluated whether an educational technology intervention increased mathematics learning. Assigning homework is common yet sometimes controversial. Building on prior research on formative assessment and adaptive teaching, we predicted that combining an online homework tool with teacher training could increase learning. The online tool ASSISTments (a) provides timely feedback and hints to students as they do homework and (b) gives teachers timely, organized information about students' work. To test this prediction, we analyzed data from 43 schools that participated in a random assignment experiment in Maine, a state that provides every seventh-grade student with a laptop to take home. Results showed that the intervention significantly increased student scores on an end-of-the-year standardized mathematics assessment as compared with a control group that continued with existing homework practices. Students with low prior mathematics achievement benefited most. The intervention has potential for wider adoption. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED575159.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-11 1
Texting Parents: Evaluation report and executive summary. (2016)
This report presents the findings from an efficacy trial and process evaluation of the Parent Engagement Programme (PEP). The PEP was a school-level intervention designed to improve pupil outcomes by engaging parents in their children's learning. The programme was developed collaboratively by research teams from the University of Bristol and Harvard University and was delivered between September 2014 and July 2015. The study was conducted by the Centre for Effective Education, Queen's University Belfast between February 2014 and February 2016. The trial involved 15,697 students in Years 7, 9, and 11 from 36 English secondary schools, with schools sending an average of 30 texts to each parent over the period of the trial. The developers of the intervention managed its delivery to ensure optimal implementation. It was a cluster randomised controlled trial with randomisation at the Key Stage level, designed to determine the impact of the intervention on the academic outcomes of students in English, maths, and science, and the impact on absenteeism. A process evaluation used focus groups, telephone surveys, interviews, and an online survey to provide data on implementation and to capture the perceptions and experiences of participating parents, pupils, and teachers. Key conclusions include: (1) Children who had the intervention experienced about one month of additional progress in maths compared to other children. This positive result is unlikely to have occurred by chance; (2) Children who had the intervention had reduced absenteeism compared to other children. This positive result is unlikely to have occurred by chance; (3) Children who had the intervention appeared to experience about one month of additional progress in English compared to other children. However, analysis suggests that this finding might have been affected by bias introduced by missing data, so evaluators cannot reliably draw this conclusion. There is no evidence to suggest that the intervention had an impact on science attainment; (4) Schools embraced the programme and liked its immediacy and low cost. Many respondents felt that the presence of a dedicated coordinator would be valuable to monitor the accuracy and frequency of texts. Schools should consider whether they would be able to provide this additional resource; and (5) The vast majority of parents were accepting of the programme, including the content, frequency, and timing of texts. [Note: The post-reporting appendix was added in June 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Effects of tutorial interventions in mathematics and attention for low-performing preschool children. (2016)
Two intervention approaches designed to address the multifaceted academic and cognitive difficulties of low-income children who enter pre-K with very low math knowledge were tested in a randomized experiment. Blocking on classroom, children who met screening criteria were assigned to a Math + Attention condition in which the Pre-Kindergarten Mathematics Tutorial (PKMT) intervention was implemented (4 days/week for 24 weeks) in addition to 16 adaptive attention training sessions, a Math-Only condition using the PKMT intervention, or a business-as-usual condition. Five hundred eighteen children were assessed at pretest and posttest. There was a significant effect of the PKMT intervention on a broad measure of informal mathematical knowledge and a small but significant effect on a measure of numerical knowledge. Attention training was associated with small effects on attention, but did not provide additional benefit for mathematics. A main effect of state on math outcomes was associated with a stronger, numeracy-focused Tier 1 mathematics curriculum in one state. Findings are discussed with respect to increasing intensity of math-specific and domain-general interventions for young children at risk for mathematical learning difficulties.
Reviews of Individual Studies PS 1
Should students assessed as needing remedial mathematics take college-level quantitative courses instead? A randomized controlled trial. (2016)
Many college students never take, or do not pass, required remedial mathematics courses theorized to increase college-level performance. Some colleges and states are therefore instituting policies allowing students to take college-level courses without first taking remedial courses. However, no experiments have compared the effectiveness of these approaches, and other data are mixed. We randomly assigned 907 students to (a) remedial elementary algebra, (b) that course with workshops, or (c) college-level statistics with workshops (corequisite remediation). Students assigned to statistics passed at a rate 16 percentage points higher than those assigned to algebra (p < 0.001), and subsequently accumulated more credits. A majority of enrolled statistics students passed. Policies allowing students to take college-level instead of remedial quantitative courses can increase student success.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Effects of intervention to improve at-risk fourth graders' understanding, calculations, and word problems with fractions (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Effects of Intervention to Improve At-Risk Fourth Graders' Understanding, Calculations, and Word Problems with Fractions (2016)
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of a core fraction intervention program on understanding and calculation skill and (b) isolate the effects of different forms of fraction word-problem (WP) intervention. At-risk fourth graders (n = 213) were randomly assigned to the school's business-as-usual program, or one of two variants of the core fraction intervention (each 12 weeks, 36 sessions). In each session of the two variants, 28 minutes were identical, focused mainly on the measurement interpretation of fractions. The other 7 minutes addressed multiplicative WPs versus additive WPs. Children were pre-/posttested on fraction understanding, calculations, and WPs. On understanding and calculations, both intervention conditions outperformed the control group. The effect of intervention versus control on released fraction items from the National Assessment of Education Progress was mediated by children's improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions. On multiplicative WPs, multiplicative WP intervention was superior to the other conditions, but additive WP intervention and the control group performed comparably. On additive WPs, additive WP intervention was superior to multiplicative WP intervention, which was superior to control.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Supported self-explaining during fraction intervention (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Supported self-explaining during fraction intervention (2016)
The main purposes of this study were to test the effects of teaching at-risk 4th graders to provide explanations for their mathematics work and examine whether those effects occur by compensating for limitations in cognitive processes. We randomly assigned 212 children to 3 conditions: a control group and 2 variants of a multicomponent fraction intervention. Both intervention conditions included 36 sessions, each lasting 35 min. All but 7 min of each session were identical. In the 7-min component, students were taught to provide high quality explanations when comparing fraction magnitudes or to solve fraction word problems. Children were pretested on cognitive variables and pre/posttested on fraction knowledge. On accuracy of magnitude comparisons and quality of explanations, children who received the explaining intervention outperformed those in the word-problem condition. On word problems, children who received the word-problem intervention outperformed those in the explaining condition. Moderator analyses indicated that the explaining intervention was more effective for students with weaker working memory, while the word-problem intervention was more effective for students with stronger reasoning ability. © 2015 American Psychological Association.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 1
New Mexico StartSmart K-3 Plus validation study. Evaluator's report. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 1
Understanding the effect of KIPP as it scales: Volume I, Impacts on achievement and other outcomes. Final report of KIPP’s Investing in Innovation grant evaluation [Middle School; RCT]. (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first high-quality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other non-KIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Matched-Student Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-Student Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-School Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 1
The impact of eMINTS professional development on teacher instruction and student achievement. Year 3 report. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-10 1
Not too late: Improving academic outcomes for disadvantaged youth (Working paper WP-15-01) (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
A Kindergarten Number-Sense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for Low-Achieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a research-based number-sense intervention for low-achieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a number-sense intervention followed by a number-fact practice session, an identical number-sense intervention followed by a number-list practice session, or a business-as-usual control group. The number-fact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the number-list practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 1
A Kindergarten Number-Sense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for Low-Achieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a research-based number-sense intervention for low-achieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a number-sense intervention followed by a number-fact practice session, an identical number-sense intervention followed by a number-list practice session, or a business-as-usual control group. The number-fact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the number-list practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
The benefit of interleaved mathematics practice is not limited to superficially similar kinds of problems. (2014)
Most mathematics assignments consist of a group of problems requiring the same strategy. For example, a lesson on the quadratic formula is typically followed by a block of problems requiring students to use the quadratic formula, which means that students know the appropriate strategy before they read each problem. In an alternative approach, different kinds of problems appear in an interleaved order, which requires students to choose the strategy on the basis of the problem itself. In the classroom-based experiment reported here, grade seven students (n = 140) received blocked or interleaved practice over a nine-week period, followed two weeks later by an unannounced test. Mean test scores were greater for material learned by interleaved practice rather than by blocked practice (72% vs. 38%, d = 1.05). This interleaving effect was observed even though the different kinds of problems were superficially dissimilar from each other, whereas previous interleaved mathematics studies required students to learn nearly identical kinds of problems. We conclude that interleaving improves mathematics learning not only by improving discrimination between different kinds of problems but also by strengthening the association between each kind of problem and its corresponding strategy. [This article was published in: "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review" v21 n5 p1323-1330 Oct 2014; http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3758/s13423-014-0588-3.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
The effects of math video games on learning: A randomized evaluation study with innovative impact estimation techniques. (2014)
A large-scale randomized controlled trial tested the effects of researcher-developed learning games on a transfer measure of fractions knowledge. The measure contained items similar to standardized assessments. Thirty treatment and 29 control classrooms (~1500 students, 9 districts, 26 schools) participated in the study. Students in treatment classrooms played fractions games and students in the control classrooms played solving equations games. Multilevel multidimensional item response theory modeling of the outcome measure produced scaled scores that were more sensitive to the instructional treatment than standard measurement approaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of the scaled scores showed that the treatment condition performed significantly higher on the outcome measure than the control condition. The effect (d = 0.58) was medium to large (Cohen, 1992). Two appendices are included: (1) Descriptive Statistics of Pretest and Posttest Scores by Schools and Conditions; and (2) Summary of Efficacy Trial Procedures.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Does Working Memory Moderate the Effects of Fraction Intervention? An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (2014)
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a business-as-usual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects. At-risk students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to control and 2 intervention conditions. The interventions each lasted 12 weeks, with three 30-min sessions per week. The major focus of both intervention conditions was the measurement interpretation of fractions. Across the 2 conditions, only 5 min of each 30-min session differed. One condition completed activities to build fluency with 4 measurement interpretation topics; in the other, activities were completed to consolidate understanding on the same 4 topics. Results revealed a significant aptitude-treatment interaction, in which students with very weak WM learned better with conceptual activities but children with more adequate (but still low) WM learned better with fluency activities. Both intervention conditions outperformed the control group on all outcomes, and improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
Building assets and reducing risks whole ninth-grade strategy reduces coursework failure for students of color. (2013, April/May)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 1
Sustained progress: New findings about the effectiveness and operation of small public high schools of choice in New York City. (2013)
In 2002, New York City embarked on an ambitious and wide-ranging series of education reforms. At the heart of its high school reforms were three interrelated changes: the institution of a district wide high school choice process for all rising ninth-graders, the closure of 31 large, failing high schools with an average graduation rate of 40 percent, and the opening of more than 200 new small high schools. Over half of the new small schools created between the fall of 2002 and the fall of 2008 were intended to serve students in some of the district's most disadvantaged communities and are located mainly in neighborhoods where large, failing high schools had been closed. MDRC has previously released two reports on these "small schools of choice," or SSCs (so called because they are small, are academically nonselective, and were created to provide a realistic choice for students with widely varying academic backgrounds). Those reports found marked increases in progress toward graduation and in graduation rates for the cohorts of students who entered SSCs in the falls of 2005 and 2006. The second report also found that the increase in graduation rates applied to every student subgroup examined, and that SSC graduation effects were sustained even after five years from the time sample members entered high school. This report updates those previous findings with results from a third cohort of students, those who entered ninth grade in the fall of 2007. In addition, for the first time it includes a look inside these schools through the eyes of principals and teachers, as reported in interviews and focus groups held at the 25 SSCs with the strongest evidence of effectiveness. In brief, the report's findings are: (1) SSCs in New York City continue to markedly increase high school graduation rates for large numbers of disadvantaged students of color, even as graduation rates are rising at the schools with which SSCs are compared; (2) The best evidence that exists indicates that SSCs may increase graduation rates for two new subgroups for which findings were not previously available: special education students and English language learners. However, given the still-limited sample sizes for these subgroups, the evidence will not be definitive until more student cohorts can be added to the analysis; and (3) Principals and teachers at the 25 SSCs with the strongest evidence of effectiveness strongly believe that academic rigor and personal relationships with students contribute to the effectiveness of their schools. They also believe that these attributes derive from their schools' small organizational structures and from their committed, knowledgeable, hardworking, and adaptable teachers. Appended are: (1) Sample, Data, and Analysis; (2) Estimated Effects of Winning a Student's First SSC Lottery; (3) 2008 Requirements for Proposals to Create New SSCs Specified by the New York City Department of Education; and (4) Documentation for Interviews and Focus Groups.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 1
Staying on track: Testing Higher Achievement’s long-term impact on academic outcomes and high school choice. (2013)
One crucial decision that middle schoolers (and their families) make is where they will attend high school. Many districts employ school choice systems designed to allow students to pick a high school that will meet their needs and interests. Yet most students prefer high schools that are close to home, and for youth in low-income neighborhoods, this often means attending a more disadvantaged, lower performing school (Nathanson et al. 2013). Youth who defy these odds and choose a competitive high school instead have much to gain. Cullen et al. (2005), for instance, found that Chicago public middle school students who chose to attend a higher-achieving high school were substantially more likely to graduate. However, even as eighth graders, these students already differed in many ways from their peers who chose a neighborhood school--they had better self-reported grades and higher expectations for the future, felt more prepared for high school, and were more likely to have spoken with their parents about what school to attend. These findings raise the question of how we can prepare more disadvantaged students to take the many steps necessary-throughout the middle school years-to successfully transition to a competitive, high-quality high school that can ultimately launch them toward college and careers. The Washington, DC-based Higher Achievement program is taking on this challenge. Higher Achievement targets rising fifth and sixth graders from "at-risk communities" and serves them throughout the middle school years. Its goal is to strengthen participants' academic skills, attitudes and behaviors, reinforce high aspirations and help students and their families navigate the process of applying to and selecting a high-quality high school. In 2006, the authors began a comprehensive multi-year evaluation of Higher Achievement to test its impact on participants' academic performance, attitudes and behaviors and on their high school enrollment. The evaluation used random assignment-the most rigorous design available to researchers-to assess program impacts. This brief summarizes the study's findings. Findings suggest that the program does appear to expand the options available to its students by making them more likely to apply to and attend private schools and less likely to apply to and attend weaker public magnet and charter schools. This, in turn, may position youth for better outcomes in high school and beyond. [This research was made possible by grants from The Atlantic Philanthropies, Bank of America, the Smith Richardson Foundation, the Spencer Foundation, The Wallace Foundation and the William T. Grant Foundation.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-12 1
The effectiveness of secondary math teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows programs (NCEE 2013-4015). (2013)
Teach For America (TFA) and the Teaching Fellows programs are an important and growing source of teachers of hard-to-staff subjects in high-poverty schools, but comprehensive evidence of their effectiveness has been limited. This report presents findings from the first large-scale random assignment study of secondary math teachers from these programs. The study separately examined the effectiveness of TFA and Teaching Fellows teachers, comparing secondary math teachers from each program with other secondary math teachers teaching the same math courses in the same schools. The study focused on secondary math because this is a subject in which schools face particular staffing difficulties.The study had two main findings, one for each program studied: (1) TFA teachers were more effective than the teachers with whom they were compared. On average, students assigned to TFA teachers scored 0.07 standard deviations higher on end-of-year math assessments than students assigned to comparison teachers, a statistically significant difference. This impact is equivalent to an additional 2.6 months of school for the average student nationwide; and (2) Teaching Fellows were neither more nor less effective than the teachers with whom they were compared. On average, students of Teaching Fellows and students of comparison teachers had similar scores on end-of-year math assessments. By providing rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of secondary math teachers from TFA and the Teaching Fellows programs, the study can shed light on potential approaches for improving teacher effectiveness in hard-to-staff schools and subjects. The study findings can provide guidance to school principals faced with the choice of hiring teachers who have entered the profession via different routes to certification. The findings can also aid policymakers and funders of teacher preparation programs by providing information on the effectiveness of teachers from various routes to certification that use different methods to identify, attract, train, and support their teachers. Seven appendixes present: (1) Supplementary Technical Information on Study Design and Data Collection; (2) Supplementary Information on Analytic Methods; (3) Supplementary Information on Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Programs; (4) Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers Compared with Comparison Teachers by Entry Route (Alternative or Traditional); (5) Supplementary Information on Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers Compared with Comparison Teachers; (6) Supplementary Analyses of the Impacts of Teach For America and Teaching Fellows Teachers; and (7) Supplementary Findings on Factors Associated with Teacher Effectiveness. (Contains 96 tables, 21 figures, and 30 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Preschool teachers can use a PBS KIDS Transmedia Curriculum Supplement to support young children's mathematics learning: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Summative evaluation of the CPB-PBS "Ready To Learn Initiative." (2013)
This report presents results from the "Ready To Learn" Prekindergarten Transmedia Mathematics Study, a principal part of the summative evaluation of "Ready To Learn," which is a partnership between the US Department of Education, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and PBS. Researchers found that preschool children who experienced a PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement developed essential early mathematics skills. The PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement was centered around public media videos and digital games, played on a selected set of learning technologies (interactive whiteboards and laptop computers). The important skills measure--counting; subitizing; recognizing numerals; recognizing, composing, and representing shapes; and patterning--increased significantly for the study's four- and five-year-old children, who were from traditionally economically disadvantaged communities where children are often less prepared for kindergarten than are their more socially and economically advantaged peers. Also important, preschool teachers who enacted the PBS KIDS Transmedia Math Supplement reported significant changes in their confidence and comfort with early mathematics concepts and teaching with technology. [This report was co-produced by SRI's Center for Technology in Learning (CTL).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 1
Transfer incentives for high-performing teachers: Final results from a multisite randomized experiment (NCEE 2014-4003). (2013)
One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highest-performing teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention can improve student test scores and other outcomes in low-achieving schools. The intervention, known to participants as the Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI), was implemented in 10 school districts in seven states. The highest-performing teachers in each district--those who ranked in roughly the top 20 percent within their subject and grade span in terms of raising student achievement year after year (an approach known as value added)--were identified. These teachers were offered $20,000, paid in installments over a two-year period, if they transferred into and remained in designated schools that had low average test scores. The main findings from the study include: (1) The transfer incentive successfully attracted high value-added teachers to fill targeted vacancies; (2) The transfer incentive had a positive impact on test scores (math and reading) in targeted elementary classrooms; and (3) The transfer incentive had a positive impact on teacher-retention rates during the payout period; retention of the high-performing teachers who transferred was similar to their counterparts in the fall immediately after the last payout. Seven appendixes are included: (1) Supplemental Materials for Chapters I and II; (2) Value-Added Analysis to Identify Highest-Performing Teachers; (3) Supplemental Materials for Chapter III; (4) Identification of Focal Teachers; (5) Supplemental Materials for Chapter IV; (6) Supplemental Materials for Chapter V; and (7) Supplemental Materials for Chapter VI. (Contains 114 footnotes, 61 figures, and 92 tables.) [For the executive summary, see ED544268.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Improving At-Risk Learners' Understanding of Fractions (2013)
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of an intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' understanding of fractions and to examine the processes by which effects occurred. The intervention focused more on the measurement interpretation of fractions; the control condition focused more on the part-whole interpretation of fractions and on procedures. Intervention was also designed to compensate for at-risk students' limitations in the domain-general abilities associated with fraction learning. At-risk students (n = 259) were randomly assigned to intervention and control. Whole-number calculation skill, domain-general abilities (working memory, attentive behavior, processing speed, listening comprehension), and fraction proficiency were pretested. Intervention occurred for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session, and then fraction performance was reassessed. On each conceptual and procedural fraction outcome, effects favored intervention over control (effect sizes = 0.29 to 2.50), and the gap between at-risk and low-risk students narrowed for the intervention group but not the control group. Improvement in the accuracy of children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated intervention effects. Also, intervention effects were moderated by domain-general abilities, but not whole-number calculation skill.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Improving at-risk learners' understanding of fractions (2013)
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of an intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' understanding of fractions and to examine the processes by which effects occurred. The intervention focused more on the measurement interpretation of fractions; the control condition focused more on the part-whole interpretation of fractions and on procedures. Intervention was also designed to compensate for at-risk students' limitations in the domain-general abilities associated with fraction learning. At-risk students (n = 259) were randomly assigned to intervention and control. Whole-number calculation skill, domaingeneral abilities (working memory, attentive behavior, processing speed, listening comprehension), and fraction proficiency were pretested. Intervention occurred for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, 30 min per session, and then fraction performance was reassessed. On each conceptual and procedural fraction outcome, effects favored intervention over control (effect sizes = 0.29 to 2.50), and the gap between at-risk and low-risk students narrowed for the intervention group but not the control group. Improvement in the accuracy of children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated intervention effects. Also, intervention effects were moderated by domain-general abilities, but not whole-number calculation skill.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Does working memory moderate the effects of fraction intervention? An aptitude-treatment interaction. (2013)
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a business-as-usual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects. At-risk students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to control and 2 intervention conditions. The interventions each lasted 12 weeks, with three 30-min sessions per week. The major focus of both intervention conditions was the measurement interpretation of fractions. Across the 2 conditions, only 5 min of each 30-min session differed. One condition completed activities to build fluency with 4 measurement interpretation topics; in the other, activities were completed to consolidate understanding on the same 4 topics. Results revealed a significant aptitude-treatment interaction, in which students with very weak WM learned better with conceptual activities but children with more adequate (but still low) WM learned better with fluency activities. Both intervention conditions outperformed the control group on all outcomes, and improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Effects of First-Grade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Effects of First-Grade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
Effects of First-Grade Number Knowledge Tutoring with Contrasting Forms of Practice (2013)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1st-grade number knowledge tutoring with contrasting forms of practice. Tutoring occurred 3 times per week for 16 weeks. In each 30-min session, the major emphasis (25 min) was number knowledge; the other 5 min provided practice in 1 of 2 forms. Nonspeeded practice reinforced relations and principles addressed in number knowledge tutoring. Speeded practice promoted quick responding and use of efficient counting procedures to generate many correct responses. At-risk students were randomly assigned to number knowledge tutoring with speeded practice (n = 195), number knowledge tutoring with nonspeeded practice (n = 190), and control (no tutoring, n = 206). Each tutoring condition produced stronger learning than control on all 4 mathematics outcomes. Speeded practice produced stronger learning than nonspeeded practice on arithmetic and 2-digit calculations, but effects were comparable on number knowledge and word problems. Effects of both practice conditions on arithmetic were partially mediated by increased reliance on retrieval, but only speeded practice helped at-risk children compensate for weak reasoning ability. (Contains 7 tables, 2 figures and 6 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1
School-based mentoring programs: Using volunteers to improve the academic outcomes of underserved students (2013)
Prior research on mentoring relationships outside of school does point toward relationship closeness and related indicators of the emotional quality of the mentor-protégé tie as important influences on youth outcomes. There is preliminary evidence that this may also be the case for School Based Mentoring (SBM), or at least that closeness promotes protégé and mentor perceptions of relationship quality. The overarching aim of this paper is to enrich the field's understanding of how volunteer mentors can best support the academic mission of schools. The central empirical analysis investigates whether emotionally closer relationships between mentors and protégés lead to better academic outcomes. The sample for the study consists of the students who participated in the randomized control trial of the Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA) SBM program during the 2004-2005 school year. Study participants were recruited by 10 BBBSA study agencies across the country, each with four or more years of experience in SBM. Evidence is found that a close mentoring relationship positively affects academic performance. Effect sizes, obtained by dividing the impact coefficients reported in the table by the standard deviation of the appropriate outcome measure, range from 0.13 standard deviations (for overall academic performance and scholastic efficacy) to 0.18 standard deviations (for completeness of schoolwork), and are consistent across alternative specifications. A table is appended.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Differential effects of three professional development models on teacher knowledge and student achievement in elementary science. (2012)
To identify links among professional development, teacher knowledge, practice, and student achievement, researchers have called for study designs that allow causal inferences and that examine relationships among features of interventions and multiple outcomes. In a randomized experiment implemented in six states with over 270 elementary teachers and 7,000 students, this project compared three related but systematically varied teacher interventions--"Teaching Cases, Looking at Student Work, and Metacognitive Analysis"--along with no-treatment controls. The three courses contained identical science content components, but differed in the ways they incorporated analysis of learner thinking and of teaching, making it possible to measure effects of these features on teacher and student outcomes. Interventions were delivered by staff developers trained to lead the teacher courses in their regions. Each course improved teachers' and students' scores on selected-response science tests well beyond those of controls, and effects were maintained a year later. Student achievement also improved significantly for English language learners in both the study year and follow-up, and treatment effects did not differ based on sex or race/ethnicity. However, only Teaching Cases and Looking at Student Work courses improved the accuracy and completeness of students' written justifications of test answers in the follow-up, and only Teaching Cases had sustained effects on teachers' written justifications. Thus, the content component in common across the three courses had powerful effects on teachers' and students' ability to choose correct test answers, but their ability to explain why answers were correct only improved when the professional development incorporated analysis of student conceptual understandings and implications for instruction; metacognitive analysis of teachers' own learning did not improve student justifications either year. Findings suggest investing in professional development that integrates content learning with analysis of student learning and teaching rather than advanced content or teacher metacognition alone. (Contains 1 figure and 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 1
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) (NCEE 2012–4008). (2012)
This report presents the results of an experiment conducted in Alabama beginning in the 2006/07 school year, to determine the effectiveness of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI), which aims to improve mathematics and science achievement in the state's K-12 schools. This study is the first randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of AMSTI in improving mathematics problem solving and science achievement in upper-elementary and middle schools. AMSTI is an initiative specific to Alabama and was developed and supported through state resources. An important finding is the positive and statistically significant effect of AMSTI on mathematics achievement as measured by the SAT 10 mathematics problem solving assessment administered by the state to students in grades 4-8. After one year in the program, student mathematics scores were higher than those of a control group that did not receive AMSTI by 0.05 standard deviation, equivalent to 2 percentile points. Nine of the 10 sensitivity analyses yielded effect estimates that were statistically significant at the 0.025 level, consistent with the main finding. The estimated effect of AMSTI on science achievement measured after one year was not statistically significant. Based on the SAT 10 science test administered by the state to students in grades 5 and 7, no difference between AMSTI and control schools could be discerned after one year. Changes in classroom instructional strategies, especially an emphasis on more active-learning strategies, are important to the AMSTI theory of action. Therefore, a secondary investigation of classroom practices was conducted, based on data from survey responses from teachers. For both mathematics and science, statistically significant differences were found between AMSTI and control teachers in the average reported time spent using the strategies. The effect of AMSTI on these instructional strategies was 0.47 standard deviation in mathematics and 0.32 standard deviation in science. Two years of AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on achievement in mathematics problem solving, compared to no AMSTI. Two years of AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on achievement in science. AMSTI appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect on reading achievement as measured by the SAT 10 test of reading administered by the state to students in grades 4-8. AMSTI did not appear to have a statistically significant effect on teacher-reported content knowledge in mathematics or science after one year. AMSTI did not appear to have statistically significant differential effects on student achievement in mathematics problem solving or science based on racial/ethnic minority status, enrollment in the free or reduced-price lunch program, gender, or pretest level. Appended are: (1) Explanation of primary and secondary confirmatory outcome measures; (2) Explanation of exploratory research questions; (3) Selection and random assignment of schools; (4) Statistical power analysis; (5) Data collection procedures and timeline; (6) Description of program implementation data collected but not used in report; (7) Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) teacher survey #3; (8) Data cleaning and data file construction; (9) Attrition through study stages for samples used in the confirmatory analysis; (10) Description of degree rank; (11) Equivalence of Year 1 baseline and analyzed samples for confirmatory student-level and classroom practice outcomes; (12) Internal consistency and validity of active learning measures; (13) Number of students and teachers in schools in analytic samples used to analyze Year 1 confirmatory questions; (14) Attrition through study stages for samples used in Year 1 exploratory analysis; (15) Tests of equivalence for baseline and analytic samples for Year 1 exploratory outcomes; (16) Statistical power analyses for moderator analyses; (17) Derivation and motivation of the Bell-Bradley estimator when measuring estimated two-year effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI); (18) Attrition through study stages for samples contributing to estimation of two-year effects; (19) Examination of equivalence in baseline and analytic samples used in the estimation of two-year effects; (20) Estimation model for two-year effects of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI); (21) Topics and instructional methods used at the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) summer institute; (22) Parameter estimates on probability scale for odds-ratio tests of differences between Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control conditions in Year 1 (associated with summer professional development and in-school support outcomes); (23) Descriptive statistics for variables that change to a binary scale used in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control conditions in Year 1; (24) Comparison of assumed parameter values and observed sample statistics for statistical power analysis after one year; (25) Parameter estimates for Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) mathematics problem solving after one year; (26) Parameter estimates for Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) science after one year; (27) Parameter estimates for active learning in mathematics after one year; (28) Parameter estimates for active learning in science after one year; (29) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) mathematics problem solving achievement after one year; (30) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on Stanford Achievement Test Tenth Edition (SAT 10) science achievement after one year; (31) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on active learning instructional strategies in mathematics classrooms after one year; (32) Sensitivity analyses of effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on active learning instructional strategies in science classrooms after one year; (33) Tests for violations of factors associated with assumption of equal first year effects on students in Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) and control schools; (34) Post hoc adjustment to standard error for estimate of two-year effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on mathematics achievement after two years; (35) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) after two years; (36) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on student reading achievement after one year; (37) Parameter estimates for teacher content and student engagement after one year; (38) Estimates of effects for terms involving the indicator of treatment status in the analysis of the moderating effect of the three-level pretest variable; (39) Parameter estimates for the analysis of the moderating effect of racial/ethnic minority status on the impact of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading after one year; (40) Parameter estimates for analysis of average effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading by racial/ethnic minority students after one year; and (41) Parameter estimates for effect of the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) on reading for White students after one year. (Contains 26 figures, 136 tables, 1 box and 130 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 1
Enhancing the efficacy of teacher incentives through loss aversion: A field experiment. (2012)
Domestic attempts to use financial incentives for teachers to increase student achievement have been ineffective. In this paper, we demonstrate that exploiting the power of loss aversion--teachers are paid in advance and asked to give back the money if their students do not improve sufficiently--increases math test scores between 0.201 (0.076) and 0.398 (0.129) standard deviations. This is equivalent to increasing teacher quality by more than one standard deviation. A second treatment arm, identical to the loss aversion treatment but implemented in the standard fashion, yields smaller and statistically insignificant results. This suggests it is loss aversion, rather than other features of the design or population sampled, that leads to the stark differences between our findings and past research.
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Access to Algebra I: The effects of online mathematics for grade 8 students (NCEE 2012&ndash;4021). (2012)
This report presents findings from a randomized control trial designed to inform the decisions of policymakers who are considering using online courses to provide access to Algebra I in grade 8. It focuses on students judged by their schools to be ready to take Algebra I in grade 8 but who attend schools that do not offer the course. The study tested the impact of offering an online Algebra I course on students' algebra achievement at the end of grade 8 and their subsequent likelihood of participating in an advanced mathematics course sequence in high school. The study was designed to respond to both broad public interest in the deployment of online courses for K-12 students and to calls from policymakers to provide students with adequate pathways to advanced coursetaking sequences in mathematics (National Mathematics Advisory Panel 2008). This study is the first of its kind to rigorously evaluate the impact of offering an online version of Algebra I in schools that otherwise do not typically offer the course, even though they have students who are ready to take it. For educators and students facing similar challenges, the results of this study may be particularly informative and promising. Results showed that offering an online course to AR students is an effective way to broaden access to Algebra I in grade 8 and later, to more challenging mathematics course opportunities. The study demonstrates that an online course as implemented is more effective in promoting students' success in mathematics than existing practices in these schools. Appended are: (1) Study Design, Study Samples, and Statistical Precision; (2) Measures; (3) Intervention Features; (4) Estimation Methods and Hypothesis Testing; (5) Sensitivity Analyses; and (6) Missing Data and Multiple Imputation. (Contains 77 tables, 12 figures and 61 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Developing procedural flexibility: Are novices prepared to learn from comparing procedures? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 436–455. (2012)
Background: A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of procedural flexibility, where learners know multiple procedures and use them appropriately to solve a range of problems (e.g., Verschaffel, Luwel, Torbeyns, & Van Dooren, 2009). However, students often fail to become flexible problem solvers in mathematics. To support flexibility, teaching standards in many countries recommend that students be exposed to multiple procedures early in instruction and be encouraged to compare them. Aims: We experimentally evaluated this recommended instructional practice for supporting procedural flexibility during a classroom lesson, relative to two alternative conditions. The alternatives reflected the common instructional practice of delayed exposure to multiple procedures, either with or without comparison of procedures. Sample: Grade 8 students from two public schools (N= 198) were randomly assigned to condition. Students had not received prior instruction on multi-step equation solving, which was the topic of our lessons. Method: Students learned about multi-step equation solving under one of three conditions in math class for about 3 hr. They also completed a pre-test, post-test, and 1-month-retention test on their procedural knowledge, procedural flexibility, and conceptual knowledge of equation solving. Results: Novices who compared procedures immediately were more flexible problem solvers than those who did not, even on a 1-month retention test. Although condition had limited direct impact on conceptual and procedural knowledge, greater flexibility was associated with greater knowledge of both types. Conclusions: Comparing procedures can support flexibility in novices and early introduction to multiple procedures may be one important reason. (Contains 5 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 1
Evaluation of Rocketship Education’s use of DreamBox Learning’s online mathematics program. (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Mathematics learned by young children in an intervention based on learning trajectories: A large-scale cluster randomized trial. (2011)
This study employed a cluster randomized trial design to evaluate the effectiveness of a research-based intervention for improving the mathematics education of very young children. This intervention includes the "Building Blocks" mathematics curriculum, which is structured in research-based learning trajectories, and congruous professional development emphasizing teaching for understanding via learning trajectories and technology. A total of 42 schools serving low-resource communities were randomly selected and randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups using a randomized block design involving 1,375 preschoolers in 106 classrooms. Teachers implemented the intervention with adequate fidelity. Pre- to posttest scores revealed that the children in the Building Blocks group learned more mathematics than the children in the control group (effect size, g = 0.72). Specific components of a measure of the quantity and quality of classroom mathematics environments and teaching partially mediated the treatment effect. (Contains 5 tables and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 1
Large scale, randomized cluster design study of the relative effectiveness of reform-based and traditional/verification curricula in supporting student science learning. (2010, March)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 1
Learning the control of variables strategy in higher and lower achieving classrooms: Contributions of explicit instruction and experimentation. (2010)
Students (n = 797) from 36 4th-grade classrooms were taught the control of variables strategy for designing experiments. In the instruct condition, classes were taught in an interactive lecture format. In the manipulate condition, students worked in groups to design and run experiments to determine the effects of four variables. In the both condition, classes received the interactive lecture and also designed and ran experiments. We assessed students' understanding using a written test of their ability to distinguish valid from invalid experimental comparisons. Performance on this test improved from the pretest to the immediate posttest in all conditions, and gains were maintained at a 5-month delay. For students from both higher and lower achieving schools, gains ordered as follows: both greater than instruct greater than manipulate. However, students from higher achieving schools showed greater gains in all conditions. Item analyses showed that the interactive lecture improved students' understanding of the need to control irrelevant variables, and experimentation improved students' understanding of the need to vary the focal variable. (Contains 4 tables, 2 figures and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2010)
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal versus distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4-6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20-30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2010)
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal versus distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4-6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20-30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Head Start impact study. (2010)
This report addresses the following four questions by reporting on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and 1st grade years: (1) What difference does Head Start make to key outcomes of development and learning (and in particular, the multiple domains of school readiness) for low-income children? (2) What difference does Head Start make to parental practices that contribute to children's school readiness? (3) Under what circumstances does Head Start achieve the greatest impact? What works for which children? (4) What Head Start services are most related to impact? The Head Start Impact Study was conducted with a nationally representative sample of 84 grantee/delegate agencies and included nearly 5,000 newly entering, eligible 3- and 4-year-old children who were randomly assigned to either: (1) a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or (2) a control group that did not have access to Head Start, but could enroll in other early childhood programs or non-Head Start services selected by their parents. The study was designed to separately examine two cohorts of children, newly entering 3-and 4-year-olds. This design reflects the hypothesis that different program impacts may be associated with different age of entry into Head Start. Differential impacts are of particular interest in light of a trend of increased enrollment of the 3-year-olds in some grantee/delegate agencies presumably due to the growing availability of preschool options for 4-year-olds. Consequently, the study included two separate samples: a newly entering 3-year-old group (to be studied through two years of Head Start participation i.e., Head Start year and age 4 year, kindergarten and 1st grade), and a newly entering 4-year-old group (to be studied through one year of Head Start participation, kindergarten and 1st grade). The study showed that the two age cohorts varied in demographic characteristics, making it even more appropriate to examine them separately. The racial/ethnic characteristics of newly entering children in the 3-year-old cohort were substantially different from the characteristics of children in the newly entering 4-year-old cohort. While the newly entering 3-year-olds were relatively evenly distributed between Black children and Hispanic children (Black children 32.8%, Hispanic children 37.4%, and White/other children 29.8%), about half of newly entering 4-year-olds were Hispanic children (Black children 17.5%, Hispanic children 51.6%, and White/other children 30.8%). The ethnic difference is also reflected in the age-group differences in child and parent language. This report presents the findings from the preschool years through children's 1st grade experience. This document consists of the Executive Summary and nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents the study background, including a literature review of related Head Start research and the study purpose and objectives. Chapter 2 provides details about the study design and implementation. It discusses the experimental design, sample selection prior to random assignment, data collection, and data analysis. To provide a context in which to understand the impact findings, Chapter 3 examines the impact of Head Start on the services and child care settings that children experience prior to starting school. It also provides the impact of Head Start on the educational and child care settings, setting characteristics, and services that children experience during kindergarten and 1st grade. Chapters 4 through 7 present the impact of Head Start on children's outcomes and parenting practices for the years before school and then for kindergarten and 1st grade. Chapter 4 presents the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive development, Chapter 5 presents the impact of Head Start on children's social-emotional development, Chapter 6 presents the impact of Head Start on children's health status and access to health services, and Chapter 7 presents the impact of Head Start on parenting practices in the areas of educational activities, discipline practices, and school involvement. Chapter 8 examines variation in impacts by child characteristics, parent and family characteristics, and community characteristics. Chapter 9 provides an overall summary of the findings, implications for the Head Start Program, and unanswered questions. Appendices in this volume include the Head Start Impact Study legislation, a list of the official Head Start Impact Study Advisory Committee members, the language decision form used to determine the language in which the child was assessed, and data tables that elaborate on the findings presented in the volume (e.g., Impact on Treated (IOT) findings). The findings from a sample of programs in Puerto Rico are also provided in an appendix. Programs in Puerto Rico were included in the study with the intent that data on children in these programs would be analyzed along with the data on children in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, once children reached school-age. (Contains 1 figure, 117 footnotes, and 114 exhibits.) [The ERIC version of this document contains the following supplementary materials: Head Start Impact Study Main Impact Tables, 2003 through 2006; and Head Start Impact Study Subgroup Impact Tables, 2003 through 2006. For the "Head Start Impact Study Technical Report," see ED507846. For the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report. Executive Summary," see ED507847.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools (2010)
Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school environments by creating improved systems and procedures that promote positive change in student behavior by targeting staff behaviors. This study uses data from a 5-year longitudinal randomized controlled effectiveness trial of SWPBIS conducted in 37 elementary schools to examine the impact of training in SWPBIS on implementation fidelity as well as student suspensions, office discipline referrals, and academic achievement. School-level longitudinal analyses indicated that the schools trained in SWPBIS implemented the model with high fidelity and experienced significant reductions in student suspensions and office discipline referrals. (Contains 1 table and 5 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
The Enhanced Reading Opportunities Study Final Report: The Impact of Supplemental Literacy Courses for Struggling Ninth-Grade Readers. (2010)
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), just over 70 percent of students nationally arrive in high school with reading skills that are below "proficient"--defined as demonstrating competency over challenging subject matter. Of these students, nearly half do not exhibit even partial mastery of the knowledge and skills that are fundamental to proficient work at grade level. These limitations in literacy skills are a major source of course failure, high school dropout, and poor performance in postsecondary education. While research is beginning to emerge about the special needs of striving adolescent readers, very little is known about effective interventions aimed at addressing these needs. To help fill this gap and to provide evidence-based guidance to practitioners, the U.S. Department of Education initiated the Enhanced Reading Opportunities (ERO) study--a demonstration and rigorous evaluation of supplemental literacy programs targeted to ninth-grade students whose reading skills are at least two years below grade level. As part of this demonstration, 34 high schools from 10 school districts implemented one of two reading interventions: Reading Apprenticeship Academic Literacy (RAAL), designed by WestEd, and Xtreme Reading, designed by the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. These programs were implemented in the study schools for two school years. The U.S. Department of Education's (ED) Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) funded the implementation of these programs, and its Institute of Education Sciences (IES) was responsible for oversight of the evaluation. MDRC--a nonprofit, nonpartisan education and social policy research organization--conducted the evaluation in partnership with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Survey Research Management (SRM). The goal of the reading interventions--which consist of a year-long course that replaces a ninth-grade elective class--is to help striving adolescent readers develop the strategies and routines used by proficient readers, thereby improving their reading skills and ultimately, their academic performance in high school. The first two reports for the study evaluated the programs' impact on the two most proximal outcomes targeted by the interventions--students' reading skills and their reading behaviors at the end of ninth grade. This report--which is the final of three reports for this evaluation--examines the impact of the ERO programs on the more general outcomes that the programs hope to affect--students' academic performance in high school (grade point average [GPA], credit accumulation, and state test scores) as well as students' behavioral outcomes (attendance and disciplinary infractions). These academic and behavioral outcomes are examined during the year in which they were enrolled in the ERO programs (ninth grade), as well as the following school year (tenth grade for most students). Appendices include: (1) The ERO Programs and the ERO Teachers; (2) ERO Student Survey Measures; (3) ERO Implementation Fidelity; (4) State Tests Included in the ERO Study; (5) Response Analysis and Baseline Comparison Tables; (6) Technical Notes for Impact Findings; (7) Statistical Power and Minimum Detectable Effect Size; (8) Supplementary Impact Findings; (9) Baseline and Impact Findings, by Cohort; (10) The Association Between Reading Outcomes and Academic Performance in High School; (11) Variation in Impacts Across Sites and Cohorts; (12) Program Costs; and (13) Poststudy Adolescent Literacy Programming in the ERO Schools: Methodology and Additional Findings. (Contains 97 tables, 23 figures, 2 boxes, and 185 footnotes.) [This paper was written with Edmond Wong. For the first-year report, see ED499778. For the second report, see ED503380.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 1
Integration of technology, curriculum, and professional development for advancing middle school mathematics: Three large-scale studies. (2010)
The authors present three studies (two randomized controlled experiments and one embedded quasi-experiment) designed to evaluate the impact of replacement units targeting student learning of advanced middle school mathematics. The studies evaluated the SimCalc approach, which integrates an interactive representational technology, paper curriculum, and teacher professional development. Each study addressed both replicability of findings and robustness across Texas settings, with varied teacher characteristics (backgrounds, knowledge, attitudes) and student characteristics (demographics, levels of prior mathematics knowledge). Analyses revealed statistically significant main effects, with student-level effect sizes of 0.63, 0.50, and 0.56. These consistent gains support the conclusion that SimCalc is effective in enabling a wide variety of teachers in a diversity of settings to extend student learning to more advanced mathematics. (Contains 4 tables, 5 figures, and 1 note.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 1
Accommodations for English language learner students: The effect of linguistic modification of math test item sets (NCEE 2009-4079). (2010)
This study examined the effect of linguistic modification on middle school students' ability to show what they know and can do on math assessments. REL West's study on middle school math assessment accommodations found that simplifying the language--or linguistic modification--on standardized math test items made it easier for English Language learners to focus on and grasp math concepts, and thus was a more accurate assessment of their math skills. The results contribute to the body of knowledge informing assessment practices and accommodations appropriate for English language learner students. The study examined students' performance on two sets of math items--both the originally worded items and those that had been modified. Researchers analyzed results from three subgroups of students--English learners (EL), non-English language arts proficient (NEP), and English language arts proficient (EP) students. Key results include: (1) Linguistically modifying the language of mathematics test items did not change the math knowledge being assessed; (2) The effect of linguistic modification on students' math performance varied between the three student subgroups. The results also varied depending on how scores were calculated for each student; and (3) For each of the four scoring approaches analyzed, the effect of linguistic modification was greatest for EL students, followed by NEP and EP students. The report is structured as follows. Following an Executive Summary and a Study Overview, Chapter 2 describes the study design, sample selection and recruitment, item set development processes, and standardized administration procedures. Chapter 3 describes the implementation of the accommodation (linguistic modification), including discussion of considerations and methods for data analysis. Chapter 4 presents findings from data analyses. Chapter 5 summarizes and interprets key findings, describes study challenges, comments on implications of the findings, and offers recommendations for future research. Appendices include: (1) Power analysis for primary research questions; (2) Operational test administration manual; (3) Student Language Background Survey; (4) Guide for developing a linguistically modified assessment; (5) Workgroup training materials; (6) Overview and protocol for cognitive interviews; (7) Item parameter estimates for IRT models; (8) Descriptive statistics from four scoring approaches; (9) ANOVA findings across four scoring approaches; (10) Cross-approach comparisons; (11) Results of the classical item-level analyses; (12) Summary of differential item functioning findings; (13) Exploratory factor analysis results; (14) Operational item set--original; and (15) Operational item set--linguistically modified. (Contains 31 tables, 10 figures, and 45 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 1
Compared to what? The effects of different comparisons on conceptual knowledge and procedural flexibility for equation solving. (2009)
Researchers in both cognitive science and mathematics education emphasize the importance of comparison for learning and transfer. However, surprisingly little is known about the advantages and disadvantages of what types of things are being compared. In this experimental study, 162 seventh- and eighth-grade students learned to solve equations (a) by comparing equivalent problems solved with the same solution method, (b) by comparing different problem types solved with the same solution method, or (c) by comparing different solution methods to the same problem. Students' conceptual knowledge and procedural flexibility were best supported by comparing solution methods and to a lesser extent by comparing problem types. The benefits of comparison are augmented when examples differ on relevant features, and contrasting methods may be particularly useful in mathematics learning. (Contains 3 figures, 8 tables, and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Can interdistrict choice boost student achievement? The case of Connecticut’s interdistrict magnet school program. (2009)
Connecticut's interdistrict magnet schools offer a model of choice-based desegregation that appears to satisfy current legal constraints. This study presents evidence that interdistrict magnet schools have provided students from Connecticut's central cities access to less racially and economically isolated educational environments and estimates the impact of attending a magnet school on student achievement. To address potential selection biases, the analyses exploit the random assignment that results from lottery-based admissions for a small set of schools, as well as value-added and fixed-effect estimators that rely on pre-magnet school measures of student achievement to obtain effect estimates for a broader set of interdistrict magnet schools. Results indicate that attendance at an interdistrict magnet high school has positive effects on the math and reading achievement of central city students and that interdistrict magnet middle schools have positive effects on reading achievement. (Contains 20 notes, 8 tables, and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial (2009)
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20-30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. (Contains 5 tables and 8 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial (2009)
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20-30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites. (Contains 5 tables and 8 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 1
Effects of Fact Retrieval Tutoring on Third-Grade Students with Math Difficulties with and without Reading Difficulties (2009)
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MD-only) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring conditions: fact retrieval practice, conceptual fact retrieval instruction with practice, procedural computation/estimation instruction, and control (no tutoring). Tutoring occurred for 45 sessions over 15 weeks for 15-25 minutes per session. Results provided evidence of an interaction between tutoring condition and MD subtype status for assessment of fact retrieval. For MD-only students, students in both fact retrieval conditions achieved comparably and outperformed MD-only students in the control group as well as those in the procedural computation/estimation instruction group. By contrast, for MDRD students, there were no significant differences among intervention conditions.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
Flexibility in problem solving: The case of equation solving. (2008)
A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on multiple strategies. Participants were 132 sixth-grade students who solved linear equations for three hours. Both interventions improved students' flexibility in problem solving and did not replace, nor interfere with, one another. Overall, the study provides causal evidence that exposure to multiple strategies leads to improved flexibility in problem solving and that discovery learning and direct instruction are compatible instructional approaches. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Effects of a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention: A randomized experiment. (2008)
Research indicates that a socioeconomic status-related gap in mathematical knowledge appears early and widens during early childhood. Young children from economically disadvantaged families receive less support for mathematical development both at home and in preschool. Consequently, children from different socioeconomic backgrounds enter elementary school at different levels of readiness to learn a standards-based mathematics curriculum. One approach to closing this gap is the development and implementation of effective mathematics curricula for public preschool programs enrolling economically disadvantaged children. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 Head Start and state preschool classrooms, with 278 children, to determine whether a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention was effective. Intervention teachers received training that enabled them to implement with fidelity, and a large majority of parents regularly used math activities teachers sent home. Intervention and control groups did not differ on math assessments at pretest; however, gain scores of intervention children were significantly greater than those of control children at posttest. Thus, the intervention reduced the gap in children's early mathematical knowledge. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Experimental evaluation of the effects of a research-based preschool mathematics curriculum. (2008)
A randomized-trials design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a preschool mathematics program based on a comprehensive model of research-based curricula development. Thirty-six preschool classrooms were assigned to experimental (Building Blocks), comparison (a different preschool mathematics curriculum), or control conditions. Children were individually pre- and posttested, participating in 26 weeks of instruction in between. Observational measures indicated that the curricula were implemented with fidelity, and the experimental condition had significant positive effects on classrooms' mathematics environment and teaching. The experimental group score increased significantly more than the comparison group score (effect size = 0.47) and the control group score (effect size = 1.07). Early interventions can increase the quality of the mathematics environment and help preschoolers develop a foundation of mathematics knowledge. (Contains 7 tables, 1 figure, and 1 note.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
Scaling up SimCalc project: Can a technology enhanced curriculum improve student learning of important mathematics? (Technical Report 01). (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 1
Does comparing solution methods facilitate conceptual and procedural knowledge? An experimental study on learning to solve equations. (2007)
Encouraging students to share and compare solution methods is a key component of reform efforts in mathematics, and comparison is emerging as a fundamental learning mechanism. To experimentally evaluate the effects of comparison for mathematics learning, the authors randomly assigned 70 seventh-grade students to learn about algebra equation solving by either (a) comparing and contrasting alternative solution methods or (b) reflecting on the same solution methods one at a time. At posttest, students in the compare group had made greater gains in procedural knowledge and flexibility and comparable gains in conceptual knowledge. These findings suggest potential mechanisms behind the benefits of comparing contrasting solutions and ways to support effective comparison in the classroom.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-5 1
Alternative routes to teaching: The impacts of Teach for America on student achievement and other outcomes. (2006)
This paper reports on a randomized experiment to study the impact of an alternative teacher preparation program, Teach for America (TFA), on student achievement and other outcomes. We found that TFA teachers had a positive impact on math achievement and no impact on reading achievement. The size of the impact on math scores was about 15 percent of a standard deviation, equivalent to about one month of instruction. The general conclusions did not differ substantially for subgroups of teachers, including novice teachers, or for subgroups of students. We found no impacts on other student outcomes such as attendance, promotion, or disciplinary incidents, but TFA teachers were more likely to report problems with student behavior than were their peers. The findings contradict claims that such programs allowing teachers to bypass the traditional route to the classroom harm students.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 1
The effects of computer-assisted instruction on number combination skill in at-risk first graders. (2006)
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the potential for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to enhance number combination skill among children with concurrent risk for math disability and reading disability. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of CAI on spelling. At-risk students were assigned randomly to math or spelling CAI, which they received in 50 sessions over 18 weeks. Acquisition and transfer effects were assessed. The results indicated that math CAI was effective in promoting addition but not subtraction number combination skill and that transfer to arithmetic story problems did not occur. Spelling CAI effects were reliable on acquisition and transfer spelling measures, with small to moderate effect sizes on transfer to reading measures. These results provide the basis for additional work with larger samples.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-5 1
The effects of Teach for America on students: Findings from a national evaluation. (2004)
Teach For America (TFA) was founded in 1989 to address the educational inequities facing children in low-income communities across the United States by expanding the pool of teacher candidates available to the schools those children attend. TFA recruits seniors and recent graduates from colleges around the country, people who are willing to commit to teach for a minimum of two years in low-income schools. TFA focuses its recruitment on people with strong academic records and leadership capabilities, whether or not they have planned to teach or have taken education courses. TFA is particularly interested in candidates that have the potential to be effective in the classroom but in the absence of TFA would not consider a teaching career. Consequently, most TFA recruits do not have education-related majors in college and therefore have not received the same training that traditional teachers are expected to have. After an executive summary and introduction, this discussion paper addresses the following: (1) How TFA Works; (2) Study Design; (3) Who Teaches in the Schools Where TFA Places Teachers?; (4) What Does Our Sample of Students Look Like?; (5) Were TFA Teachers Effective in the Classroom?; and (6) Did TFA Have an Impact on Other Student Outcomes? Primary findings from the study include: from the perspective of a community or a school faced with the opportunity to hire TFA teachers, TFA offers an appealing pool of candidates; from the perspective of TFA and its funders, the organization is making progress toward its primary mission of reducing inequities in education--it supplies low-income schools with academically talented teachers who contribute positively to the academic achievement of their students; and from the perspective of policymakers who are trying to improve the educational opportunities of children in poor communities, many of the control teachers in the study were not certified or did not have formal pre-service training, highlighting the need for programs or policies that offer the potential of attracting good teachers to schools in the most disadvantaged communities--the findings show that TFA is one such program. Appended are: (1) Supplementary Tables; and (2) Estimation Approach. (Contains 17 tables and 6 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 1
Implementation study of Chemistry That Applies (2002–2003): SCALE-uP Report No. 2. (2004)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 1
The differential effects of teaching addition through strategy instruction versus drill and practice to students with and without learning disabilities (2003)
This study compared instruction in addition using either a minimum addend strategy or drill and practice with 84 students either with or without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD improved significantly only in the strategy condition, whereas general education students improved in both the strategy and the drill-and-practice conditions. In a transfer task, students from both groups improved only in the strategy conditions. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 1
The differential effects of teaching addition through strategy instruction versus drill and practice to students with and without learning disabilities (2003)
This study compared instruction in addition using either a minimum addend strategy or drill and practice with 84 students either with or without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD improved significantly only in the strategy condition, whereas general education students improved in both the strategy and the drill-and-practice conditions. In a transfer task, students from both groups improved only in the strategy conditions. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 2
Reasoning Mind students outperform comparison on Singapore Math Test. (in press)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 2
Impact Evaluation of G2ROW STEM: Girls and Guys Realizing Opportunities with STEM (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
2015 Collaborative Regional Education (CORE) i3 Validation Study: Implementation and Impact Study Results. Final Report (2020)
Purpose: The purpose of this two-year study was to assess the impact of the CORE program, a model that integrates technology and active learning modules in high schools by providing multi-disciplinary teams of teachers and administrators with professional development and resources to support the development of students' non-cognitive skills and increase their college and career readiness. A fidelity of implementation study was also conducted to assess the seven key program components were being implemented as intended. Methods: This Randomized Control Trial (RCT) study followed a cohort of 9th and 10th grade high school students in 28 treatment and control schools; students completed the CWRA+ assessment and non-cognitive skills, engagement, and self-efficacy scales at three timepoints. Using the hierarchical linear model (HLM), the study assessed one-year program impact and two-year program impact. The two-year program impact model suffered a high attrition (due to COVID19) and the study became a quasi-experimental design (QED) study after propensity score matching analysis was applied. Results: Findings highlight how students at CORE schools showed increased scores across the two-year program intervention. Specifically, standardized effects on CWRA+ scores, the non-cognitive skills scale, engagement scale, and efficacy scale were respectively, 0.22, 0.22, 0.23, and 0.32. The effect size for the efficacy scale (0.32) was large enough to be considered important. To selectively mention exploratory findings, the level of program exposure both in terms of whether students were enrolled in the program-trained teachers' courses and whether teachers participated in PD activities seemed correlated with a higher growth in student's CWRA+ scores. Another set of exploratory findings implied that the program impact may interact with demographic characteristics of students. Findings demonstrate a need for further testing of differences between student subgroups based on demographics, as well as the importance of buy-in from program implementers to provide the customized PD support that educators and partners at rural schools need to more effectively serve their students. The exploratory findings suggested that the program exposure of teachers and students may be a key to enhance the CORE program impact. [This report was submitted by the ICF Evaluation Team.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Evaluating a Unit Aimed at Helping Students Understand Matter and Energy for Growth and Activity (2019)
To support implementation of the "Next Generation Science Standards," we designed a high school biology unit, "Matter and Energy for Growth and Activity" (MEGA), that engages students in explaining physical and life science phenomena using evidence, models, and science ideas about matter and energy changes within systems and transfers between systems. The unit's promise was evaluated using a randomized control trial (RCT) involving fifteen teachers from two schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to implement either the MEGA unit or district-developed activities that targeted the same learning goals. Pre- and post-tests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. Here we describe the unit and report on RCT results. Our data showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students in the treatment group performed better on the post-test than the students in the comparison group, indicating the MEGA unit has promise in improving students' understanding. We also discuss a number of challenges that arose when developing and evaluating the unit.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Improving High Schools through STEM Early College Strategies: The Impact of the STEM Early College Expansion Partnership (SECEP) (2019)
The STEM Early College Expansion Project is an effort to integrate STEM strategies with the early college model and implement this in comprehensive high schools. This report summarizes findings from two separate quasi-experimental impact studies of the model in Michigan and Connecticut. Results from Michigan showed statistically significant impacts on enrollment in college-level courses and on attainment of college credits. Treatment schools in Michigan also had descriptively lower dropout rates. The Connecticut impact study had challenges with the study design that resulted in an inability to make clear causal claims about the impact.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 2
Improving Fraction Understanding in Sixth Graders with Mathematics Difficulties: Effects of a Number Line Approach Combined with Cognitive Learning Strategies (2019)
The effectiveness of an experimental middle school fraction intervention was evaluated. The intervention was centered on the number line and incorporated key principles from the science of learning. Sixth graders (N = 51) who struggled with fraction concepts were randomly assigned at the student level to the experimental intervention (n = 28) or to a business-as-usual control who received their school's intervention (n = 23). The experimental intervention occurred over 6 weeks (27 lessons). Fraction number line estimation, magnitude comparisons, concepts, and arithmetic were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest. The experimental group demonstrated significantly more learning than the control group from pretest to posttest, with meaningful effect sizes on measures of fraction concepts (g = 1.09), number line estimation as measured by percent absolute error (g = -0.85), and magnitude comparisons (g = 0.82). These improvements held at delayed posttest 7 weeks later. Exploratory analyses showed a significant interaction between classroom attentive behavior and intervention group on fraction concepts at posttest, suggesting a buffering effect of the experimental intervention on the normally negative impact of low attentive behavior on learning. A number line-centered approach to teaching fractions that also incorporates research-based learning strategies helps struggling learners to make durable gains in their conceptual understanding of fractions. [This paper will be published in the "Journal of Educational Psychology."]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 2
Preparing School Leaders for Success: Evaluation of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals Program, 2012-2017 (2019)
A growing body of research points to the ways in which principals influence teachers, classrooms, and, ultimately, student achievement. New Leaders aims to prepare transformational school leaders by partnering with districts and charter schools to offer rigorous, research-based training for aspiring principals. The Aspiring Principals program is New Leaders' signature program and has three core features: selective recruitment and admission, training and endorsement, and support for principals early in their tenure. This report is a follow-up to the 2014 evaluation of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals program. Focusing on the revised program, which was first implemented in 2012, the authors present evidence of the effectiveness of the revised Aspiring Principals program and share lessons that can inform principal-preparation policy and practice. To assess the effect of New Leaders' Aspiring Principals program, researchers analyzed whether schools and students led by graduates of the program outperformed comparison schools and students in the same district, focusing on student achievement and principal retention. They also examined program graduate placement and satisfaction with the Aspiring Principals program. [For the appendixes, see ED605724.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 2
A state-wide quasi-experimental effectiveness study of the scale-up of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2019)
The three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework promotes the development of systems and data analysis to guide the selection and implementation of evidence-based practices across multiple tiers. The current study examined the effects of universal (tier 1) or school-wide PBIS (SW-PBIS) in one state's scale-up of this tier of the framework. Annual propensity score weights were generated to examine the longitudinal effects of SW-PBIS from 2006-07 through 2011-12. School-level archival and administrative data outcomes were examined using panel models with an autoregressive structure. The sample included 1,316 elementary, middle, and high schools. Elementary schools trained in SW-PBIS demonstrated statistically significantly lower suspensions during the fourth and fifth study years (i.e., small effect size) and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the first two study years as well as in one and two later years (i.e., small to large effect sizes), respectively. Secondary schools implementing SW-PBIS had statistically significantly lower suspensions and truancy rates during the second study year and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the second and third study years. These findings demonstrate medium effect sizes for all outcomes except suspensions. Given the widespread use of SW-PBIS across nearly 26,000 schools in the U.S., this study has important implications for educational practices and policies. [This paper was published in the "Journal of School Psychology" v73 p41-55 Apr 2019 (ISSN 0022-4405).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 2
Effects of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Super Solvers Intervention on Fraction Magnitude Understanding and Calculation Skill (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 2
Effects of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Super Solvers Intervention on Fraction Magnitude Understanding and Calculation Skill (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 2
Equipping and empowering 8th grade mathematics teachers to create dynamic learning activities promoting conceptual understanding (2018, April 14)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 2
English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation (ELLA-V) i3 Evaluation (Valid 22). Final Report (2018)
The English Language and Literacy Acquisition--Validation (ELLA-V) study was a five-year evaluation of a program that provided professional development, coaching, and curricula that targeted English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for teachers of K-3 English learners (ELs). ELLA-V was implemented in 10 school districts in Texas in the 2013-14 through 2016-17 school years. The project was federally funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund (PR/Award Number U411B120047). Professors at Texas A&M University were the recipients of the grant and developed the professional development, the coaching program, and the curricula. Researchers at the Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE) at Johns Hopkins University were contracted to conduct the independent evaluation. The evaluation of ELLA-V was a multi-site cluster randomized trial designed to meet the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for rigorous education research (WWC, 2017). The study used a mixed method design to estimate program impacts on student and teacher outcomes and document the fidelity of implementation and perceived quality of the program. [This report was published at the Center for Research and Reform in Education (ED594703). Principal Investigators were Rafael Lara-Alecio, Beverly Irby, and Fuhui Tong. Cindy Guerrero and Laura Cajiao-Wingenbach were Lead Coordinators.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 2
A year-long state-wide RCT of the Minnesota Math Corps: Final report to Laura and John Arnold Foundation (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 2
Effects of the first year of a three-year CGI teacher professional development program on grades 3–5 student achievement: A multisite cluster-randomized trial. (Research Report No. 2018-25) (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 2
Enhancing middle school science lessons with playground activities: A study of the impact of playground physics. (2017)
Playground Physics is a technology-based application and accompanying curriculum designed by New York Hall of Science (NYSCI) to support middle school students' science engagement and learning of force, energy, and motion. The program includes professional development, the Playground Physics app, and a curriculum aligned with New York State Learning Standards, Common Core State Standards, and Next Generation Science Standards. The iOS app allows students to record and review videos through three "lenses": (1) motion; (2) force (Newton's third law); and (3) energy, and the curriculum integrates informal and formal, inquiry-based learning strategies to promote greater student knowledge and understanding of physics. The program was designed to be implemented in a formal school setting during the regular school day. This report describes the results of an experimental study of the Playground Physics program's impact on learning of physics concepts, student engagement, and science-related attitudes. Sixty New York City middle grade teachers were randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. Treatment teachers were asked to participate in Playground Physics professional development and use Playground Physics as part of their physics instruction during the 2015-16 academic year; control teachers were asked to use their regular instruction. In total, 15 teachers left the study. The final sample included student data from 24 treatment teachers and 21 control teachers. The following are appended: (1) Playground Physics Curriculum Activities; (2) Student Outcome Measures; (3) Teacher Survey; (4) Impact Analysis Technical Approach; (5) Output from Statistical Models; (6) Knowledge Assessment Responses and Standards Alignment; (7) 2014-15 Fidelity of Implementation Analysis; and (8) Supplemental Analysis.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors. (2017)
Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the "Positive Action" program (PA) on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "High/declining" and "Low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "Low/rising" and "High/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes. [This paper was published in "Prevention Science" v18 p214-224 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 2
The Urban Advantage: The impact of informal science collaborations on student achievement (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 2
A comprehensive model of teacher induction: Implementation and impact on teachers and students. Evaluation of the New Teacher Center’s i3 Validation Grant, Final Report (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 2
Impact results of the eMINTS professional development validation study (2016)
This article presents the findings of an evaluation of the eMINTS (enhancing Missouri's Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies) professional development program. eMINTS is an intensive teacher professional development program designed to promote inquiry-based learning, support high-quality lesson design, build community among students and teachers, and create technology-rich learning environments. This evaluation included 60 high-poverty rural schools across Missouri that were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions and a control condition, with approximately 200 teachers and 3,000 students in the 2011-2012 baseline academic year. The researchers conclude that after 3 years, the eMINTS treatment group and an eMINTS treatment group with an additional year of Intel support resulted in changed teacher instructional behaviors and increased student achievement in mathematics.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 2
Testing the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention: A Conceptual Replication Study (2016)
The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the counterfactual. Similar to the original investigation, however, the current study tested the same intervention, used the same outcome measures and statistical analyses, and involved the same population of learners. A total of 319 kindergarten students with mathematics difficulties from 36 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Students who were randomly assigned to the treatment condition received the intervention in small-group formats, with 2 or 5 students per group. Control students participated in a no-treatment control condition. Significant effects on proximal and distal measures of mathematics achievement were found. Effect sizes obtained for all measures fell within or exceeded the upper bound of the effects reported in the initial study. Implications for systematically situating replication studies in larger frameworks of intervention research and reporting rates of treatment response across replication studies are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 2
Effects of an early numeracy intervention on struggling kindergarteners’ mathematics performance. (2016)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an early numeracy intervention delivered by kindergarten teachers to students identified as having mathematics difficulties. A multigroup growth-modeling-with-random-assignment-to-intervention-condition design was employed. Thirty-two teachers were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. A total of 71 students participated in the study, 47 in the treatment group and 24 in the comparison group. Results indicated that the treatment condition students outperformed comparison students (g* = 0.99) and demonstrated statistically significantly higher scores on all proximal measures of early numeracy. Also, about 80% to 100% of the variance was accounted for at the student level. Performance on distal measures was less impressive, with no significant differences between groups; the effect size was 0.44. Teachers rated components of the intervention highly, reflecting strong teacher satisfaction.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
National Board certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from Washington state. (2016)
We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board-Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS-certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05 student standard deviations more effective than non-NBCTS with similar levels of experience. Certification effects vary by subject, grade level, and certification type, with greater effects for middle school math certificates. We find mixed evidence that teachers who pass the assessment are more effective than those who fail, but that the underlying NBPTS assessment score predicts student achievement.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 2
Effects of a Multitier Support System on Calculation, Word Problem, and Prealgebraic Performance among At-Risk Learners (2015)
The focus of the present study was enhancing word problem and calculation achievement in ways that support prealgebraic thinking among second-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty. Intervention relied on a multitier support system (i.e., responsiveness to intervention, or RTI) in which at-risk students participate in general classroom instruction and receive supplementary small-group tutoring. Participants were 265 students in 110 classrooms in 25 schools. Teachers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: calculation RTI, word problem RTI, or business-as-usual control. Intervention lasted 17 weeks. Multilevel modeling indicated that calculation RTI improved calculation but not word problem outcomes, word problem RTI enhanced proximal word problem outcomes as well as performance on some calculation outcomes, and word problem RTI provided a stronger route than calculation RTI to prealgebraic knowledge.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
Intervention for First Graders with Limited Number Knowledge: Large-Scale Replication of a Randomized Controlled Trial (2015)
Replication studies are extremely rare in education. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scale-up replication of Fuchs et al., which in a sample of 139 found a statistically significant positive impact for Number Rockets, a small-group intervention for at-risk first graders that focused on building understanding of number operations. The study was relatively small scale (one site) and highly controlled. This replication was implemented at a much larger scale--in 76 schools in four urban districts; 994 at-risk students participated. Intervention students participated in approximately 30 hours of small-group work in addition to classroom instruction; control students received typical instruction and whatever assistance the teacher would normally provide. Intervention students showed significantly superior performance on a broad measure of mathematics proficiency.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 2
A Kindergarten Number-Sense Intervention with Contrasting Practice Conditions for Low-Achieving Children (2015)
The efficacy of a research-based number-sense intervention for low-achieving kindergartners was examined. Children (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a number-sense intervention followed by a number-fact practice session, an identical number-sense intervention followed by a number-list practice session, or a business-as-usual control group. The number-fact practice condition not only gave children an additional advantage over the number-list practice condition on the outcomes at delayed posttest 8 weeks later but also was especially effective for producing gains in English learners.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Understanding the effect of KIPP as it scales: Volume I, Impacts on achievement and other outcomes. Final report of KIPP’s Investing in Innovation grant evaluation [High School]. (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first high-quality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other non-KIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Matched-Student Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-Student Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-School Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 2
Effects of a Research-Based Intervention to Improve Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Problem Solving: A Cluster Randomized Trial (2015)
This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of a research-based intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), on students' proportional problem solving. SBI emphasizes the underlying mathematical structure of problems, uses schematic diagrams to represent information in the problem text, provides explicit problem solving and metacognitive strategy instruction, and focuses on the flexible use of multiple solution strategies. Eighty-two teachers/classrooms with a total of 1,999 seventh-grade students across 50 school districts were randomly assigned to a treatment (SBI) or control (business-as-usual) condition. An observational measure provided evidence that the SBI intervention was implemented with fidelity. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that the SBI group scored on average significantly higher than the control group on the posttest and retention test (9 weeks later) and also showed significantly more growth in proportional problem solving. There were no treatment effects on the Process and Applications subtest of the Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation. These results demonstrate that SBI can be more effective than the control approach in improving students' proportional problem solving. [This paper was published in the "Journal of Educational Psychology," (EJ1082754).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 2
Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms (2015)
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general education classrooms. Results showed that students in the EAI condition improved their performance on math skills contained in several of the standards. Effect sizes were especially large for students with MD when the special education teacher more actively participated in the instructional activities with the math teacher. Classroom observations provided examples of how teachers can work together to benefit students in inclusive math settings.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 2
Understanding the effect of KIPP as it scales: Volume I, Impacts on achievement and other outcomes. Final report of KIPP’s Investing in Innovation grant evaluation [Middle School; QED]. (2015)
KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term outcomes and no rigorous research exists on impacts of KIPP schools at levels other than middle school. In this first high-quality study to rigorously examine the impacts of the network of KIPP public charter schools at all elementary and secondary grade levels, Mathematica found that KIPP schools have positive impacts on student achievement, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels. In addition, the study found positive impacts on student achievement for new entrants to the KIPP network in high school. For students continuing from a KIPP middle school, KIPP high schools' impacts on student achievement are not statistically significant, on average (in comparison to students who did not have the option to attend a KIPP high school and instead attended a mix of other non-KIPP charter, private, and traditional public high schools). Among these continuing students, KIPP high schools have positive impacts on several aspects of college preparation, including more discussions about college, increased likelihood of applying to college, and more advanced coursetaking. This report provides detailed findings and also includes the following appendices: (1) List of KIPP Schools In Network; (2) Detail on Survey Outcomes; (3) Cumulative Middle and High School Results; (4) Detailed Analytic Methods: Elementary School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (5) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Lottery-Based Analyses); (6) Understanding the Effects of KIPP As It Scales Mathematica Policy Research; (7) Detailed Analytic Methods: Middle School (Matched-Student Analyses); (8) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-Student Analyses); (9) Detailed Analytic Methods: High School (Matched-School Analyses); and (10) Detailed Tables For What Works Clearinghouse Review. [For the executive summary, see ED560080; for the focus brief, see ED560043.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
A randomized control trial of a statewide voluntary prekindergarten program on children’s skills and behaviors through third grade (Research report). (2015)
In 2009, Vanderbilt University's Peabody Research Institute, in coordination with the Tennessee Department of Education's Division of Curriculum and Instruction, initiated a rigorous, independent evaluation of the state's Voluntary Prekindergarten program (TN- VPK). TN-VPK is a full-day prekindergarten program for four-year-old children expected to enter kindergarten the following school year. The program in each participating school district must meet standards set by the State Board of Education that require each classroom to have a teacher with a license in early childhood development and education, an adult-student ratio of no less than 1:10, a maximum class size of 20, and an approved age-appropriate curriculum. TN-VPK is an optional program focused on the neediest children in the state. It uses a tiered admission process, with children from low-income families who apply to the program admitted first. Any remaining seats in a given location are then allocated to otherwise at-risk children, including those with disabilities and limited English proficiency. The current report presents findings from this evaluation summarizing the longitudinal effects of TN-VPK on pre-kindergarten through third grade achievement and behavioral outcomes for an Intensive Substudy Sample of 1076 children, of which 773 were randomly assigned to attend TN-VPK classrooms and 303 were not admitted. Both groups have been followed since the beginning of the pre-k year.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 2
Effects of blended instructional models on math performance (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 2
Preparing principals to raise student achievement: Implementation and effects of the New Leaders Program in ten districts. (2014)
New Leaders is a nonprofit organization with a mission to ensure high academic achievement for all students by developing outstanding school leaders to serve in urban schools. Its premise is that a combination of preparation and improved working conditions for principals, especially greater autonomy, would lead to improved student outcomes. Its approach involves both preparing principals and partnering with school districts and charter management organizations (CMOs) to improve the conditions in which its highly trained principals work. As part of the partnerships, New Leaders agrees to provide carefully selected and trained principals who can be placed in schools that need principals and to provide coaching and other support after those principals are placed. The districts and CMOs agree to establish working conditions that support, rather than hinder, the principals' efforts to improve student outcomes. This report describes how the New Leaders program was implemented in partner districts, and it provides evidence of the effect that New Leaders has on student achievement. [The research in this report was produced within RAND Education. For the appendices that accompany this report, see ED561154. For the research brief, "Principal Preparation Matters: How Leadership Development Affects Student Achievement. Research Brief," see ED561155.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 2
Alignment of game design features and state mathematics standards: Do results reflect intentions? (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 2
The effects of teacher entry portals on student achievement (2014)
The current teacher workforce is younger, less experienced, more likely to turnover, and more diverse in preparation experiences than the workforce of two decades ago. Research shows that inexperienced teachers are less effective, but we know little about the effectiveness of teachers with different types of preparation. In this study, we classify North Carolina public school teachers into "portals"--fixed and mutually exclusive categories that capture teachers' formal preparation and qualifications upon first entering the profession--and estimate the adjusted average test score gains of students taught by teachers from each portal. Compared with undergraduate-prepared teachers from in-state public universities, (a) out-of-state undergraduate-prepared teachers are less effective in elementary grades and high school, (b) alternative entry teachers are less effective in high school, and (c) Teach For America corps members are more effective in STEM subjects and secondary grades.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Impact of Small-Group Tutoring Interventions on the Mathematical Problem Solving and Achievement of Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2013)
This intervention study compared the efficacy of small-group tutoring on the mathematics learning of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty using either a school-provided standards-based curriculum (SBC) or a schema-based instruction (SBI) curriculum. The SBI curriculum placed particular emphasis on the underlying mathematical structure of additive problems to represent and solve word problems. At-risk students (N = 136) from 35 classrooms scoring below a proficiency level on their district accountability assessment were assigned randomly to treatment groups. Results indicated interaction effects on the word problem-solving (WPS) posttest and retention tests such that SBI students with higher incoming (pretest) WPS scores outperformed SBC students with higher pretest scores, whereas SBC students with lower pretest scores outperformed SBI students with lower pretest scores. No effects were found on number combinations automaticity, and mathematics and reading achievement. Implications to improve the problem-solving performance of at-risk students are discussed. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Outcomes for Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2013)
This study compared the effects of delivering a supplemental, small-group tutoring intervention on the mathematics outcomes of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD) who were randomly assigned to either a schema-based instruction (SBI) or control group. SBI emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of additive problems. All students at risk for MD identified through screening received a mathematics intervention in groups of 2-4 for 12 weeks across the school year. Results revealed that students in the SBI group outperformed students in the control group on a word problem solving (WPS) posttest ("g" = 0.46). The effect of SBI proved to be equivalent for students in both high and low at-risk subgroups. On a district-administered mathematics achievement test, SBI students scored significantly higher than control students (g = 0.34); however, there were no significant effects on the WPS retention test (8 weeks later). (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 2
After two years, three elementary math curricula outperform a fourth (NCEE 2013-4019). (2013)
This brief aims to help educators understand the implications of math curriculum choice in the early elementary grades by presenting new findings from a study that examined how four math curricula affect students' achievement across two years--from 1st through 2nd grades. The four curricula were (1) Investigations in Number, Data, and Space (Investigations); (2) Math Expressions; (3) Saxon Math (Saxon); and (4) Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics (SFAW), which the developer revised and renamed enVision Math (enVision) during the study. These curricula are widely used and differ in their approaches to teaching and learning. Within districts, we randomly assigned one of the four curricula to each school that participated in the study. After one year (by the end of 1st grade), students taught with Math Expressions and Saxon made greater gains in achievement than students taught with Investigations and SFAW. After two years (by the end of 2nd grade), Investigations students continued to lag behind Math Expressions and Saxon students, while SFAW/enVision students caught up to Math Expressions and Saxon students. Therefore, Math Expressions, Saxon, and SFAW/enVision improved 1st-through-2nd-grade math achievement by similar amounts, and all three outperformed Investigations. Our findings also suggest that switching between some of the study's curricula does not harm student achievement and can even be beneficial. (Contains 24 endnotes, 3 figures, and 2 tables.) [For "After Two Years, Three Elementary Math Curricula Outperform a Fourth. NCEE Technical Appendix. NCEE 2013-4019", see ED544187.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 2
Evaluation of the 2010-2011 Reasoning Mind program in Beaumont ISD. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
Evaluating Math Recovery: Assessing the Causal Impact of a Diagnostic Tutoring Program on Student Achievement (2013)
Mathematics Recovery (MR) is designed to identify first graders who are struggling in mathematics and provide them with intensive one-to-one tutoring. We report findings from a 2-year evaluation of MR conducted in 20 elementary schools across five districts in two states. The design allowed for the estimation of the counterfactual growth trajectory based on those students randomly assigned either to a tutoring cohort with a delayed start or to a wait list. Results demonstrate strong end of first grade effects on a diagnostic measure developed by MR and weak to moderate effects (effect size, 0.15-0.30) on measures administered by external evaluators. By the end of second grade, no significant effects were found on any measures. Practical and research implications are discussed. (Contains 7 tables, 3 figures, and 5 notes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 2
Evaluation of Teach For America in Texas schools. (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 2
An evaluation of the Chicago Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP) after four years. (2012)
In 2007, using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began piloting its version of a schoolwide reform model called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP). Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and take on increased responsibilities through promotion (to mentor teacher or master teacher), and they become eligible for annual performance bonuses based on a combination of their contribution to student achievement (known as "value added") and observed performance in the classroom. The model calls for weekly meetings of teachers and mentors ("cluster groups"), and regular classroom observations by a school leadership team to help teachers meet their performance goals. The idea behind TAP is that giving teachers performance incentives, along with tools to track their performance and improve instruction, will help schools attract and retain talented teachers and help all teachers raise student achievement. This report is the last in a series of reports providing evidence on the impacts of CPS' version of TAP, called "Chicago TAP." It presents findings from the four-year implementation period, with special emphasis on the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years, the third and fourth years of the program's rollout in Chicago. Earlier reports (Glazerman et al. 2009; Glazerman and Seifullah 2010) provide detailed data on each of the first two years of the program, respectively. CPS implemented Chicago TAP as a pilot program intended for 40 high-need schools. The program began in 10 schools in the first year (cohort 1) with a rollout plan to add 10 more Chicago TAP schools (cohorts 2, 3, and 4) in each year of the TIF grant's four-year implementation period. The authors address three research questions regarding Chicago TAP: (1) How was the program implemented?; (2) What impact did the program have on student achievement?; and (3) What impact did the program have on teacher retention within schools? To assess the first year under Chicago TAP for schools that began the program in fall 2009 (cohort 3), the authors looked at how teacher development and compensation practices in Chicago TAP schools differ from practices normally implemented in CPS schools. The authors found that teachers in Chicago TAP schools reported receiving significantly more mentoring support than teachers in similar non-TAP (control) schools. This finding reflects the fact that under the Chicago TAP model, teachers are guided by mentor teachers, and cluster groups meet weekly. They also found that veteran teachers in Chicago TAP schools were more likely than their control group counterparts to provide mentoring support to their colleagues; this finding is consistent with the fact that under Chicago TAP, teachers have the opportunity to assume leadership roles and responsibilities as Chicago TAP mentor or lead teachers. Teachers in Chicago TAP schools (veteran and novice) were aware of their eligibility for performance-based compensation. The authors found that the amount of compensation they expected approached the amount that was eventually paid out; that is, the average expectation was about $900, and the actual amount paid out in bonuses to this group was an average of about $1,100 per teacher. They generally did not find evidence of an impact of Chicago TAP on teacher attitudes or school climate. While the introduction of Chicago TAP led to real changes inside the schools, the program did not consistently raise student achievement as measured by growth in Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) scores. The authors found evidence of both positive and negative test score impacts in selected subjects, years, and cohorts of schools, but overall there was no detectable impact on math, reading, or science achievement that was robust to different methods of estimation. For example, impacts on science scores overall (across years and cohorts) were positive, but not statistically significant unless they used one particular matching method that excluded some Chicago TAP schools from the analysis. The authors did find evidence suggesting that Chicago TAP increased schools' retention of teachers, although the impacts were not uniform or universal across years, cohorts, and subgroups of teachers. They found that teachers who were working in Chicago TAP schools in 2007 returned in each of the following three years at higher rates than teachers in comparable non-TAP schools. For example, the authors found that 67 percent of classroom teachers in cohort 1 schools in fall 2007 returned to their same school in fall 2010 compared to about 56 percent of teachers in non-TAP schools, an impact of nearly 12 percentage points. In other words, teachers in Chicago TAP schools in fall 2007 were about 20% more likely than teachers in comparison schools to be in those same schools three years later. When the authors looked at teachers who were working in schools that started Chicago TAP in later years, some of the impact estimates were not statistically significant. The authors also found some evidence of impacts on retention for subgroups of teachers, such as those with less experience, but the pattern of findings was not consistent. When they considered retention of teachers in the district, the authors did not find consistent evidence of a measurable impact. Given that Chicago TAP is a school-specific program, their main focus was on school-level retention, as opposed to retention in the district. Appended are: (1) Propensity Score Matching; and (2) Supplemental Tables. (Contains 32 tables, 6 figures and 27 footnotes.) [For related reports, see "An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year One Impact Report. Final Report" (ED507502) and "An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report" (ED510712).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-10 2
MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Fifth Year Report. (2012)
This is the final report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 2006-07. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides government-funded vouchers for low-income children to attend private schools in the City of Milwaukee. The maximum voucher amount in 2010-11 was $6,442, and 20,996 children used a voucher to attend either secular or religious private schools. The MPCP is the oldest and largest urban school voucher program in the United States. This evaluation was authorized by 2005 Wisconsin Act 125, which was enacted in 2006. The primary purpose of the evaluation is twofold: 1) to analyze the effectiveness of the MPCP in promoting growth in student achievement as compared to MPS; and 2) to examine the educational attainment--measured by high school graduation and college enrollment rates--of MPCP and MPS students. The first purpose is accomplished by gauging growth in student achievement--as measured by the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examinations (WKCE) in math and reading in grades 3 through 8 and grade 10--over a five-year period for a sample of MPCP students and a carefully matched group of MPS students. The second purpose is accomplished by following the 2006-07 8th and 9th grade MPCP and matched MPS cohorts over a five-year period during which they would have had the opportunity to graduate from high school and enroll in college. Appended are: (1) Descriptive Statistics; (2) Attrition Study; and (3) Stability of the Sample. (Contains 4 figures, 12 tables and 14 footnotes.) [For the "MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fourth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 23", see ED518597. Additional support for this report was provided by the Robertson Foundation.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Evaluation of Green Dot’s Locke Transformation Project: Findings for Cohort 1 and 2 students (CRESST Report 815). (2012)
With funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, CRESST conducted a multi-year evaluation of a major school reform project at Alain Leroy Locke High School, historically one of California's lowest performing secondary schools. Beginning in 2007, Locke High School transitioned into a set of smaller, Green Dot Charter High Schools, subsequently referred to as Green Dot Locke (GDL) in this report. Based on 9th grade students who entered GDL in 2007 and 2008 respectively, CRESST used a range of student outcomes to monitor progress of the GDL transformation. The CRESST evaluation, employing a strong quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching, found statistically significant, positive effects for the GDL transformation including improved achievement, school persistence, and completion of college preparatory courses. Appended are: (1) Demographic Characteristics and Achievement of the Freshmen at GDL and LAUSD; (2) Cohort Specific Descriptives; and (3) General Descriptives. (Contains 17 figures, 43 tables and 6 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
Scaling up the implementation of a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention in public preschool programs (Final Report: IES Grant R305K050004) (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-K 2
Longitudinal evaluation of a scale-up model for teaching mathematics with trajectories and technologies. (2012)
We used a cluster randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a research-based model for scaling up educational interventions, focusing on the persistence of effects with and without a follow-through intervention. The instantiation of the Technology-enhanced, Research-based, Instruction, Assessment, and professional Development (TRIAD) model emphasized teaching early mathematics for understanding via learning trajectories and technology. The TRIAD implementation began in 42 schools in two city districts serving low-resource communities, randomly assigned to three conditions. In pre-kindergarten, the 2 experimental interventions were identical, but 1 included follow-through in the kindergarten year, including knowledge of the pre-K intervention and ways to build upon that knowledge using learning trajectories. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that students in both the follow-through condition (g = 0.33) and non-follow-through condition (g = 0.22) scored statistically significantly higher than children in the control condition. Both groups outperformed the control condition in treatment-on-the-treated analyses (g = 0.38, follow-through; g = 0.30 non-follow-through). Moderators and mediators were also analyzed. We conclude that the instantiation of the TRIAD model was successful and that follow through may contribute to the persistence of the effects of preschool interventions. (Contains 5 tables and 3 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 2
Making a difference? The effects of Teach For America in high school. (2011)
Teach For America (TFA) selects and places graduates from the most competitive colleges as teachers in the lowest-performing schools in the country. This paper is the first study that examines TFA effects in high school. We use rich longitudinal data from North Carolina and estimate TFA effects through cross-subject student and school fixed effects models. We find that TFA teachers tend to have a positive effect on high school student test scores relative to non-TFA teachers, including those who are certified in field. Such effects offset or exceed the impact of additional years of experience and are particularly strong in science. (Contains 1 figure, 14 tables and 14 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
The impact of the NISL Executive Development Program on school performance in Massachusetts: Cohort 2 results. (2011)
School leaders are increasingly being asked, whether by rhetoric or policy, to measurably improve student achievement. The resultant need to assist school leaders in their ability to improve teaching and learning for all students in their schools led to the establishment of the National Institute of School Leadership's (NISL's) Executive Development Program. The NISL program emphasizes the role of principals as strategic thinkers, instructional leaders, and creators of a just, fair, and caring culture in which all students meet high standards. The current national focus on the importance of effective, instructional leadership has, in turn, led to calls for principal evaluation to be tied directly to student achievement (Davis, Kearney, Sanders, Thomas, and Leon, 2011). Within this milieu, effective and proven principal leadership development programs are crucial. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.) [This report was produced by the Center for Educational Partnerships, Old Dominion University.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
Early Numeracy Intervention Program for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2011)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an early numeracy preventative Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Researchers used a pretest-posttest control group design with randomized assignment of 139 students to the Tier 2 treatment condition and 65 students to the comparison condition. Systematic instruction, visual representations of mathematical concepts, purposeful and meaningful practice opportunities, and frequent progress monitoring were used to develop understanding in early numeracy skills and concepts. Researchers used progress-monitoring measures and a standardized assessment measure to test the effects of the intervention. Findings showed that students in the treatment group outperformed students in the comparison group on the progress-monitoring measures of mathematics performance and the measures that focused on whole-number computation. There were no differences between groups on the problem-solving measures. (Contains 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 2
Achievement effects of four early elementary school math curricula: Findings for first and second graders (NCEE 2011-4001). (2010)
National achievement data show that elementary school students in the United States, particularly those from low socioeconomic backgrounds, have weak math skills (National Center for Education Statistics 2009). In fact, data show that, even before they enter elementary school, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are behind their more advantaged peers in basic competencies such as number-line ordering and magnitude comparison (Rathburn and West 2004). Furthermore, after a year of kindergarten, disadvantaged students still have less extensive knowledge of mathematics than their more affluent peers (Denton and West 2002). This study examines whether some early elementary school math curricula are more effective than others at improving student math achievement in disadvantaged schools. A small number of curricula, which are based on different approaches for developing student math skills, dominate elementary math instruction--7 curricula make up 91 percent of those used by K-2 educators, according to a 2008 survey (Resnick et al. 2010). Little rigorous evidence exists to support one approach over another, however, which means that research does not provide educators with much useful information when choosing a math curriculum to use. The key findings in this report include the following: (1) Teachers used their assigned curriculum, and the instructional approaches of the four curriculum groups differed as expected; (2) Math instruction varied in other notable ways across the curriculum groups; (3) In terms of student math achievement, the curriculum used by the study schools mattered; and (4) The curriculum used in different contexts also mattered, and some of these findings are consistent with findings based on all students whereas others are not. Appendices include: (1) Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Teacher-Reported Frequency of Implementing Other Curriculum-Specific Activities; (3) Glossary of Curriculum-Specific Terms; and (4) Constructing the Analyses Samples and Estimating Curriculum Effects. (Contains 82 tables, 7 figures and 97 footnotes.) [For the executive summary, see ED512553.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Remediating Computational Deficits at Third Grade: A Randomized Field Trial (2008)
The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and randomly assigned to 4 conditions: word recognition (control) tutoring or 1 of 3 computation tutoring conditions: fact retrieval, procedural computation and computational estimation, and combined (fact retrieval + procedural computation and computational estimation). Results revealed that fact retrieval tutoring enhanced fact retrieval skill, and procedural computation and computational estimation tutoring (whether in isolation or combined with fact retrieval tutoring) enhanced computational estimation skill. Remediation was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. (Contains 4 tables and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Effects of preventative tutoring on the mathematical problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties (2008)
This study assessed the effects of preventative tutoring on the math problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties. Students (n = 35) were assigned randomly to continue in their general education math program or to receive secondary preventative tutoring 3 times per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks. Schema-broadening tutoring taught students to (a) focus on the mathematical structure of 3 problem types; (b) recognize problems as belonging to those 3 problem-type schemas; (c) solve the 3 word-problem types; and (d) transfer solution methods to problems that include irrelevant information, 2-digit operands, missing information in the first or second positions in the algebraic equation, or relevant information in charts, graphs, and pictures. Also, students were taught to perform the calculation and algebraic skills foundational for problem solving. Analyses of variance revealed statistically significant effects on a wide range of word problems, with large effect sizes. Findings support the efficacy of the tutoring protocol for preventing word-problem deficits among third-grade students with math and reading deficits. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 2
Effects of small-group tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on at-risk students’ math problem solving: Are two tiers of prevention better than one? (2008)
This study assessed the effects of small-group tutoring with and without validated classroom instruction on at-risk students' math problem solving. Stratifying within schools, 119 3rd-grade classes were randomly assigned to conventional or validated problem-solving instruction (Hot Math, schema-broadening instruction). Students identified as at risk (n = 243) were randomly assigned, within classroom conditions, to receive or not receive Hot Math tutoring. Students were tested on problem-solving and math applications measures before and after 16 weeks of intervention. Analyses of variance, which accounted for the nested structure of the data, revealed that the tutored students who received validated classroom instruction achieved better than the tutored students who received conventional classroom instruction (effect size = 1.34). However, the advantage for tutoring over no tutoring was similar whether students received validated or conventional classroom instruction (effect sizes = 1.18 and 1.13). Tutoring, not validated classroom instruction, reduced the prevalence of math difficulty. Implications for responsiveness-to-intervention prevention models and for enhancing math problem-solving instruction are discussed. (Contains 5 tables, 1 figure and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 2
San Francisco Bay Area KIPP schools: A study of early implementation and achievement. Final report. (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 2
Pre-K Mathematics supplemented with DLM Early Childhood Express Math software: University of California, Berkeley and University at Buffalo, State University of New York. In Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 131–142) (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 2
Use of a progress monitoring system to enable teachers to differentiate mathematics instruction. (2007)
We explored how a progress monitoring and instructional management system can be used to help educators differentiate instruction and meet the wide-ranging learning needs of their increasingly diverse classrooms. We compared classrooms in 24 states that used a curriculum-based progress monitoring and instructional management system, Accelerated Math, to same school control classrooms that did not use it. Among the major findings were the following: (1) At every grade level there were large differences in grade equivalent score and percentile gains for students in the experimental and control classrooms; (2) Gains were experienced across the achievement spectrum. An analysis of low-, middle-, and high-achieving students showed consistent rates of gain for each math objective mastered; (3) Intervention integrity had a significant effect on student achievement; (4) Teachers using the progress monitoring and instructional management system spent more time providing individual versus group instruction and felt better able to meet the individual needs of their students; and (5) Significantly more students who were in classrooms where teachers used the progress monitoring and instructional management system reported that they like math, help each other with math, and like math better this year than last year. Addition of a progress monitoring and instructional management system to ongoing mathematics instruction improves mathematics outcomes for students. The effects of the program clearly are a function of intervention integrity; when progress monitoring and instructional management practices are implemented with high fidelity or integrity, the mathematics performance of all students is significantly enhanced. Implications for practice are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 2
The prevention, identification, and cognitive determinants of math difficulty. (2005)
This study examined the efficacy of preventive 1st-grade tutoring in mathematics, estimated the prevalence and severity of mathematics disability, and explored pretreatment cognitive characteristics associated with mathematics development. Participants were 564 first graders, 127 of whom were designated at risk (AR) for mathematics difficulty and randomly assigned to tutoring or control conditions. Before treatment, all participants were assessed on cognitive and academic measures. Tutoring occurred 3 times weekly for 16 weeks; treatment fidelity was documented; and math outcomes were assessed. Tutoring efficacy was supported on computation and concepts/applications, but not on fact fluency. Tutoring decreased the prevalence of math disability, with prevalence and severity varying as a function of identification method and math domain. Attention accounted for unique variance in predicting each aspect of end-of-year math performance. Other predictors, depending on the aspect of math performance, were nonverbal problem solving, working memory, and phonological processing.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 2
Description and evaluation of Reasoning Mind’s 2003 pilot project. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies PS 3
Can feedback, correct, and incorrect worked examples improve numerical magnitude estimation precision? (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 3
An Evaluation of the Literacy-Infused Science Using Technology Innovation Opportunity (LISTO): i3 Evaluation (Valid 45) Final Report (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 3
Can feedback, correct, and incorrect worked examples improve numerical magnitude estimation precision? (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Addressing Challenging Mathematics Standards with At-Risk Learners: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effects of Fractions Intervention at Third Grade (2020)
The purposes of this study were to assess the effects of fractions intervention for students who are at-risk for poor outcomes and to examine whether a component that combines self-regulated learning with growth mindset instruction (SR-GM) provides added value for improving outcomes. At-risk students (N = 84) were randomly assigned to 3 conditions: fractions intervention, fractions intervention with embedded SR-GM, and a control group. Intervention was conducted 3 times per week for 35 min per session for 13 weeks. Multilevel models indicated both fractions intervention conditions produced strong effects, with no added value for SR-GM. Posttest fractions achievement gaps for both intervention conditions held steady, narrowed, or closed, while the control group's gaps remained sizeable or grew. Results suggest that intervention can address challenging mathematics standards for at-risk learners and that SR-GM instruction may not be necessary in the context of strong intervention. [This is the in press version of an article published in "Exceptional Children."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
The Role of Pre-Algebraic Reasoning within a Word-Problem Intervention for Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2019-09-16)
Students in the elementary grades often experience difficulty setting up and solving word problems. Using an equation to represent the structure of the problem serves as an effective tool for solving word problems, but students may require specific pre-algebraic reasoning instruction about the equal sign as a relational symbol to set up and solve such equations successfully. We identified students with mathematics difficulty (n = 138) from a sample of 916 third-grade students. We randomly assigned students to a word-problem intervention with a pre-algebraic reasoning component, a word-problem intervention without pre-algebraic reasoning, or the business-as-usual. Students in the 2 active intervention conditions participated in 45 individual sessions and learned about 3 additive word-problem schemas. Students who received word-problem intervention with a pre-algebraic reasoning component demonstrated improved nonstandard equation solving, equal sign understanding, and word-problem solving compared to students in the other two conditions. [The paper will be published in "ZDM Mathematics Education."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Embedding Self-Regulation Instruction within Fractions Intervention for Third Graders with Mathematics Difficulties (2019)
The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of fractions intervention with and without an embedded self-regulation (SR) component for third-grade students at risk for mathematics disabilities. Fractions intervention focused on magnitude understanding and word problems. Embedded SR was designed to support a growth mindset (fostering belief that intellectual and academic abilities can be developed) along with SR processes in which students set goals, self-monitor, and use strategies to engage motivationally, metacognitively, and behaviorally through challenging tasks. Students (n = 69) were randomly assigned to business-as-usual control and the two versions of fractions intervention. Multilevel models, accounting for the nested structure of the data, identified a moderation effect on fraction word problems: For students receiving fractions intervention with embedded SR, response to intervention was robust across the continuum of students' pretest word problem skill; by contrast, without SR, response to fractions intervention depended on students' pretest word problem skill. On the remaining outcomes, results reflected stronger outcomes when fractions intervention embedded SR instruction without moderation. [This paper will be published in the "Journal of Learning Disabilities."]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Relational Scaffolding Enhances Children's Understanding of Scientific Models (2019)
Models are central to the practice and teaching of science. Yet people often fail to grasp how scientific models explain their observations of the world. Realizing the explanatory power of a model may require aligning its relational structure to that of the observable phenomena. The present research tested whether "relational scaffolding"--guided comparisons between observable and modeled events--enhances children's understanding of scientific models. We tested relational scaffolding during instruction about the day-night cycle, a topic that involves relating "Earth-based" observations to a "space-based" model of Earth rotation. Experiment 1 found that 3rd graders (N = 108) learned more from instruction that incorporated relational scaffolding. Experiment 2 (N = 99) found that guided comparison--not merely viewing observable and modeled events--is a critical component of relational scaffolding, especially for children with low initial knowledge. Relational scaffolding could be applied broadly to assist the many students who struggle with science. [This is the in press version of an article to be published in "Psychological Science."]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Red Light, Purple Light! Results of an intervention to promote school readiness for children from low-income backgrounds (2019)
Considerable research has examined interventions that facilitate school readiness skills in young children. One intervention, "Red Light, Purple Light Circle Time Games" (RLPL; Tominey and McClelland, 2011; Schmitt et al., 2015), includes music and movement games that aim to foster self-regulation skills. The present study (N = 157) focused on children from families with low-income and compared the RLPL intervention (SR) to a revised version of RLPL that included literacy and math content (SR+) and a Business-As-Usual (BAU) control group. In both versions of the intervention, teachers were trained to administer the self-regulation intervention in preschool classrooms with coaching support. Although not statistically significant, children receiving either version of the intervention gained more in self-regulation on the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) over the preschool year compared to the BAU group (ß = 0.09, p = 0.082, Cohen's d = 0.31). Effect sizes were similar to previous studies (Schmitt et al., 2015; Duncan et al., 2018) and translated to a 21% difference in self-regulation over and above the BAU group at post-test. Furthermore, children participating in either version of the intervention gained significantly more in math across the school year compared to children in the BAU group (ß = 0.14; p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.38), which translated to a 24% difference in math over and above the BAU group at post-test. Results were somewhat stronger for the SR+ version, although effect sizes across intervention conditions were comparable. There were no statistically significant differences across groups for literacy skills. Results extend previous research and suggest that the RLPL intervention, which includes an explicit focus on self-regulation through music and movement games, may improve children's self-regulation and math scores over the preschool year. [This article was published in "Frontiers in Psychology" 2019.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Evaluating the efficacy of a learning trajectory for early shape composition (2019)
Although basing instruction on learning trajectories (LTs) is often recommended, there is little direct evidence regarding the premise of a LT approach--that instruction should be presented (only) one LT level beyond a child's present level. We evaluated this hypothesis in the domain of early shape composition. One group of preschoolers, who were at least two levels below the target instructional LT level, received instruction based on an empirically validated LT. The counterfactual (skip-levels) group received an equal amount of instruction focused only on the target level. At posttest, children in the LT condition exhibited significantly greater learning than children in the skip-levels condition, mainly on near-transfer items; no child-level variables were significant moderators. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED594902.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Effectiveness of "Enhanced Units": A Report of a Randomized Experiment in California and Virginia. Research Report (2019)
Empirical Education Inc. is the independent evaluator of SRI International's 2014 Investing in Innovation (i3) Development grant called Redesigning Secondary Courses to Improve Academic Outcomes for Adolescents with Disabilities and Other Underperforming Adolescents. The goal of the grant is to develop "Enhanced Units" that combine research-based content enhancement routines, collaboration strategy, and technology components for secondary U.S. History and biology classes. This report presents findings of a randomized control trial (RCT) during the 2017-18 school year. The RCT measured the impact of "Enhanced Units" on higher order content skills (as measured through unit tests) in high school biology and U.S. History classes in three districts in Virginia and California. SRI, the Center for Applied Special Education Technology (CAST), and their research and practitioner partners developed "Enhanced Units" (EU) with the goal of integrating research-based content enhancement routines with technological enhancements to improve student content learning and higher order reasoning, especially for students with disabilities or other learning challenges. This study also documents the extent to which the core components of EU were implemented with fidelity. The authors provide descriptive results on classroom practices (as measured by teacher surveys) and contextual factors that support or hinder implementation (as described during teacher interviews). Future improvements to EU should focus on answering the question: "What is/are the best way(s) for teachers to present SIM routines to their students, particularly for students with learning challenges through SIM intervention?"
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Evaluation of Learning by Making i3 Project: STEM Success for Rural Schools (2018)
The Learning by Making (LbyM) project is funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation Fund (i3). As a five-year development project (2014-2018), Sonoma State University (SSU), in partnership with high-need schools and districts, has been developing an innovative, integrated high school Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum. The curriculum consists of Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) in earth science and biology as described in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, 2013) and utilizes an easy-to-use Logo programming language that conducts data transfer and network communications in support of student-designed investigations. The purpose of this study is to understand how LbyM is implemented in high school classrooms in rural environments, to observe the influences of this curriculum on student learning and engagement, and to explore how teachers' instructional practices and technological capacities evolve while using the curriculum. The study used a quasi-experimental design. One hundred thirty-seven students were recruited to enroll in eight LbyM STEM classes in six participating high schools. Three of the participating high schools are small schools, and it is not possible to find comparison students from these small schools. Therefore, all comparison students were recruited from the larger schools, with a total of 141 comparison students from six classrooms in three out of six participating high schools. The results from the study indicated that the LbyM curriculum that was developed by SSU helped teachers integrate NGSS and project-based learning into classroom instruction. Teachers reported spending more instructional time supporting students to collect, organize, display, and present data. Students were highly engaged with the LbyM curriculum and demonstrated increased confidence and problem solving stamina. Teachers reported that some students who typically struggle to participate in class exhibited higher levels of participation in LbyM and even demonstrated leadership. They also reported that some students with special needs, while still requiring extra attention, remained engaged with the curriculum and were even quicker to complete certain activities than the other students. The LbyM curriculum was positively associated with significant gains in students' science content knowledge. It helped low-achieving students improve math understanding.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Causal connections between mathematical language and mathematical knowledge: A dialogic reading intervention. (2017)
The acquisition of early mathematical knowledge is critical for successful long-term academic development. Mathematical language is one of the strongest predictors of children's early mathematical success. Findings from previous studies have provided correlational evidence supporting the importance of mathematical language to the development of children's mathematics skills, but there is limited causal evidence supporting this link. To address this research gap, 47 Head Start children were randomly assigned to a mathematical language intervention group or a business-as-usual group. Over the course of eight weeks, interventionists implemented a dialogic reading intervention focused on quantitative and spatial mathematical language. At posttest, students in the intervention group significantly outperformed the students in the comparison group not only on a mathematical language assessment, but on a mathematical knowledge assessment as well. These findings indicate that increasing children's exposure to mathematical language can positively affect their general mathematics skills. This study is an important first step in providing causal evidence of the importance of early mathematical language for children's general mathematical knowledge and the potential for mathematical language interventions to increase children's overall mathematics abilities.
Reviews of Individual Studies K 3
Improving Mathematics Learning of Kindergarten Students through Computer-Assisted Instruction (2016)
This study evaluated the effects of a mathematics software program, the Building Blocks software suite, on young children's mathematics performance. Participants included 247 Kindergartners from 37 classrooms in 9 schools located in low-income communities. Children within classrooms were randomly assigned to receive 21 weeks of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in mathematics with Building Blocks or in literacy with Earobics Step 1. Children in the Building Blocks condition evidenced higher posttest scores on tests of numeracy and Applied Problems after controlling for beginning-of-year numeracy scores and classroom nesting. These findings, together with a review of earlier CAI, provide guidance for future work on CAI aiming to improve mathematics performance of children from low-income backgrounds. [This paper was published in "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" (EJ1100307).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 3
The Benefits of Computer-Generated Feedback for Mathematics Problem Solving (2016)
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. In a randomized experiment, second-grade children (N = 75) received instruction on a correct problem-solving strategy and then solved a set of relevant problems. Children were assigned to receive no feedback, immediate feedback, or summative feedback from the computer. On a posttest the following day, feedback resulted in higher scores relative to no feedback for children who started with low prior knowledge. Immediate feedback was particularly effective, facilitating mastery of the material for children with both low and high prior knowledge. Results suggest that minimal computer-generated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 3
The Benefits of Computer-Generated Feedback for Mathematics Problem Solving (2016)
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. In a randomized experiment, second-grade children (N = 75) received instruction on a correct problem-solving strategy and then solved a set of relevant problems. Children were assigned to receive no feedback, immediate feedback, or summative feedback from the computer. On a posttest the following day, feedback resulted in higher scores relative to no feedback for children who started with low prior knowledge. Immediate feedback was particularly effective, facilitating mastery of the material for children with both low and high prior knowledge. Results suggest that minimal computer-generated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 3
An Examination of the Promise of the NumberShire Level 1 Gaming Intervention for Improving Student Mathematics Outcomes (2016)
The purpose of this study was to test the promise of the NumberShire Level 1 Gaming Intervention (NS1) to accelerate math learning for first-grade students with or at risk for math difficulties. The NS1 intervention was developed through the Institute of Education Sciences, Small Business Innovation Research Program (Gause, Fien, Baker, & Clarke, 2011 Gause, M., Fien, H., Baker, S. K., & Clarke, B. (2011). Project NumberShire I: A game-based integrated learning and assessment system to target whole number concepts. This study used a randomized controlled trial design to test the promise of the NS1 intervention. In total, 250 first-grade students were randomly assigned within classrooms to the treatment condition or a control condition. Results indicate significant effects favoring the treatment group on proximal measures of whole-number concepts and skills. Intervention effects were not statistically significant for distal outcome measures. Treatment effects were not moderated by special education or English learner status; however, the condition by initial skill level interaction approached significance. Additionally, there was no relationship between dosage variables and students' response to the intervention. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. [This paper was published in "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness" (EJ1115268).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 3
The Effect of Tutoring with Nonstandard Equations for Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2015)
Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equal-sign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, second-grade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and no-tutoring control. Combined tutoring students demonstrated greater gains on equation-solving assessments and equal-sign tasks compared to the other two conditions. Standard tutoring students demonstrated improved skill on equation solving over control students, but combined tutoring students' performance gains were significantly larger. Results indicate that exposure to and practice with nonstandard equations positively influence student understanding of the equal sign.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 3
Does teacher evaluation improve school performance? Experimental evidence from Chicago’s Excellence in Teaching Project (2015)
Chicago Public Schools initiated the Excellence in Teaching Project, a teacher evaluation program designed to increase student learning by improving classroom instruction through structured principal-teacher dialogue. The pilot began in forty-four elementary schools in 2008-09 (cohort 1) and scaled up to include an additional forty-eight elementary schools in 2009-10 (cohort 2). Leveraging the experimental design of the roll-out, cohort 1 schools performed better in reading and math than cohort 2 schools at the end of the first year, though the math effects are not statistically significant. We find the initial improvement for cohort 1 schools remains even after cohort 2 schools adopted the program. Moreover, the pilot differentially impacted schools with different characteristics. Higher-achieving and lower-poverty schools were the primary beneficiaries, suggesting the intervention was most successful in more advantaged schools. These findings are relevant for policy makers and school leaders who are implementing evaluation systems that incorporate classroom observations.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 3
The effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness (REL 2015-096) (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 3
Interleaved Practice Improves Mathematics Learning (2015)
A typical mathematics assignment consists primarily of practice problems requiring the strategy introduced in the immediately preceding lesson (e.g., a dozen problems that are solved by using the Pythagorean Theorem). This means that students know which strategy is needed to solve each problem before they read the problem. In an alternative approach known as "interleaved practice," problems from the course are rearranged so that a portion of each assignment includes different kinds of problems in an interleaved order. Interleaved practice requires students to choose a strategy on the basis of the problem itself, as they must do when they encounter a problem during a comprehensive examination or subsequent course. In the experiment reported here, 126 seventh-grade students received the same practice problems over a three-month period, but the problems were arranged so that skills were learned by interleaved practice or by the usual blocked approach. The practice phase concluded with a review session, followed 1 or 30 days later by an unannounced test. Compared to blocked practice, interleaved practice produced higher scores on both the immediate and delayed tests (Cohen's d = 0.42 and 0.79, respectively). Two appendices include: (1) Serial Position of Each Graph and Slope Problem in the Assignments (table); and (2) Frequency of Responses of Three Teachers to Statements About Interleaved Practice (table). [Note: This article was "in press" at the time of submission. No citation information is available at this time.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Easy as ABCABC: Abstract language facilitates performance on a concrete patterning task. (2015)
The labels used to describe patterns and relations can influence children's relational reasoning. In this study, 62 preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 4.4 years) solved and described eight pattern abstraction problems (i.e., recreated the relation in a model pattern using novel materials). Some children were exposed to concrete labels (e.g., blue-red-blue-red) and others were exposed to abstract labels (e.g., A-B-A-B). Children exposed to abstract labels solved more problems correctly than children exposed to concrete labels. Children's correct adoption of the abstract language into their own descriptions was particularly beneficial. Thus, using concrete learning materials in combination with abstract representations can enhance their utility for children's performance. Furthermore, abstract language may play a key role in the development of relational thinking.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Strengthening school readiness for Head Start children: Evaluation of a self-regulation intervention (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 3
A randomized study of literacy integrated science intervention for low SES middle school students: Findings from first year implementation. (2014)
This paper presents the findings from a randomized control trial study of reading/literacy-integrated science inquiry intervention after 1 year of implementation and the treatment effect on 5th-grade low-socio-economic African-American and Hispanic students' achievement in science and English reading. A total of 94 treatment students and 194 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted of ongoing professional development and specific instructional science lessons with inquiry-based learning, direct and explicit vocabulary instruction, and integration of reading and writing. Results suggested that (a) there was a significantly positive treatment effect as reflected in students' higher performance in district-wide curriculum-based tests of science and reading and standardized tests of science, reading, and English reading fluency; (b) males and females did not differ significantly from participating in science inquiry instruction; (c) African-American students had lower chance of sufficiently mastering the science concepts and achieving above the state standards when compared with Hispanic students across gender and condition, and (d) below-poverty African-American females are the most vulnerable group in science learning. Our study confirmed that even a modest amount of literacy integration in inquiry-based science instruction can promote students' science and reading achievement. Therefore, we call for more experimental research that focus on the quality of literacy-integrated science instruction from which middle grade students, particularly low-socio-economic status students, can benefit.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 3
Preliminary Evaluation of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention for First-Grade Students: Using a Theory of Change to Guide Formative Evaluation Activities (2014)
This pilot study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 first-grade mathematics intervention program targeting whole-number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. The study used a randomized block design. Students (N = 89) were randomly assigned to treatment (Fusion) or control (standard district practice) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. A series of random-effects models were estimated to compare gains between treatment and control conditions. Gain scores of intervention students were significantly greater than those of control peers on a proximal measure of mathematics achievement. The role of a strong theory-of-change model in the development and evaluation of mathematics interventions is articulated. Implications for researchers and educators designing and delivering instruction for at-risk students in a response-to-intervention model are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 3
Effects of Cognitive Strategy Interventions and Cognitive Moderators on Word Problem Solving in Children at Risk for Problem Solving Difficulties (2013)
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and cognitive abilities on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Elementary school children (N = 120) with and without MD were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: general-heuristic (e.g., underline question sentence), visual-schematic presentation (diagrams), general-heuristic + visual-schematic, and an untreated control. When compared to the control condition that included children with MD, an advantage at posttest was found for children with MD for the visual-schematic-alone condition on measures of problem solving and calculation accuracy, whereas all strategy conditions facilitated posttest performance in correctly identifying problem solving components. The results also suggested that strategy conditions drew upon different cognitive resources. The General-heuristic condition drew primarily upon the executive component of working memory (WM), Visual-schematic condition drew upon the visual component of WM and the combined strategies condition drew upon number processing skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 3
The effects of response to intervention on the mathematics achievement of seventh and eighth grade students (Doctoral dissertation) (2013)
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of a system-wide Response to Intervention (RTI) program on the mathematical achievement of seventh and eighth grade students. The study consisted of five district schools with a total of 502 participants. The students were identified as belonging to one of two tiers, which differed in regard to amount of intervention. The first tier (Tier 1) of students only received the regular classroom instruction while the second tier (Tier 2/3) received an additional thirty minutes of intervention strategies. The students receiving interventions, the Tier 2/3 students, were divided into two groups. One group received primarily teacher-directed instruction (TDI) as an intervention while the other group received computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as an intervention. For the purpose of this study, the CAI intervention involved the use of the commercial program, Odyssey Math. The students were benchmark tested at the beginning and end of the 2010-2011 school year using the STAR Math assessment program and also progress monitored on a regular basis. In an attempt to determine the effectiveness of the RTI program, a gain score ANOVA was conducted using the scaled scores of the two tiers from the beginning and the end of the school year. The analysis indicated that Tier 2/3 students did demonstrate greater growth than the students in Tier 1. The gain scores of the two groups of Tier 2/3 students were also used in a gain score ANOVA to measure differences in growth. An additional analysis of their mean scores was also conducted using ANCOVA. Both analyses indicated that the CAI group demonstrated greater gains. A third analysis was conducted in order to determine how accurately the STAR Math assessment program could predict student success (reaching either a Proficient or Advanced level) on the state assessment. While the STAR Math program did not accurately predict the students' level in every case, the logistic regression analysis did indicate that the program was successful in identifying struggling students. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
The effectiveness of teaching number relationships in preschool (2013)
Number relationships, which go far beyond counting skills, refer to the ability to represent a quantity in multiple, flexible ways. It is arguably among the most important mathematics concepts in number and quantity. The current study examined the effectiveness of number relationships instruction in preschool classrooms. Participants included 73 children and 4 teachers from a half-day preschool program in a local school district. For the intervention group, two teachers provided number relationships instruction to 37 of the children in their classrooms (four sections total). No treatment occurred for the control group consisting of the remaining 36 children taught by two teachers. Before and after the 12-week treatment period, the TEMA-3 (Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3rd Edition) was administered both as a pretest and a posttest to assess children's understanding of number and quantity. Results indicated that children in the intervention group who received mathematics instruction with the emphasis on teaching number relationships scored significantly higher on the posttest than their counterparts in the control group. However, results of the current study did not reveal any advantages by age group for number relationships instruction. Small sample size may have limited this analysis.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Reducing the gap in numerical knowledge between low- and middle-income preschoolers. (2011)
We compared the learning from playing a linear number board game of preschoolers from middle-income backgrounds to the learning of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Playing this game produced greater learning by both groups than engaging in other numerical activities for the same amount of time. The benefits were present on number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and arithmetic learning. Children with less initial knowledge generally learned more, and children from low-income backgrounds learned at least as much, and on several measures more, than preschoolers from middle-income backgrounds with comparable initial knowledge. The findings suggest a class of intervention that might be especially effective for reducing the gap between low-income and middle-income children's knowledge when they enter school.
Reviews of Individual Studies PS 3
Enhancing self-reflection and mathematics achievement of at-risk urban technical college students. (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 3
Benefits of Practicing 4 = 2 + 2: Nontraditional Problem Formats Facilitate Children's Understanding of Mathematical Equivalence (2011)
This study examined whether practice with arithmetic problems presented in a nontraditional problem format improves understanding of mathematical equivalence. Children (M age = 8;0; N = 90) were randomly assigned to practice addition in one of three conditions: (a) traditional, in which problems were presented in the traditional "operations on left side" format (e.g., 9 + 8 = 17); (b) nontraditional, in which problems were presented in a nontraditional format (e.g., 17 = 9 + 8); or (c) no extra practice. Children developed a better understanding of mathematical equivalence after receiving nontraditional practice than after receiving traditional practice or no extra practice. Results suggest that minor differences in early input can yield substantial differences in children's understanding of fundamental concepts.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Playing linear number board games—but not circular ones—improves low-income preschoolers’ numerical understanding (2009)
A theoretical analysis of the development of numerical representations indicated that playing linear number board games should enhance preschoolers' numerical knowledge and ability to acquire new numerical knowledge. The effect on knowledge of numerical magnitudes was predicted to be larger when the game was played with a linear board than with a circular board because of a more direct mapping between the linear board and the desired mental representation. As predicted, playing the linear board game for roughly 1 hr increased low-income preschoolers' proficiency on the 2 tasks that directly measured understanding of numerical magnitudes--numerical magnitude comparison and number line estimation--more than playing the game with a circular board or engaging in other numerical activities. Also as predicted, children who had played the linear number board game generated more correct answers and better quality errors in response to subsequent training on arithmetic problems, a task hypothesized to be influenced by knowledge of numerical magnitudes. Thus, playing linear number board games not only increases preschoolers' numerical knowledge but also helps them learn from future numerical experiences. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Playing linear numerical board games promotes low-income children’s numerical development. (2008)
The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of preschoolers from low-income families lagged behind that of peers from more affluent backgrounds. Experiment 2 indicated that playing a simple numerical board game for four 15-minute sessions eliminated the differences in numerical estimation proficiency. Playing games that substituted colors for numbers did not have this effect. Thus, playing numerical board games offers an inexpensive means for reducing the gap in numerical knowledge that separates less and more affluent children when they begin school.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Promoting broad and stable improvements in low-income children’s numerical knowledge through playing number board games. (2008)
Theoretical analyses of the development of numerical representations suggest that playing linear number board games should enhance young children's numerical knowledge. Consistent with this prediction, playing such a game for roughly 1 hr increased low-income preschoolers' (mean age = 5.4 years) proficiency on 4 diverse numerical tasks: numerical magnitude comparison, number line estimation, counting, and numeral identification. The gains remained 9 weeks later. Classmates who played an identical game, except for the squares varying in color rather than number, did not improve on any measure. Also as predicted, home experience playing number board games correlated positively with numerical knowledge. Thus, playing number board games with children from low-income backgrounds may increase their numerical knowledge at the outset of school.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Cognitive Tutor Algebra I: Evaluation of results (1993–1994). (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-4 3
Learning science in grades 3–8 using probeware and computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II project. (2008)
The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquiry-based instructional science units for teaching in grades 3-8. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of real-world phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or pressure) or, in one case, virtual environments based on mathematical models. TEEMSS units were used in more than 100 classrooms by over 60 teachers and thousands of students. This paper reports on cases in which groups of teachers taught science topics without TEEMSS materials in school year 2004-2005 and then the same teachers taught those topics using TEEMSS materials in 2005-2006. There are eight TEEMSS units for which such comparison data are available. Students showed significant learning gains for all eight. In four cases (sound and electricity, both for grades 3-4; temperature, grades 5-6; and motion, grades 7-8) there were significant differences in science learning favoring the students who used the TEEMSS materials. The effect sizes are 0.58, 0.94, 1.54, and 0.49, respectively. For the other four units there were no significant differences in science learning between TEEMSS and non-TEEMSS students. We discuss the implications of these results for science education.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3
An evaluation of the second edition of UCSMP Algebra. (2006)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Effects of mathematical word problem-solving instruction on middle school students with learning problems. (2005)
This study investigated the differential effects of two problem-solving instructional approaches--schema-based instruction (SBI) and general strategy instruction (GSI)--on the mathematical word problem-solving performance of 22 middle school students who had learning disabilities or were at risk for mathematics failure. Results indicated that the SBI group significantly outperformed the GSI group on immediate and delayed posttests as well as the transfer test. Implications of the study are discussed within the context of the new IDEA amendment and access to the general education curriculum.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-10 3
Help with English Language Proficiency &ldquo;HELP&rdquo; program evaluation of sheltered instruction multimedia lessons. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 3
The Teacher Advancement Program report two: Year three results from Arizona and year one results from South Carolina TAP schools. (2004)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
When schools close: Effects on displaced students in Chicago public schools. (October 2009)
Few decisions by a school district are more controversial than the decision to close a school. School staff, students and their families, and even the local community all bear a substantial burden once the decision is made to close a school. Since 2001, Chicago Public Schools (CPS) has closed 44 schools for reasons of poor academic performance or underutilization. Despite the attention that school closings have received in the past few years, very little is known about how displaced students fare after their schools are closed. This report examines the impact that closing schools had on the students who attended these schools. The authors focus on regular elementary schools that were closed between 2001 and 2006 for underutilization or low performance and ask whether students who were forced to leave these schools and enroll elsewhere experienced any positive or negative effects from this type of school move. They look at a number of student outcomes, including reading and math achievement, special education referrals, retentions, summer school attendance, mobility, and high school performance. They also examine characteristics of the receiving schools and ask whether differences in these schools had any impact on the learning experiences of students who transferred into them. The authors report six major findings: (1) Most students who transferred out of closing schools reenrolled in schools that were academically weak; (2) The largest negative impact of school closings on students' reading and math achievement occurred in the year before the schools were closed; (3) Once students left schools slated for closing, on average the additional effects on their learning were neither negative nor positive; (4) Although the school closing policy had only a small overall effect on student test scores, it did affect summer school enrollment and subsequent school mobility; (5) When displaced students reached high school, their on-track rates to graduate were no different than the rates of students who attended schools similar to those that closed; and (6) The learning outcomes of displaced students depended on the characteristics of receiving schools. Overall, they found few effects, either positive or negative, of school closings on the achievement of displaced students. Appended are: (1) School Closings and New Openings; and (2) Data, Analytic Methods, and Variables Used. (Contains 5 tables, 12 figures and 53 endnotes.)[For the (What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Quick Review of this report, see ED510790.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-11 -1
Unconditional Education Year 1 Evaluation Report. (n.d.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
Blended learning as a tool for international transfer of instructional practices. (in press)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 -1
The effects of cognitive strategy instruction on math problem solving of middle school students of varying ability. (in press)
The effects of a mathematical problem-solving intervention on students' problem-solving performance and math achievement were measured in a randomized control trial with 1,059 7th-grade students. The intervention, "Solve It!," is a research-based cognitive strategy instructional intervention that was shown to improve the problem-solving performance of 8th-grade students with and without learning disabilities (LD). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effectiveness of the intervention could be replicated with younger students. Forty middle schools in a large urban school district were included in the study, with one 7th-grade math teacher participating at each school (after attrition, n = 34). "Solve It!" was implemented by the teachers in their inclusive math classrooms. Problem-solving performance was assessed using curriculum-based math problem-solving measures, which were administered as a pretest and then monthly over the course of the 8-month intervention. Students who received the intervention (n = 644) embedded in the district curriculum showed a significantly greater rate of growth on the curriculum-based measures than students in the comparison group (n = 415) who received the district curriculum only. Results of the Bayesian analyses indicated that the intervention effect was somewhat stronger for low-achieving students than for average-achieving students. Overall, findings from the present study as well as the previous study with 8th-grade students indicate that the intervention was effective across ability groups and is an appropriate program to use in inclusive classrooms with students of varying math ability.
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-12 -1
Evaluation Report: Investing in Innovation Pathways to Success (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Helping Preschoolers Learn Math: The Impact of Emphasizing the Patterns in Objects and Numbers (2021)
Preschoolers' repeating patterning knowledge is predictive of their concurrent and later math and numeracy knowledge, but strong experimental evidence is needed to determine if these relations are causal. The purpose of the current Study was to examine the causal effects of repeating patterning and numeracy tutoring on repeating patterning, numeracy, and general mathematics knowledge in the year before kindergarten (i.e., pre-K). Children in pre-K (N = 211) were randomly assigned to receive five sessions of researcher-delivered tutoring (a) on repeating patterns and numeracy or (b) on numeracy (and literacy as an active control), or received no tutoring and business as usual classroom instruction(control). Children who received tutoring in repeating patterning and numeracy improved in their repeating patterning knowledge the most. However, children's general math and numeracy knowledge improved similarly across conditions, and a specific aspect of numeracy emphasized during the tutoring did not improve. Children's repeating patterning knowledge is malleable, but this initial attempt to demonstrate causal links between repeating patterning and math knowledge was not successful. Results parallel mixed success in research training other skills, such as working memory or spatial skills, for improving mathematics knowledge. Findings are discussed in terms of the relations between patterning, numeracy, and general math knowledge in preschoolers. [This paper will be published in "Journal of Educational Psychology."]
Reviews of Individual Studies PS -1
Shining the Spotlight on Those outside Florida's Reform Limelight: The Impact of Developmental Education Reform for Nonexempt Students (2021)
Since the 2000s, states have experimented with reforms to improve success among underprepared students traditionally assigned to developmental education (DE). Florida's reform under Senate Bill 1720 has been among the most comprehensive and wide-reaching. Recent public high school graduates and military personnel became exempt from DE, but nearly onethird of students, including those without a Florida standard high school diploma, were still required to take a placement test and enroll in DE if they scored below college-ready. The legislation also required colleges to offer accelerated instructional strategies for students remaining in DE, and provide enhanced advising and support services. Focusing specifically on nonexempt students, we use statewide data to conduct a difference-in-regression discontinuity analysis to examine differences in first-year math coursetaking outcomes for students on the margins of college readiness before and after the reform. While students narrowly assigned to DE tend to have a lower likelihood of taking and passing college-level courses relative to their college-ready peers, these students experienced larger gains after the reform when DE courses were offered in accelerated formats accompanied by support services. The reform also improved outcomes for students scoring above college-ready, which suggests that nonexempt students benefited from enhanced advising and support services too. [This article was published in "Journal of Higher Education" (EJ1281792).]
Reviews of Individual Studies PS -1
Shining the Spotlight on Those outside Florida's Reform Limelight: The Impact of Developmental Education Reform for Nonexempt Students (2021)
Since the 2000s, states have experimented with reforms to improve success among underprepared students traditionally assigned to developmental education (DE). Florida's reform under Senate Bill 1720 has been among the most comprehensive and wide-reaching. Recent public high school graduates and military personnel became exempt from DE, but nearly onethird of students, including those without a Florida standard high school diploma, were still required to take a placement test and enroll in DE if they scored below college-ready. The legislation also required colleges to offer accelerated instructional strategies for students remaining in DE, and provide enhanced advising and support services. Focusing specifically on nonexempt students, we use statewide data to conduct a difference-in-regression discontinuity analysis to examine differences in first-year math coursetaking outcomes for students on the margins of college readiness before and after the reform. While students narrowly assigned to DE tend to have a lower likelihood of taking and passing college-level courses relative to their college-ready peers, these students experienced larger gains after the reform when DE courses were offered in accelerated formats accompanied by support services. The reform also improved outcomes for students scoring above college-ready, which suggests that nonexempt students benefited from enhanced advising and support services too. [This article was published in "Journal of Higher Education" (EJ1281792).]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 -1
Final Report of the i3 Evaluation of the Collaboration and Reflection to Enhance Atlanta Teacher Effectiveness (CREATE) Teacher Residency Program (2021)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-12 -1
The effects of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on student achievement and college entrance. (2021)
The Louisiana Scholarship Program (LSP) offers publicly funded vouchers to moderate- and low-income students in low-performing public schools to enroll in participating private schools. Established in 2008 as a pilot program in New Orleans, the LSP expanded statewide in 2012. Drawing upon the random lotteries that placed students in LSP schools, we estimate the causal impact of using an LSP voucher to enroll in a private school on student achievement on the state accountability assessments in math, English Language Arts, and science over a four-year period, as well as on the likelihood of enrolling in college. The results from our primary analytic sample indicate substantial negative achievement impacts, especially in math, that diminish after the first year but persist after four years. In contrast, when considering the likelihood of students entering college, we observe no statistically significant difference between scholarship users and their control counterparts.
Reviews of Individual Studies 11-PS -1
Dual-credit courses and the road to college: Experimental evidence from Tennessee. (2020)
Dual-credit courses expose high school students to college-level content and provide the opportunity to earn college credits, in part to smooth the transition to college. With the Tennessee Department of Education, we conduct the first randomized controlled trial of the effects of dual-credit math coursework on a range of high school and college outcomes. We find that the dual-credit advanced algebra course alters students' subsequent high school math course-taking, reducing enrollment in remedial math and boosting enrollment in precalculus and Advanced Placement math courses. We fail to detect an effect of the dual-credit math course on overall rates of college enrollment. However, the course induces some students to choose four-year universities instead of two-year colleges, particularly for those in the middle of the math achievement distribution and those first exposed to the opportunity to take the course in eleventh rather than twelfth grade. We see limited evidence of improvements in early math performance during college.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 -1
Using Intensive Intervention to Improve Mathematics Skills of Students with Disabilities: Project Evaluation Report (2020)
The purpose of this project evaluation was to assess the impact of data-based individualization (DBI) on the mathematics achievement of students with intensive mathematics learning needs, including students with disabilities. The evaluation study used a cluster randomized trial in which elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment using a delayed-intervention design. Since this was a development project, the evaluation delineated between the primary, confirmatory impact question and exploratory research questions. The confirmatory question included students in Grades 1-2 and was concerned with the relationship of one year of DBI implementation support in comparison with a business-as-usual, delayed intervention group. Because of the developmental, iterative nature of the project, exploratory questions were concerned with cumulative longitudinal relations between years of DBI implementation support between two cohorts of elementary schools. In addition, project staff supported DBI implementation pilot in two middle schools and tracked student progress in those sites. Analytic results provided preliminary evidence to suggest that there may be contextual factors that govern the likelihood a student will profit from DBI. In addition, schools may require significant ongoing support to sustain implementation.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Final Report of the i3 Impact Study of Making Sense of SCIENCE, 2016-17 through 2017-18 (2020)
Science education has experienced a significant transition over the last decade, catalyzed by a re-envisioning of what students should know and be able to do in science. That re-envisioning culminated in the release of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in 2013. The new standards set off a chain reaction of standards adoption and implementation across states, districts, and schools, including steps taken toward transforming science professional learning, instruction, curriculum, and assessment. It was in this dynamic context that Empirical Education conducted an impact evaluation, as part of an Investing in Innovation (i3) grant, of WestEd's Making Sense of SCIENCE project, a teacher professional learning model aimed at raising students' science achievement through improving science instruction. Under this grant, WestEd and Empirical Education also partnered with Heller Research Associates (HRA) to conduct an implementation study and a scale-up study of Making Sense of SCIENCE. The impact evaluation, which is the focus of this report, was a two-year cluster-randomized control trial (RCT) that took place in California and Wisconsin across seven school districts and 66 elementary schools in the 2016-17 and 2017-18 school years. The study randomized schools to either receive the Making Sense of SCIENCE professional learning or to the business-as-usual ("control") group, which received the professional learning (delayed-treatment) after the study ended. The study found that Making Sense of SCIENCE had a positive impact on teacher content knowledge (effect size = 0.56, p = 0.006) and a positive impact on a holistic scale of teacher pedagogical content knowledge (effect size = 0.41, p = 0.026). The study also yielded positive and significant impacts on the amount of time teachers spent on science instruction (effect size = 0.40, p = 0.015) and on the emphasis that teachers placed on NGSS-aligned instructional practices, with statistically significant effect sizes ranging from 0.40 to 0.49. This suggestive evidence that Making Sense of SCIENCE changes classroom science learning experiences in ways that align with expectations in NGSS, which is a hypothesized precursor to measuring impacts on student achievement, deserves notice. In regard to student science achievement, the study did not find statistically significant results for the full sample of students (effect size = 0.06, p = 0.494), or for the sample of students in the bottom third of incoming math and English Language Arts achievement, with effect sizes of 0.22 (p = 0.099) and 0.073 (p = 0.567), respectively. Notably, with the exception of one negative effect size, additional analyses on student achievement using different measures and samples yielded positive, but not statistically significant, effect sizes ranging from 0.02 to 0.12. Evaluators offer three potential contributors to the findings of limited impact on student science achievement. First, given the timing of the study in relation to the release of the NGSS in 2013, finding a suitable NGSS-aligned student science assessment was a challenge. Second, most study schools and districts had not yet adopted NGSS-aligned curricula and did not have access to NGSS-aligned curriculum resources. Third, the sample of teachers was unstable across the two years, with the percentage of teachers leaving the school congruous to the percentage observed at the national level. [For the appendices, see ED609254; for the research summary, see ED609256.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The impact of a supplementary preschool mathematics curriculum on children's early mathematics learning (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Impacts of an Early Childhood Mathematics and Science Intervention on Teaching Practices and Child Outcomes (2020)
This randomized controlled trial examined effects of the MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science intervention on the quality and quantity of teachers' mathematics and science instruction, and children's mathematics and science outcomes in 140 pre-kindergarten classrooms. Teachers participated in the intervention for two years with consecutive cohorts of children. Results from Year 1 are considered experimental, however due to high levels of attrition, results from Year 2 are considered quasi-experimental. Across both years, intervention teachers exhibited higher quality and quantity of instruction. In Year 1, there were no significant effects of the intervention on children's outcomes. In Year 2, children in intervention classrooms made greater gains in teachers' ratings of mathematics and science skills and performed better on a spring assessment of science skills. These results have implications for designing and evaluating professional development aimed at supporting children's mathematics and science knowledge and skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Effects of the Executive Development Program and Aligned Coaching for School Principals in Three U.S. States. Investing in Innovation Study Final Report. (2020)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the National Institute for School Leadership's (NISL's) Executive Development Program (EDP) and paired leadership coaching as implemented in three states, with funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) grant program. NISL's Executive Development Program (EDP) is a year-long professional development program that has served thousands of principals in 23 states since 2014. The study was a randomized control trial study spanning 332 schools and 118 school districts. It evaluated the effects of the offer of and of participation in the EDP and coaching. Take up rates of the program were relatively low, and the study found no significant effects of the EDP and coaching on student achievement in English language arts or mathematics, on student attendance rates, or on student grade progression rates within three years of the start of the program. There were, however, effects of participation in the EDP and coaching in two areas of leadership practice as reported by principals on surveys conducted more than two years after the start of the intervention. We hypothesize that local buy-in and capacity to fully participate in the intensive professional development program most likely influenced the degree to which the intervention was successful. [Criterion Education sponsored this report, with funding from NISL through the i3 grant from the U.S. Department of Education. For the first report of this series, "Putting Professional Learning to Work: What Principals Do with Their Executive Development Program Learning," see ED606171.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 8-9 -1
Impact Study Evaluation of the Rural Math Innovation Network (RMIN) i3 Development Project (2020)
The Rural Math Innovation Network (RMIN) is a 4-year project that launched in January 2017 after receiving a $2.9 million Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and matching funds from the private sector. Virginia Ed Strategies and rural local education agencies (LEAs) in Virginia are implementing a project using a networked improvement community (NIC) of Pre-Algebra and Algebra 1 teachers to incorporate social-emotional learning (SEL) factors of academic self-efficacy and growth mindset into lesson plans for teaching career readiness math competencies. During Year 1, the project established Memos of Understanding with 18 school divisions in southwest and southside Virginia, which enabled math teachers within these divisions to submit applications to participate in the project. At the end of Year 1, December 2017, the project had a 38-member teacher cohort across 25 schools. By the end of Year 2 (January 1 - December 31, 2018), the cohort included 30 teachers (19 middle school teachers and 11 high school teachers) across 20 schools (12 middle schools and 8 high schools) within 16 participating divisions (several teachers dropped out of the project in Year 2 and a few teachers were added). During Year 3 (January 1 - December 31, 2019), several more teachers dropped out of the project, resulting in 26 teachers (17 middle school and 9 high school) across 18 schools within 15 participating divisions. Sixteen of the 26 teachers are located in the southside region, with the remaining 10 teachers located in the southwest region of Virginia One of the i3 requirements is to have an external evaluation conducted of the project; development grants must include both an implementation study and an impact study. To fulfill this requirement, Virginia Ed Strategies hired ICF to conduct an independent evaluation of the RMIN project throughout the 4-year period. The evaluation includes three components: a formative study to provide ongoing feedback about participants' reactions, learning, behaviors, and results; an implementation study focusing on how well the structural and programmatic aspects of the RMIN project are implemented, as well as facilitating or impeding factors; and an impact study to determine the extent to which the project impacts high-need students' math achievement. Previously in Year 2, the evaluation team recruited 10 comparison teachers across rural Virginia school divisions who were also teaching either Pre-Algebra or Algebra 1 (no school has both a participating and comparison teacher). The purpose of this report is to summarize key findings from the impact study. The primary audience is the RMIN project staff at Virginia Ed Strategies; secondary audiences include ED and other interested stakeholders. Although the impact study was designed originally to include students from the 2018-19 and 2019-20 school years, the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020 led to school closings and no administration of the statewide Standards of Learning (SOL) math assessment. Therefore, the impact study is based solely on the one year of SOL data. Findings are presented for the impact data and framed by the evaluation questions. Conclusions are presented below. Impact on student achievement. The one-year program impact on students' SOL scores was estimated and the results did not find evidence that the RMIN program significantly improved students' SOL performance. The program impact from the Pre-Algebra sample was negative, but it was not statistically significant, and the effect size was small. The program impact from the Algebra I analysis was positive but not statistically significant, and the effect size was small.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 -1
NW BOCES’s System for Educator Effectiveness Development (SEED) Project (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 -1
A state-wide quasi-experimental effectiveness study of the scale-up of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2019)
The three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework promotes the development of systems and data analysis to guide the selection and implementation of evidence based practices across multiple tiers. The current study examined the effects of universal (tier 1) or school-wide PBIS (SW-PBIS) in one state's scale-up of this tier of the framework. Annual propensity score weights were generated to examine the longitudinal effects of SW-PBIS from 2006–07 through 2011–12. School-level archival and administrative data outcomes were examined using panel models with an autoregressive structure. The sample included 1316 elementary, middle, and high schools. Elementary schools trained in SW-PBIS demonstrated statistically significantly lower suspensions during the fourth and fifth study years (i.e., small effect size) and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the first two study years as well as in one and two later years (i.e., small to large effect sizes), respectively. Secondary schools implementing SW-PBIS had statistically significantly lower suspensions and truancy rates during the second study year and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the second and third study years. These findings demonstrate medium effect sizes for all outcomes except suspensions. Given the widespread use of SW-PBIS across nearly 26,000 schools in the U.S., this study has important implications for educational practices and policies.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Final impact results from the i3 implementation of Teach to One: Math (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 -1
Evaluation of Reading Apprenticeship across the Disciplines (RAAD): Effective Secondary Teaching and Learning through Literacy Leadership (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 -1
Study of Physical Science and Engineering Invention Kit Curriculum for Middle School: External Evaluation of the Investing in Innovation Central Virginia Advanced Manufacturing Development Grant 78 (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PS -1
A randomized controlled trial of a modularized, computer-assisted, self-paced approach to developmental math (2019)
Community colleges are a large sector of postsecondary education. In 2016-2017, the United States had nearly 1,000 public 2-year postsecondary institutions (community colleges), serving almost nine million students, representing 39% of all undergraduates. The majority of entering community college students require developmental (or remedial) math. Success rates in the developmental math course sequence and college more broadly are discouragingly low. Policymakers, practitioners, and researchers alike are eagerly searching for reforms to improve success rates, but there is a dearth of causal evidence on the effectiveness of most proposed reforms. We sought to answer the following question: what effect does a modularized, computer-assisted, self-paced approach to developmental math (compared with a more "traditional" direct-instruction course alternative) have on students' likelihood of completing the developmental math course sequence? Findings from a randomized controlled trial (n=1,403) are presented. The program was well implemented; however, we did not find evidence that this approach was superior to the "traditional" math class. Although these results are disappointing, they are important because modularization and self-paced computer-assisted instruction are popular reforms. [This article was published in "Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness" (EJ1229042).]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-3 -1
The Effects of Enrolling in Oversubscribed Prekindergarten Programs through Third Grade (2019)
This study leverages naturally occurring lotteries for oversubscribed Boston Public Schools prekindergarten program sites between 2007 and 2011, for 3,182 children (M = 4.5 years old) to estimate the impacts of winning a first choice lottery and enrolling in Boston prekindergarten versus losing a first choice lottery and not enrolling on children's enrollment and persistence in district schools, grade retention, special education placement, and third-grade test scores. There are large effects on enrollment and persistence, but no effects on other examined outcomes for this subsample. Importantly, children who competed for oversubscribed seats were not representative of all appliers and almost all control-group children attended center-based preschool. Findings contribute to the larger evidence base and raise important considerations for future prekindergarten lottery-based studies. [This is the online version of an article published in "Child Development" (ISSN 0009-3920).]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-1 -1
Literacy and Academic Success for English Learners Through Science LASErS Evaluation Report (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-12 -1
Parents at the Center: Final Parent Leadership Institute Evaluation Report (2019)
The Parent Leadership Institute (PLI) of Children's Aid (CA), funded via a 2013 Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant operated between the 2014-15 through 2018-19 school years. Key goals of the PLI included: (1) improving the capacity of parents to effectively engage in the school community in support of their child; and (2) increasing the capacity of school staff to create and support environments which are welcoming to and supportive of the active engagement of parents as key members of the school community. Through implementation of the PLI, CA expanded its partnership with six schools located in the South Bronx community of Morrisania, an area characterized by high levels of poverty, health disparities, and crime, and low levels of academic achievement and attainment among both children and adults. This report serves as the final report on this phase of the PLI and includes an exploration of implementation during year 4 (2016-17 school year) and analyses of quantitative data on student academic performance. [This report was prepared for Children's Aid New York.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-11 -1
The Next Generation of State Reforms to Improve their Lowest Performing Schools: An Evaluation of North Carolina's School Transformation Initiative (2019)
In contrast to prior federally mandated school reforms, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) allows states more discretion in reforming their lowest performing schools, removes requirements to disrupt the status quo, and does not allocate substantial additional funds. Using a regression discontinuity design, we evaluate a state turnaround initiative aligned with ESSA requirements. We find the effect on student test score growth was not significant in year one and -0.13 in year two. Also in year two, we find that teachers in turnaround schools were 22.5 percentage points more likely to turn over. Teacher turnover appears to have been voluntary rather than the result of strategic staffing decisions.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
Efficacy Study of the Science Notebook in a Universal Design for Learning Environment: Preliminary Findings (2019)
The Science Notebook in a Universal Design for Learning Environment (SNUDLE) is a digital notebook that uses the Universal Design for Learning framework to support active science learning among elementary school students, particularly those who struggle with reading and writing or are unmotivated to learn science. Preliminary findings from the first of a two-year randomized control trial suggest no significant impact on motivation or academic achievement in science among the full sample of fourth graders receiving the SNUDLE intervention. Moderator analysis indicates significant positive interaction effects of the intervention on motivation in science and science content assessments among students with learning disabilities.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 -1
Is the pen mightier than the keyboard? The effect of online testing on measured student achievement (2019)
Nearly two dozen states now administer online exams to deliver testing to K-12 students. These tests have real consequences: their results feed into accountability systems, which have been used for more than a decade to hold schools and districts accountable for their students’ learning. We examine the rollout of computerbased testing in Massachusetts over 2 years to investigate test mode effects. Crucial to the study design is the state administering the same exam (PARCC) in online and offline formats each year during the transitional period. We find an online test penalty of about 0.10 standard deviations in math and 0.25 standard deviations in English language arts (ELA), which partially but not fully fades out in the second year of online testing.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
Schema-based word-problem intervention with and without embedded language comprehension instruction (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-10 -1
Impact Evaluation of "INSPIRE: Infusing Innovative STEM Practices into Rigorous Education" (2018)
"INSPIRE" is an Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant funded by the Office of Innovation and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. "INSPIRE" provides an innovative integrated K-12 STEM pipeline approach focused on STEM course content and instructional redesign. The INSPIRE model was implemented in Cabarrus County Schools (CCS), which is among the largest school systems in North Carolina, serving nearly 30,000 students in 39 schools. The impact evaluation included two studies that examined the effect of INSPIRE on mathematics and science achievement as measured by North Carolina standardized End-of-Grades assessments. The elementary study (Study 1) used a three-year, longitudinal, single-cohort quasi-experimental design (QED) to assess the impact of INSPIRE on math achievement at the end of 5th grade after two years of program exposure. The secondary study (Study 2) used an individual-level, longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with blocking by school level and cohort to assess the effects of INSPIRE on math and science achievement at the end of 7th and 10th grades after two years of program exposure. For both studies, we compared the outcomes of INSPIRE students with similar students from schools that did not offer a STEM program. For the elementary study, propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match INSPIRE elementary students and comparison student samples at baseline (on pre-test math achievement scores, gender, minority status, and economically disadvantaged status) and baseline equivalence was established all pre-test assessment measures; this study met What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Group Design Standards with Reservations. For the secondary study, the overall and differential attrition rates were low based on the WWC attrition standards (WWC, 2017); this study met WWC Group Design Standards without Reservations. The results of the elementary study indicated a statistically significant difference between the "INSPIRE" treatment group and the business-as-usual comparison group on the math achievement outcome. Comparison students reported a statistically significant higher increase in math achievement than "INSPIRE" students. Results of the secondary study indicated no statistically significant difference between the "INSPIRE" treatment group and the business-as-usual comparison group on the math and science achievement outcome. The duration of students' exposure to INSPIRE, fidelity of implementation, alignment between PBL instruction and NC standardized assessments, and contextual factors that might have weakened the intervention strength relative to business-as-usual conditions are discussed as possible factors that account for these findings. The report concludes with suggestions for future research and implications for education policy.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-6 -1
Study of ATLAS Use by Preservice and Early Career Teachers (2018)
In 2013, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards received a 5-year Investing in Innovation Fund Development grant from the U.S. Department of Education to develop, implement, and study Accomplished Teaching, Learning, and Schools (ATLAS). ATLAS is an online case library that contains examples of "accomplished teaching" practice delivered by National Board Certified Teachers. A purpose of the grant activities was to expose preservice and early career teachers to ATLAS content, which was hypothesized to affect their teaching practice and the achievements of their students. This final report summarizes research on the first 2 years of the program's implementation at scale (during the grant's fourth and fifth years), and the effects of ATLAS use on the outcomes of preservice and early career teachers and on the mathematics and science achievements of students in Grades 3-6. The study team determined that ATLAS was implemented with fidelity at the institution of higher education and local education agency levels during the second study year but not the first study year. Regarding the effects of ATLAS use on the outcomes of preservice teachers, early career teachers, and students, the study did not identify any observable differences between ATLAS users and non-ATLAS users or their students. [This report was funded by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) through a U.S. Department of Education Investing in Innovation Fund grant to NBPTS.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-6 -1
Evaluation of Leading with Learning i3 development initiative: Final report. (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
Academic Achievement of Students in Dual Language Immersion (2018)
This article reports on a study that investigated achievement in math of third and fourth grade dual language immersion (DLI) students, building on research that has demonstrated the academic achievement of students who receive content instruction predominantly in the target language. Our study expands the scope and methodology of prior research by including one-way programs in three languages (Chinese, French and Spanish) and two-way Spanish-English programs; and by relying on propensity matching to mitigate possible effects of school and student differences. In our third grade study, we compared students' math scores in relation to their English Language Arts (ELA) achievement to control for pre-existing differences between DLI and non-DLI students. DLI students who attained the same levels in ELA, and who received math instruction in a target language, performed at the same level as their non-DLI peers in third grade math tests given in English. For the fourth grade study, we compared DLI students to a propensity-matched non-DLI group. DLI students grew more in math than their counterparts not in DLI. The results from this natural experiment indicate that students in a DLI program that has been implemented state-wide were able to succeed academically in math.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Assessing the impact of the Math for All professional development program on elementary school teachers and their students (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 10-12 -1
Impact Evaluation of "12 for Life": Better Lives through Education and Employment (2018)
"12 for Life" is an Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant funded by the Office of Innovation and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. "12 for Life" provides a rigorous STEM curriculum, combined with on-the-job-training, work/life skills development, mentoring, and employment opportunities to high school students who are at high risk of dropping out of school. The impact evaluation used a quasi-experimental design (QED) to examine the effect of "12 for Life" on grade point average (GPA), number of suspensions, and incidence of dropping out of school. "12 for Life" students who enrolled in the program during the 2014-15 school year were followed for three years. Outcomes for "12 for Life" students were compared to a matched sample of students with similar risk factors for dropping out of school who started 10th grade in fall 2014 and who participate in business-as-usual, traditional academic instruction in the high school environment. Comparison students were followed for three years. Results showed no statistically significant impact on grade point average (GPA) at the end of 12th grade, number of suspensions, or incidence of dropping out of school.
Reviews of Individual Studies 11-12 -1
2016-2017 Implementation Evaluation of the National Math and Science Initiative's College Readiness Program (2018)
The National Math + Science Initiative's (NMSI's) College Readiness Program (CRP) is an established program whose goal is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education in high schools to improve students' readiness for college. The program provides teacher, student, and school supports to promote high school students' success in mathematics, science, and English Advanced Placement (AP) courses, with a focus on students who are traditionally underrepresented in the targeted AP courses. Through a scale-up grant awarded to NMSI by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program, the CRP was implemented in 28 schools in the 2016-2017 school year. CRESST conducted an independent evaluation of the impact of the CRP on students' AP outcomes using a randomized cluster trial with 28 CRP schools and 24 control schools in 10 states. The evaluation of the CRP consisted of two parts: (1) assessment of the program's impact on selected student AP exam outcomes and (2) assessment of the fidelity of implementation of the CRP. Program impact was evaluated using a 2-level hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) with students nested within schools The descriptive statistics showed that a higher percetange of students in the treatment schools took at least one AP course (30.7%) compared to those in the control schools (26.4%) by approximately 4.3%, however the difference was not statistically significant. In addition, students in the treatment schools were not more likely to achieve a score of 3 or higher, when compared to the delayed treatment schools. We further examined the effectiveness of the CRP using the prior year's school-level performance on the AP exam as a covariate. As with the above findings, the results indicated the probability of a student taking at least one AP course or scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP exam is not statistically different between students in the treatment schools and those in the control treatment schools. Fidelity of implementation was evaluated using a fidelity matrix approach (required as part of the evaluation of the i3 program), which showed that not all elements of the program were implemented with high fidelity. Overall results, however, indicated that 23 schools out of 28 treatment schools (82.1%) achieved 80% or better implementation fidelity, for an average fidelity score of 89.5%. Seven schools achieved a perfect 100% fidelity score. Looking at the different indicator groups (school, teacher and student), we found that all school support measures across all schools were implemented with fidelity. In over 80% of schools, not all teachers fulfilled their requirements for attending all training sessions, and so this component was not implemented with fidelity. Stipends and teacher awards were paid as expected as were student award payments. Teacher survey data indicated that teachers found the training and professional development activities provided by the CRP to be the most beneficial program supports relating to helping increase student achievement in AP courses. Teacher incentives were chosen as the least important program component relating to increasing student performance by 16% of teachers and student incentives by 12% of teachers. Teachers did, however, view the student incentives as an important program component to encourage enrollment in AP courses. Likewise, students rated the financial incentives on average as somewhat important in encouraging them to participate in AP courses.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
A cluster randomized trial of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in first grade (2018)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions. Teachers assigned to the treatment condition implemented the SSIS-CIP over a 12-week period. Students' social skills, problem behaviors, and approaches to learning were assessed via teacher ratings and direct observations of classroom behavior. In addition, their early literacy and numeracy skills were measured via computer-adaptive standardized tests. SSIS-CIP participation yielded small positive effects in students' social skills (particularly empathy and social engagement) and approaches to learning (academic motivation and engagement). Students' problem behaviors and academic skills, however, were unaffected by SSIS-CIP exposure.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Narrowing the early mathematics gap: A play-based intervention to promote low-income preschoolers’ number skills (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Closing inspiration and achievement gaps in STEM with volunteer-led apprenticeships (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Middle-Grades Leadership Development (MLD) Project: A U.S. Department of Education Investing in Innovation (i3) Development Grant Final Evaluation Report (2018)
The Middle-Grades Leadership Development (MLD) Project was designed to develop principal leaders and leadership teams who create high-performing middle-grades schools. Designed by the National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform, the four-year project was funded from 2013 to 2017 by a U.S. Department of Education Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant. The project was implemented in 12 middle-grades schools in rural and small town areas of Kentucky and Michigan. Schools received an extensive set of school improvement supports, including: creating a vision using the Forum's Schools to Watch (STW) criteria; engaging in an assessment and planning process for improvement; STW leadership coach; principal mentor; STW mentor schools; leadership team; networking opportunities; and focused professional development. The evaluation of the MLD Project used a quasi-experimental design (QED) with matched comparison schools (12 treatment schools and 38 comparison schools) to examine the impact of the project on intermediate outcomes such as culture, collaboration, work climate, and teaching efficacy, as well as the long term outcomes of principal effectiveness and student achievement. Results showed that MLD treatment schools significantly improved their collaboration practices, teaching efficacy, middle-grades instructional practices, and their implementation of the STW criteria for high performance. There was significant improvement in the long-term outcome of principal effectiveness among treatment principals, with nine of the twelve principals improving their leadership skills and behaviors to the proficient or distinguished levels by the end of the grant. Although there was no overall intervention effect on ELA/reading or math student achievement, seven treatment schools displayed larger growth than the state average for some groups of students. The results provide unique insight into a middle-grades program focused on principal leaders and collaborative leadership. A roadmap that depicts the key supports, activities, and practices implemented at MLD schools that were the most impactful on building middle-grades leadership effectiveness were articulated. These include school-level practices (i.e., guiding vision, continuous improvement practices, reflective practices), principal-level practices (i.e., knowledge of young adolescents, commitment to developmentally appropriate practices, instructional leadership), collaborative leadership practices (i.e., developing teacher leaders, shared capacity), and teaching practices (i.e., student centered, high expectations, rigorous instruction) that combined, result in middle-grades leadership that is more effective. [The report was prepared by the Center for Prevention Research and Development.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
The i3 validation of SunBay Digital Mathematics (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 -1
Investing in Innovation (i3) validation study of Families and Schools Together (FAST) final report (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Transforming Comprehensive High Schools into Early Colleges: The Impacts of the Early College Expansion Partnership (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Project RISE final report (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies K -1
Testing the Efficacy of a Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention by Small Group Size (2017)
This study used a randomized controlled trial design to investigate the ROOTS curriculum, a 50-lesson kindergarten mathematics intervention. Ten ROOTS-eligible students per classroom (n = 60) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a ROOTS five-student group, a ROOTS two-student group, and a no-treatment control group. Two primary research questions were investigated as part of this study: What was the overall impact of the treatment (the ROOTS intervention) as compared with the control (business as usual)? Was there a differential impact on student outcomes between the two treatment conditions (two- vs. five-student group)? Initial analyses for the first research question indicated a significant impact on three outcomes and positive but nonsignificant impacts on three additional measures. Results for the second research question, comparing the two- and five-student groups, indicated negligible and nonsignificant differences. Implications for practice are discussed. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED578431.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-11 -1
Variables and constants: a2i accessing algebra through inquiry (Final report) (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Group Work is Not Cooperative Learning: An Evaluation of PowerTeaching in Middle Schools. A Report from the Investing in Innovation (i3) Evaluation (2017)
To succeed in today's economy, students need both proficiency in the "three Rs" (reading, writing and arithmetic) and strong applied skills. Communication skills, team work, and critical thinking have long been at the top of employers' lists of applied skills they seek in employees. States are responding to employers' needs by putting in place new educational standards. These standards include not only higher levels of basic academic knowledge that students are expected to master but also applied skills pertaining to presenting information, explaining one's reasoning, and effectively collaborating in groups. As a result, teachers nationwide are having students work in groups more frequently. This report examines a recent large-scale effort to expand a cooperative learning program in middle schools. The change in standard instructional practices gives schools a chance to not only teach students applied skills, but improve students' academic learning, if they can help teachers turn "group work" into "cooperative learning teams." PowerTeaching, a structured cooperative learning program, was designed to do just that. Thus, the expansion of PowerTeaching through a federal Investing in Innovation grant offers the education field a unique opportunity to learn what it takes to help teachers create cooperative learning environments in their classrooms. This report presents the lessons learned from this scale-up effort and findings from a multiyear evaluation of it. It describes how PowerTeaching was implemented over the first few years, how classrooms with the program differed from those without it, and whether students in the program performed better in math. The evaluation found that while teachers who taught with PowerTeaching learned to place their students into longstanding mixed-ability groups, which are thought to be conducive to cooperative learning, teachers did not consistently use the program's instructional techniques that transform group work into cooperative learning. In turn, students' math performance did not differ significantly between schools using the program and schools not using it. A likely cause for the weak implementation was that the ongoing professional development, which is an integral part of the PowerTeaching program, mostly did not occur or focused more on teaching the new material required by recently adopted education standards rather than on cooperative learning techniques. The evaluation thus points to the importance of focused, ongoing training and support when trying to modify teachers' instructional practices. This report was written with Deni Chen, Ashley Kennedy, and Joseph Quinn.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-Not reported -1
Mentoring Early Career Teachers in Urban Alaska: Impact Findings from the Investing in Innovation (i3) Evaluation of the Alaska Statewide Mentor Project Urban Growth Opportunity (2017)
In 2011, the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) received an Investing in Innovation (i3) Grant through the U.S. Department of Education. UAF applied for the grant to expand the predominantly rural-serving Alaska Statewide Mentor Project (ASMP) to urban settings. ASMP is a professional development initiative that supplies fully released, highly trained mentors to early career teachers (ECTs). UAF's i3 grant, The Urban Growth Opportunity (UGO), included five districts: Anchorage, Fairbanks North Star Borough, Kenai Peninsula Borough, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, and Sitka. This is the final report for the grant conducted over four years (2011 2012 to 2014 2015). The research team randomly assigned 556 ECTs to treatment (UGO) and business as usual (BAU) groups. UGO ECTs received an ASMP mentor for two years; BAU ECTs received their districts' business as usual support that varied by district and included content coaches without mentoring support and non-ASMP instructional mentoring support. Researchers conducted impact, implementation, and intervention studies. The impact study included seven outcomes: teacher retention; teacher instructional practice as measured by the three Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS®) domains (Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support); and student achievement in reading, writing, and mathematics as measured by the state assessment. While UGO ECTs were retained as teachers in Alaska public schools at higher rates than BAU ECTs, the difference was not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between UGO and BAU ECTs on instructional practices as measured by CLASS®. Finally, student achievement was generally higher for students of UGO ECTs, but differences in achievement were statistically significant only for some student groups: primary reading students and secondary math students who were White, Hispanic, Alaskan Native, or two or more races. Results from the implementation study, conducted over three of the four years of implementation, found ASMP implemented UGO with fidelity across all components: mentor recruitment and assignment, mentor participation in professional development, mentor interaction with their ECTs, and mentors' use of formative assessment tools. Results from the intervention study identified two types of mentor-mentee dyads: Gliders and Sliders, with gliders engaging in longer conversations, focused more explicitly on instruction and students, responding to each other more often, and engaging as peers more frequently than the slider dyads.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
The Effects of Arts-Integrated Instruction on Students' Memory for Science Content: Results from a Randomized Control Trial Study (2017)
Strong correlational evidence suggests that involvement in the arts improves students' academic outcomes and memory of learning events (e.g., Peppler et al., 2014; Robinson, 2013; Scripps & Paradis, 2014). It is unclear, however, whether the improved outcomes are the result of general exposure to the arts, arts integrated into content instruction, the use of effective instructional practices, or a combination of these factors. Moreover, as a growing number of studies suggest that arts-integrated pedagogy enhances learning, few empirical studies have explicitly examined the direct effect of an arts-integrated curriculum on learning and specifically on students' memory for non-arts academic content. Thus, this study sought to determine the effects of arts-integrated lessons on long-term memory for science content. We hypothesized that embedding arts-based activities into conventionally taught lessons would produce learning outcomes as good as or better than traditional instruction. This paper describes the results of a randomized control trial that measured retention of science content using arts-integrated science units and matched units employing convention science instruction. The study was conducted in 16 fifth-grade classrooms in an urban mid-Atlantic school district.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-5 -1
Impacts of the Retired Mentors for New Teachers program (REL 2017-225) (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-7 -1
The effect of mentoring on school attendance and academic outcomes: A randomized evaluation of the Check & Connect program (Working Paper WP-16-18) (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 -1
Support for Struggling Students in Algebra: Contributions of Incorrect Worked Examples (2016-May)
Middle school algebra students (N = 125) randomly assigned within classroom to a Problem-solving control group, a Correct worked examples control group, or an Incorrect worked examples group, completed an experimental classroom study to assess the differential effects of incorrect examples versus the two control groups on students' algebra learning, competence expectancy, and sense of belonging to math class. The study also explored whether prior knowledge impacted the effectiveness of the intervention. A greater sense of belonging and competence expectancy predicted greater learning overall. Students' sense of belonging to math and competence expectancies were high at the start of the study and did not increase as a result of the intervention. A significant interaction between prior knowledge and incorrect worked examples on post-test scores revealed that students with low prior knowledge who struggle with learning math benefit most from reflecting on highlighted errors within an incorrect worked examples intervention. The unique contributions of these findings as well as educational implications are discussed. [This article was published in "Learning and Individual Differences," v48 p36-44 May 2016.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 -1
Support for Struggling Students in Algebra: Contributions of Incorrect Worked Examples (2016-May)
Middle school algebra students (N = 125) randomly assigned within classroom to a Problem-solving control group, a Correct worked examples control group, or an Incorrect worked examples group, completed an experimental classroom study to assess the differential effects of incorrect examples versus the two control groups on students' algebra learning, competence expectancy, and sense of belonging to math class. The study also explored whether prior knowledge impacted the effectiveness of the intervention. A greater sense of belonging and competence expectancy predicted greater learning overall. Students' sense of belonging to math and competence expectancies were high at the start of the study and did not increase as a result of the intervention. A significant interaction between prior knowledge and incorrect worked examples on post-test scores revealed that students with low prior knowledge who struggle with learning math benefit most from reflecting on highlighted errors within an incorrect worked examples intervention. The unique contributions of these findings as well as educational implications are discussed. [This article was published in "Learning and Individual Differences," v48 p36-44 May 2016.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 -1
Evaluation of the Rural Math Excel Partnership Project Final Report (2016)
The Virginia Advanced Study Strategies, Inc. (VASS) created the Rural Math Excel Partnership (RMEP) Project to develop a rural workforce qualified for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) jobs in their local communities. The RMEP Project is funded by an Investing in Innovation (I3) development grant from the U.S. Department of Education and was implemented from 2013 to 2015. The RMEP Project included 14 schools across six rural Virginia Local Education Agencies (LEAs) in five counties. The goal of the RMEP Project was to develop and implement a model of shared responsibility among families, teachers, and communities in rural areas to prepare students to be successful in advanced high school and postsecondary STEM studies. The long-term outcome was for students to leave school ready, at a minimum, to enroll in a certificate program for a technician-level career in STEM-related fields. The RMEP Project had six core implementation activities: (1) a gap analysis and development of a Math Advanced Study (MAS) guide, (2) professional development (PD) and ongoing coaching for participating teachers, (3) a Family Math Night (FMN), conducted by teachers (4) a project website and social media presence, (5) community-based STEM events, and (6) access to technology for students.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 -1
Helping students make the transition into high school: The effect of ninth grade academies on students' academic and behavioral outcomes (2016)
Ninth Grade Academies (NGAs)--also called Freshman Academies--have attracted national attention as a particularly intensive and promising approach for supporting a successful transition for high school freshmen. An NGA is a self-contained learning community for ninth-graders that operates as a school within a school. NGAs have four core structural components: (1) a designated separate space within the high school, (2) a ninth-grade administrator who oversees the academy, (3) a faculty assigned to teach only ninth-grade students, and (4) teachers organized into interdisciplinary teams that have both students and a planning period in common. The theory of action behind NGAs is that when these components are employed together, they interact to create a more personalized learning environment where ninth-grade students feel less anonymous and more individually supported. This, in turn, should help students succeed in school and stay on track to high school graduation. NGAs have shown promising results when employed as part of a whole-school reform model, but in these cases schools have received external support from a developer to create and sustain them. A growing number of schools and districts have been experimenting with NGAs on their own, but the little research that exists on their effectiveness is limited to anecdotal accounts. This study, which is based on a quasi-experimental research design, examines the effect of NGAs on students' progress toward graduation, their academic achievement, and their behavior in several school districts in Florida. The sample for this study includes 27 high schools that created NGAs between 2001-2002 and 2006-2007, along with 16 comparison high schools that serve ninth-grade students with similar characteristics as students in the NGA schools. As context for understanding the impact findings, this study also looks at the extent to which the key features of the NGA model were implemented in the NGA schools in the study and how this differs from the structures and supports in the comparison schools. The key finding is that the NGAs in this study do not appear to have improved students' academic or behavioral outcomes (credit earning, state test scores, course marks, attendance, suspensions, or expulsions). The findings also suggest that it can be difficult for schools to fully implement the components of the NGA model without expert assistance: Three years after their creation, only half the NGAs in the study had all four structural components of the model in place. Nationally, school districts continue to create NGAs, and recent efforts to implement them have incorporated various enhancements that are intended to strengthen and improve their implementation, but little is known about their effectiveness. Because students' experience in ninth grade is an important predictor of their future success, these efforts to create and improve NGAs should be examined in future studies. Appended are: (1) Technical Information; and (2) Beyond the Sunshine State: Ninth Grade Academies in Other School Districts. ["Helping Students Make the Transition into High School: The Effect of Ninth Grade Academies on Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes" was written with Janet Quint.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
An evaluation of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project: Pre-Transition Mathematics (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
The LASER model: A systematic and sustainable approach for achieving high standards in science education: SSEC i3 Validation Final Report of Confirmatory and Exploratory Analyses [Middle Schools]. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
Examining a Preteaching Framework to Improve Fraction Computation Outcomes among Struggling Learners (2016)
Thirty-two students enrolled in one of four sixth-grade classrooms across two elementary schools participated in this study. Students receiving supplemental and intensive instruction in math and those with math-related disabilities were participants. A treatment and control, pre/postexperimental design was used to examine the effect of preteaching using a gradual instructional sequence on students' accuracy in solving fraction computations. Prior to each unit, students were pretaught three essential prerequisite skills related to the upcoming general education core math unit. Findings indicate that the combination of preteaching using the concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence can be effective at improving the overall fraction computations of students with or at risk for disabilities.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-2 -1
Independent evaluation of the Midwest CPC Expansion Project: Final report (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies PS -1
Reappraising Stress Arousal Improves Performance and Reduces Evaluation Anxiety in Classroom Exam Situations (2016)
For students to thrive in the U.S. educational system, they must successfully cope with omnipresent demands of exams. Nearly all students experience testing situations as stressful, and signs of stress (e.g., racing heart) are typically perceived negatively. This research tested the efficacy of a psycho situational intervention targeting cognitive appraisals of stress to improve classroom exam performance. Ninety-three students (across five semesters) enrolled in a community college developmental mathematics course were randomly assigned to stress reappraisal or placebo control conditions. Reappraisal instructions educated students about the adaptive benefits of stress arousal, whereas placebo materials instructed students to ignore stress. Reappraisal students reported less math evaluation anxiety and exhibited improved math exam performance relative to controls. Mediation analysis indicated reappraisal improved performance by increasing students’ perceptions of their ability to cope with the stressful testing situation (resource appraisals). Implications for theory development and policy are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 -1
The LASER model: A systematic and sustainable approach for achieving high standards in science education: SSEC i3 Validation Final Report of Confirmatory and Exploratory Analyses [Elementary Schools]. (2016)
Previous research has linked inquiry-based science instruction (i.e., science instruction that engages students in doing science rather than just learning about science) with greater gains in student learning than text-book based methods (Vanosdall, Klentschy, Hedges & Weisbaum, 2007; Banilower, 2007; Ferguson 2009; Bredderman, 1983; Shymansky, Hedges, & Woodworth, 1990). The LASER model, being validated in the current study, has already been the subject of a number of case studies (RMC Research Corporation, 2010; Horizon Research, 2010; Vanosdall et al., 2007). However, experimental studies of the type that might establish a causal link between program implementation, student science learning, and other valued outcomes have yet to be conducted. Only a handful of studies have involved random assignment, and most of these have involved random assignment of students in a relatively small number of classrooms (see Furtak et al. 2009). With support from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation Fund (i3), the current validation study of the LASER Model encompasses approximately 60,000 students, 1,900 teachers, and over 140 district administrators and principals. The efficacy of the LASER program has important implications for both research and practice when working with high-poverty schools and districts, who have limited resources and time available for science interventions. LASER's initial success with early learners also demonstrates its potential for reducing the development of chronic, long-term deficiencies and academic problems. One table and one figure are appended.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 -1
The LASER Model: A Systemic and Sustainable Approach for Achieving High Standards in Science Education (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 -1
Achievement Network's Investing in Innovation Expansion: Impacts on educator practice and student achievement. (2016)
Data-based instructional programs have proliferated in American schools despite limited evidence of their effectiveness in improving educator practice and raising student achievement. We report results from a two-year school-randomized evaluation of the Achievement Network (ANet), a program providing schools with standards-aligned interim assessments and intensive supports for instructional data use. Survey data show that ANet increased teacher satisfaction with the timeliness and clarity of the data they receive and available supports for instructional data-use and caused them to review and use interim assessment data more often. ANet did not, however, affect their confidence in data use or how frequently they differentiated instruction. Student impact estimates show no overall effect on student achievement in English language arts or mathematics. Despite the lack program effects on student achievement, we find that achievement is positively correlated with our survey-based measures of teacher perceptions and practices around instructional data use. Exploratory analyses suggest that the success of ANet in improving teacher practice and student achievement varies with the pre-existing capacity of schools to engage in data-based instruction. Schools rated by program staff as having a high level of readiness to implement the intervention prior to random assignment experienced positive impacts on student achievement, while those rated as a having a low level of readiness experienced negative impacts. The following are appended: (1) School Screener Scoring Rubric; (2) Year 2 School Leader and Teacher Survey Scale Items; and (3) School Leader and Teacher Survey Impact Tables.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
Impact of Math Snacks games on students’ conceptual understanding (2016)
This "Math Snacks" intervention measured 741 fifth grade students' gains in conceptual understanding of core math concepts after game-based learning activities. Teachers integrated four "Math Snacks" games and related activities into instruction on ratios, coordinate plane, number systems, fractions and decimals. Using a randomized, controlled, quasi-experimental design, classrooms were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in a delayed treatment model. First Group A, and then Group B, received 5 weeks of "Math Snacks" intervention in addition to the regular district mathematics curriculum. Using a carefully refined test containing multiple choice and open-ended items, both groups were assessed three times: prior to any interventions, at the end of Phase 1 (when only Group A had received the intervention), and at the end of Phase 2 (when both groups had received the intervention). Students' mean gains over 5 weeks were significantly higher while receiving the "Math Snacks" intervention as compared to the group not receiving the intervention.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Investigating Effects of Embedding Collaboration in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Elementary School Students (2016)
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) are beneficial for individual students learning in several domains, including mathematics where they have been used to support both secondary and elementary students. Collaborative learning may be beneficial to include in ITSs, particularly for conceptual knowledge. There is little work on collaborative ITSs, and it has mostly focused on older students. We aim to extend this work to elementary school students, by extending an ITS for fractions so it supports collaborative learning. We also build upon our previous work to further investigate the complementary strengths of collaborative and individual learning. In our study, 189 elementary school students worked with a conceptual or a procedural fractions ITS, and either individually or collaboratively. Students in both ITS conditions learned, but there were no differences in learning between individual and collaboration. However, the students working collaboratively spent less time on the tutor, indicating potential benefits of collaborative learning on efficiency in this setting.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
District 75, New York City Department of Education impact evaluation. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
Impact of achievement of a five-year intensive professional development program in elementary science. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Schools to watch: School transformation network: A U.S. Department of Education Investing in Innovation (i3) Development grant. Final evaluation report. (2015, September)
The Schools to Watch: School Transformation Network Project is a whole school reform model designed to improve the educational practices, experiences, and outcomes of low-performing middle-grades schools. Developed by the National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform, the four-year project was funded in 2010 by a U.S. Department of Education Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of the project on intermediate outcomes such as culture, collaboration, and instructional practices as well as the long term outcome of student achievement. The study employed a quasi-experimental design where two student cohorts were tracked over four years at 34 schools (17 intervention and 17 comparison) in three states. The intervention schools were comprised of persistently low-performing middle-grades schools serving high need students. Comparison schools were selected using key demographics to match to intervention schools. Several process and measurement tools for assessing implementation and intermediate outcomes were used, including surveys, the STW criteria rating rubric, coach's logs, and focus groups. The long term outcome data for the impact study included student English and math achievement scores on annual standardized state assessments. To examine achievement scores between intervention and comparison students, a series of 2-level models (students within schools) were run to assess 8th grade achievement (i.e., after students received all three years of the intervention). Results showed that i3 STW Project schools improved their culture and climate, collaboration practices, leadership practices, STW criteria implementation, and classroom instructional practices. There was no overall intervention effect on either English or math student achievement, however, significant results were found for the highest implemented schools, those project schools that achieved STW designation during the project. The results of the study provide unique insight into the reform process for i3 STW Project schools as well as other middle-grades schools that are struggling to improve. The multiple supports provided by the project combined with the guiding vision of the STW criteria and rubric supported these high need schools to improve contextual factors (i.e., culture, collaboration, leadership, teaching and learning practices), and for a subsample of schools, student achievement. Districts and schools embarking on reform need to focus on collaborative leadership, have a guiding vision, use a continuous improvement model for instructional improvements, and value networking with other schools to gain knowledge. Two appendices are included: (1) Psychometric Properties of the Self-Study Survey Constructs; and (2) Fidelity Matrix for National Forum's STW School Transformation Network Project.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Education for the 21st Century (STEM21) high school impact evaluation: Final evidence report. (2015, December)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 -1
The Impact of Highly and Minimally Guided Discovery Instruction on Promoting the Learning of Reasoning Strategies for Basic Add-1 and Doubles Combinations (2015)
A 9-month training experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of highly and minimally guided discovery interventions targeting the add-1 rule (the sum of a number and one is the next number on the mental number list) and doubles relations (e.g., an everyday example of the double 5 + 5 is five fingers on the left hand and five fingers on the right hand make 10 fingers in all) and to compare their impact with regular classroom instruction on adding 1 and the doubles. After pretest, 81 kindergarten to second-grade participants were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: highly guided add-1 training,highly guided doubles training, or minimally guided add-1 and doubles practice. The highly guided add-1 training served as an active control for the highly guided doubles training and vice versa, and the minimally guided practice condition served to control for the impact of extra practice. ANCOVAs using pretest score and age as covariates indicated that both highly guided and minimally guided interventions were successful in promoting retention and transfer for the relatively salient add-1 rule, but only highly guided training produced transfer for the less-salient doubles relations. The findings indicate that the degree of guidance needed to achieve fluency with different addition reasoning strategies varies.
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 -1
STEM learning opportunities providing equity: An Investing in Innovation (i3) grant final evaluation report. (2015)
This five-year evaluation examined the effectiveness of a promising middle-school mathematics intervention funded through an Investing in Innovation (i3) development grant. Evaluation objectives were to: (1) study the impact of an intervention aimed at increasing the academic achievement of students in Algebra I--a gate-keeping course--as measured by student performance on an end-of-year state test in mathematics; and (2) better understand the relationship between intervention impact and implementation fidelity, as measured by levels of compliance by teachers with the study protocol. The intervention was piloted in Year 2 of the grant (2011-12 school year) that was followed by a two-year [randomized control trial] RCT in grant years 3 (2012-13 school year) and 4 (2013-14 school year). Data collected in the RCT years were focused on impact and exploratory analyses, respectively. For the RCT component, 70 Grade 8 Algebra I teachers were recruited from 15 school districts across California. Randomization, conducted by WestEd in spring 2012, was conducted at the teacher level. Students were assigned to classrooms without knowledge of the group membership of teachers (treatment vs. control), using each district's routine placement policies. Fidelity of implementation study was monitored by collecting systematically information from teachers assigned to the treatment condition throughout the course of the study. The contrast of interest was performance on a standardized Algebra I test by students assigned to classrooms taught by treatment teachers compared to performance by students assigned to classrooms taught by control teachers. The final analytic sample for the 2012-13 cohort included 1,384 students assigned to 28 treatment teachers and 1,088 students assigned to 27 control teachers. None of the contrasts showed a statistically significant difference at the 0.05 level. Students who were assigned to classrooms taught by treatment teachers did not perform differently in relation to those assigned to classrooms taught by control teachers. Overall findings from the implementation study indicated that great variability emerged in the ways in which teachers implemented the intervention. The threshold for fidelity was reached with only one component (Instructional Unit #1) of the four studied (three instructional units and professional coaching). The following appendices are included: (1) Logic Model: SLOPE (DEV11) v.13; (2) Teacher Background Survey; (3) Interpreting Intervention Impact through the Lens of Implementation Fidelity: Findings from a Federally Funded Evaluation--Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, Illinois, April 19, 2015); (4) Implementation Survey for Air Traffic Control; (5) 2012-2013 Measuring Fidelity of Implementation for Algebra I Drop-in Units: DEV11 (SLOPE); (6) Teacher-Level Participation in i3 SLOPE Evaluation (2011-2014); and (7) Findings from Evaluator Study of Implementation: Implementation Year 1.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Online resources for mathematics: Do they affect student learning? (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 -1
Getting from here to there: Testing the effectiveness of an interactive mathematics intervention embedding perceptual learning. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
EngageME P.L.E.A.S.E impact study results [Middle school]. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 -1
Combined Years 2 (2012-13) and 3 (2013-14) secondary VISTA student level impact analysis: Secondary science SOL achievements with earlier science SOL covariates - Students nested within teachers [8th Grade]. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-3 -1
Evaluation of the Florida Master Teacher Initiative: Final evaluation findings. (2015)
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Florida Master Teacher Initiative (FMTI)--an i3-funded early learning program aimed at improving the quality of teaching and student outcomes in grades PreK through third grade in high need schools. The FMTI schools participated in four program components: (1) a job-embedded graduate degree program with an early childhood specialization, (2) a Teacher Fellows program through which teachers engage in yearlong inquiry projects around their practice, (3) a Principal Fellows program during which principals work together to strengthen their facilitative leadership skills, and (4) Summer Leadership Institutes to review data and engage in action planning. The impact evaluation had two primary goals: (1) to assess the school-level impact of FMTI on teachers and students; and (2) to assess the impact of FMTI on teachers enrolled in the job-embedded early childhood graduate degree program and their students. To achieve the first goal, the evaluation used a cluster random assignment design, in which 40 Miami-Dade County Title I public elementary schools were randomly assigned to the FMTI program or a status-quo control condition. To achieve the second goal, the evaluation used an embedded quasi-experimental design using propensity score matching and difference-in-differences approaches. SRI International administered schoolwide surveys at baseline and in the final year of the grant in both intervention and control schools; conducted classroom observations of job-embedded graduate program teachers and a matched comparison group using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) early in the teachers' first year of the graduate program and a follow-up observation occurred after or near the end of the program, with program teachers and sample of comparison teachers; and gathered student reading and math achievement data on children in kindergarten through fifth grade who were at the 40 study schools at the time of random assignment for a total of more than 10,000 students in the FMTI schools and a similar number of students in the control schools. The study did not find school-level impacts on student achievement or on the majority of outcomes measured through the teacher survey. Analysis of the impact of the job-embedded graduate degree program found a positive difference of 1.7 points for participating teachers in the instructional quality domain of the CLASS compared to matched comparison teachers. The evaluation also found positive and statistically significant results for the graduate program teachers compared to comparison teachers on the teacher survey in the areas of engagement in leadership activities, engagement in governance activities, engagement in outreach activities, self-reported early childhood knowledge, and self-reported general instructional knowledge. No significant differences in math or reading achievement were found for students of the graduate program teachers compared to students of a matched sample of teachers in control schools. The implementation of the FMTI program was not sufficiently robust to definitively determine its effectiveness. FMTI treatment schools that achieved medium or high fidelity of implementation across the three years experienced more positive outcomes. The evaluation has illuminated lessons about how to effectively provide job-embedded professional development to support teacher quality improvement. The following are appended: (1) Methods; (2) Implementation Fidelity; and (3) Impact Estimates.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-5 -1
Impacts of the Teach for America Investing in Innovation scale-up. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Instructional guidance and realism of manipulatives influence preschool children's mathematics learning. (2015)
Educators often use manipulatives when teaching mathematics because manipulatives are assumed to promote learning. However, research indicates that instructional variables impact the effectiveness of manipulatives. In this article, the authors consider the relations between two instructional characteristics: (a) level of instructional guidance and (b) perceptual qualities of manipulatives. Results from the randomized experiment with preschoolers (N = 72) suggest that learning is improved when instruction is conducted with high levels of instructional guidance and is impacted by the perceptual qualities of manipulatives. Perceptually rich manipulatives decreased learner performance on outcomes associated with conceptual knowledge and improved performance on transfer of learning. In addition, transfer was positively affected by perceptually rich manipulatives when low levels of instructional guidance were present.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
The effect of professional development on elementary teachers’ understanding and implementation of reforms-based science instruction. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-7 -1
The Baltimore City Schools Middle School STEM summer program with VEX Robotics. (2015)
In 2011 Baltimore City Schools submitted a successful proposal for an Investing in Innovations (i3) grant to offer a three year (2012-2014) summer program designed to expose rising sixth through eighth grade students to VEX robotics. The i3-funded Middle School Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Summer Learning Program was part of a larger Baltimore City STEM summer learning program entitled "Create the Solution" in 2012 and "22nd Century Pioneers" in 2013 and 2014. The five-week summer program offered in 2012, 2013, and 2014 consisted of a half-day of instruction in mathematics and science and a half-day of enrichment activities. The robotics workshop taught students the fundamentals of building robots and provided time for teams to build their own robots and participate in competitions. The larger program offered different enrichment activities such as sports or arts. This report addresses research questions regarding the program's: (1) implementation fidelity; (2) performance goals; (3) impact on student attendance and mathematics achievement outcomes; (4) impact on student aspirations for college, studying STEM subjects in college, and pursuing STEM careers; and (5) impact on measures of teacher effectiveness. The following includes a summary for each: (1) Implementation Fidelity: Instruction in mathematics and robotics was implemented with fidelity all three program years. Implementation fidelity was lower for the professional development in robotics and mathematics components of the program because teacher attendance rates did not meet the thresholds set by City Schools; (2) Enrollment Goals: Most program enrollment goals were not met. Enrollment in the i3-funded program was 193 students in 2012 (goal 400), 384 in 2013 (goal 500), and 386 in 2014 (goal 600). The program sought to enroll 80% low-performing students in mathematics each year, but fell significantly short of this goal despite the district's efforts to reach out to these students. In addition, the program goal of enrolling at least 50% female participants was not met. The program also sought to have at least 80% of students attend at least 70% of the time (17 of the 24 program days), but only 55% of students attended at that rate. The program did meet its goals for recruiting minority (at least 95%) and high poverty students (at least 80%) each year; (3) Program Impacts on Attendance: Found a significant program effect on attendance in the year following the 2012 program. Program students had average attendance rates of 1.4 percentage points higher than the comparison group the year following the program (97.0% vs. 95.6%). An even larger significant program effect for low-achieving students' attendance was found in the year following the 2012 program (96.4% vs. 93.8%). The 2013 program students had slightly but not significantly higher attendance rates than their matched comparison students in the year following the program. The authors also also examined whether there was still a program effect on attendance a year later (2013-14) for the Summer 2012 participants. Program participants had average attendance rates of 1.5 percentage points higher than comparison students (95.2% vs. 93.7%). Among the low-achieving students the attendance difference was 2.4 percentage points (93.6% for program students vs. 91.2% for comparison students). These effects were not statistically significant; (4) Program Impacts on Mathematics Achievement: There were no program effects on mathematics achievement for either the 2012 or 2013 programs; (5) Program Impacts on Student Aspirations: There was no evidence from student survey data that the robotics program had a positive effect on student aspirations to attend college, study STEM subjects in college, or pursue a STEM career for either the 2013 or 2014 programs; and (6) Program Impacts on Teacher Effectiveness: Analyses based on mean instructional effectiveness scores from Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 on the nine components of the district's teacher evaluation tool examined whether teachers who received the summer professional development in 2013 made gains in instructional effectiveness. The difference between program teachers' effectiveness scores before and after the professional development was not statistically significant. Data were not available to examine differences between program teachers and a comparable group of teachers who did not receive the summer professional development. The following are appended: (1) Implementation Fidelity; (2) Performance Goals; and (3) Methodology.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 -1
Developing educators throughout their careers: Evaluation of the Rio Grande Valley Center for Teaching and Leading Excellence. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 -1
Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation (2015)
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious in reducing behavior problems; however, little research has examined its effects on academic achievement in real-world settings. In this study, the authors evaluated the PAX GBG, a commercially available version of the GBG, as it is typically administered in elementary schools. The authors examined standardized reading and mathematics scores across one academic year for 949 students enrolled in the GBG or comparison classrooms. Results showed significant but small effects of the GBG on reading and mathematics. Results were greatest for boys, children with lower achievement scores at baseline, and students from more economically disadvantaged school districts. School personnel may find the PAX GBG useful in improving children's behavior and academic skills.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
The Influence of Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction Embedded within Addition Tutoring for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2015)
Researchers and practitioners indicate students require explicit instruction on mathematics vocabulary terms, yet no study has examined the effects of an embedded vocabulary component within mathematics tutoring for early elementary students. First-grade students with mathematics difficulty (MD; n = 98) were randomly assigned to addition tutoring with an embedded vocabulary component, addition tutoring without the embedded vocabulary component, or business-as-usual control. At posttest, students who received addition tutoring without vocabulary demonstrated greater gains than control students on addition fluency. On a measure of mathematics vocabulary, students in the active tutoring conditions demonstrated improved performance on mathematics vocabulary over control students. Results indicate that exposure to addition tutoring with or without an embedded vocabulary component positively improves mathematics vocabulary performance.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
The Influence of Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction Embedded within Addition Tutoring for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulty (2015)
Researchers and practitioners indicate students require explicit instruction on mathematics vocabulary terms, yet no study has examined the effects of an embedded vocabulary component within mathematics tutoring for early elementary students. First-grade students with mathematics difficulty (MD; n = 98) were randomly assigned to addition tutoring with an embedded vocabulary component, addition tutoring without the embedded vocabulary component, or business-as-usual control. At posttest, students who received addition tutoring without vocabulary demonstrated greater gains than control students on addition fluency. On a measure of mathematics vocabulary, students in the active tutoring conditions demonstrated improved performance on mathematics vocabulary over control students. Results indicate that exposure to addition tutoring with or without an embedded vocabulary component positively improves mathematics vocabulary performance.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
The influence of mathematics vocabulary instruction embedded within addition tutoring for first-grade students with mathematics difficulty. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
Math at home adds up to achievement in school. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
Does Cognitive Strategy Training on Word Problems Compensate for Working Memory Capacity in Children with Math Difficulties? (2014)
Cognitive strategies are important tools for children with math difficulties (MD) in learning to solve word problems. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on working memory capacity (WMC). Thus, children with MD but with relatively higher WMC are more likely to benefit from strategy training, whereas children with lower WMC may have their resources overtaxed. Children in Grade 3 (N = 147) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: (a) verbal strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), (b) visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), (c) verbal plus visual strategies, or (d) an untreated control. In line with the predictions, children with MD and higher WMC benefited from verbal or visual strategies relative to those in the control condition on posttest measures of problem solving, calculation, and operation span. In contrast, cognitive strategies decreased problem-solving accuracy in children with low WMC. Thus, improvement in problem solving and related measures, as well as the impairment in learning outcomes, was moderated by WMC.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 -1
Effects of progress monitoring on math performance of at-risk students (Elementary school sample). (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
The Effect of Explicit and Direct Generative Strategy Training and Working Memory on Word Problem-Solving Accuracy in Children at Risk for Math Difficulties (2014)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of explicit, direct, and generative strategy training and working memory capacity (WMC) on mathematical word problem-solving accuracy in elementary schoolchildren. In this study, children in third grade ("N" = 82) identified as at risk for math difficulties (MD) were randomly assigned (within classrooms) to one of three treatment conditions that explicitly directed students' attention to different propositions within word problems--paraphrase question propositions (Restate), paraphrase relevant propositions (Relevant), and paraphrase all propositions (Complete)--or an untreated control condition. A significant treatment by covariate design indicated that generative strategy outcomes were conditional on the level of pretest WMC. A clear advantage in posttest problem-solving accuracy and solution planning was found for the complete generative condition relative to the control condition, but this advantage was conditional on setting WMC to a high level. Although no significant treatment advantages were found for solution accuracy when WMC was set to a low level, treatment advantages relative to the control condition were found for measures of schema activation. The results indicated that the effectiveness of generative strategies among children at risk for MD was directly dependent on the level of WMC.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
The Effect of Explicit and Direct Generative Strategy Training and Working Memory on Word Problem-Solving Accuracy in Children at Risk for Math Difficulties (2014)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of explicit, direct, and generative strategy training and working memory capacity (WMC) on mathematical word problem-solving accuracy in elementary schoolchildren. In this study, children in third grade ("N" = 82) identified as at risk for math difficulties (MD) were randomly assigned (within classrooms) to one of three treatment conditions that explicitly directed students' attention to different propositions within word problems--paraphrase question propositions (Restate), paraphrase relevant propositions (Relevant), and paraphrase all propositions (Complete)--or an untreated control condition. A significant treatment by covariate design indicated that generative strategy outcomes were conditional on the level of pretest WMC. A clear advantage in posttest problem-solving accuracy and solution planning was found for the complete generative condition relative to the control condition, but this advantage was conditional on setting WMC to a high level. Although no significant treatment advantages were found for solution accuracy when WMC was set to a low level, treatment advantages relative to the control condition were found for measures of schema activation. The results indicated that the effectiveness of generative strategies among children at risk for MD was directly dependent on the level of WMC.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
The Effects of Mathematics Strategy Instruction for Children with Serious Problem-Solving Difficulties (2014)
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction on solution accuracy in children with and without serious math difficulties (MD) in problem solving. Children's posttest solution accuracy was compared on standardized and experimental measures as a function of strategy conditions. Strategy conditions included curriculum materials that gradually increased the number of irrelevant propositions within word problems. Children in Grade 3 (N = 193) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: materials + verbal strategies (e.g., underlining the question), materials + verbal + visual strategies, materials + visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), materials only-no overt strategies, and an untreated control. Compared to children with MD in the control condition, posttest outcomes for children with MD on standardized measures improved significantly under verbal + visual conditions, whereas posttest scores on the experimental problem-solving measures improved under the materials-only condition. Those strategy conditions found least effective made substantial demands on children's working memory capacity. The authors discuss benefits and limitations of strategy instruction.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
Does Working Memory Moderate the Effects of Fraction Intervention? An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (2014)
This study investigated whether individual differences in working memory (WM) moderate effects of 2 variations of intervention designed to improve at-risk 4th graders' fraction knowledge. We also examined the effects of each intervention condition against a business-as-usual control group and assessed whether children's measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects. At-risk students (n = 243) were randomly assigned to control and 2 intervention conditions. The interventions each lasted 12 weeks, with three 30-min sessions per week. The major focus of both intervention conditions was the measurement interpretation of fractions. Across the 2 conditions, only 5 min of each 30-min session differed. One condition completed activities to build fluency with 4 measurement interpretation topics; in the other, activities were completed to consolidate understanding on the same 4 topics. Results revealed a significant aptitude-treatment interaction, in which students with very weak WM learned better with conceptual activities but children with more adequate (but still low) WM learned better with fluency activities. Both intervention conditions outperformed the control group on all outcomes, and improvement in the measurement interpretation of fractions mediated those effects.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Comparison of the Effects of Computer-Based Practice and Conceptual Understanding Interventions on Mathematics Fact Retention and Generalization (2014)
The authors' purpose was to determine the effects of computer-based practice and conceptual interventions on computational fluency and word-problem solving of fourth- and fifth-grade students with mathematics difficulties. A randomized pretest-posttest control group design found that students assigned to the computer-based practice intervention group outperformed students in the comparison group on the retention measure. Students assigned to the conceptual intervention did not outperform the comparison group on any of the outcome variables. Implications for instruction and interventions are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Comparison of the Effects of Computer-Based Practice and Conceptual Understanding Interventions on Mathematics Fact Retention and Generalization (2014)
The authors' purpose was to determine the effects of computer-based practice and conceptual interventions on computational fluency and word-problem solving of fourth- and fifth-grade students with mathematics difficulties. A randomized pretest-posttest control group design found that students assigned to the computer-based practice intervention group outperformed students in the comparison group on the retention measure. Students assigned to the conceptual intervention did not outperform the comparison group on any of the outcome variables. Implications for instruction and interventions are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
“MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science Pre-Kindergarten Curricula and Teacher Supports: Associations with Children's Mathematics and Science Learning.” (2014)
"MyTeachingPartner--Math/Science" ("MTP-MS") is a system of two curricula (math and science) plus teacher supports designed to improve the quality of instructional interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms and to scaffold children's development in mathematics and science. The program includes year-long curricula in these domains, and a teacher support system (web-based supports and in-person workshops) designed to foster high-quality curricular implementation. This study examined the impacts of the intervention on the development of mathematics and science skills of 444 children during pre-kindergarten, via school-level random assignment to two intervention conditions ("Basic: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula, and "Plus: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula plus related teacher support system) and a Business-as-Usual control condition ("BaU"). There were intervention effects for children's knowledge and skills in geometry and measurement as well as number sense and place value: Children in "Plus" classrooms made greater gains in geometry and measurement, compared with those in "BaU" classrooms. Children in "Plus" classrooms also performed better on the number sense and place value assessment than did those in "Basic" or "BaU" classrooms. We describe the implications of these results for supporting the development of children's knowledge and skills in early childhood and for developing and providing teachers with professional development to support these outcomes.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
“MyTeachingPartner-Math/Science Pre-Kindergarten Curricula and Teacher Supports: Associations with Children's Mathematics and Science Learning.” (2014)
"MyTeachingPartner--Math/Science" ("MTP-MS") is a system of two curricula (math and science) plus teacher supports designed to improve the quality of instructional interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms and to scaffold children's development in mathematics and science. The program includes year-long curricula in these domains, and a teacher support system (web-based supports and in-person workshops) designed to foster high-quality curricular implementation. This study examined the impacts of the intervention on the development of mathematics and science skills of 444 children during pre-kindergarten, via school-level random assignment to two intervention conditions ("Basic: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula, and "Plus: MTP-M/S" mathematics and science curricula plus related teacher support system) and a Business-as-Usual control condition ("BaU"). There were intervention effects for children's knowledge and skills in geometry and measurement as well as number sense and place value: Children in "Plus" classrooms made greater gains in geometry and measurement, compared with those in "BaU" classrooms. Children in "Plus" classrooms also performed better on the number sense and place value assessment than did those in "Basic" or "BaU" classrooms. We describe the implications of these results for supporting the development of children's knowledge and skills in early childhood and for developing and providing teachers with professional development to support these outcomes.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-10 -1
Blended learning report [Study 1]. (2014)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Addendum to effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at scale (Working Paper WR-1050-DEIES) (high school experiment). (2014)
This addendum to previously published results presents alternative analyses of data from large-scale effectiveness studies of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I in middle schools and high schools. These alternative analyses produce results that are substantively the same as previously reported. We find a significant positive effect of 0.21 standard deviation units for high school students in the second year of the study. An appendix containing additional tables is included. [See the study: "Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at Scale," "Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis," v36 n2 p127-144 Jun 2014 at EJ1024233.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 8-12 -1
Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at scale (high school experiment). (2014)
This article examines the effectiveness of a technology-based algebra curriculum in a wide variety of middle schools and high schools in seven states. Participating schools were matched into similar pairs and randomly assigned to either continue with the current algebra curriculum for 2 years or to adopt Cognitive Tutor Algebra I (CTAI), which uses a personalized, mastery-learning, blended-learning approach. Schools assigned to implement CTAI did so under conditions similar to schools that independently adopt it. Analysis of posttest outcomes on an algebra proficiency exam finds no effects in the first year of implementation, but finds evidence in support of positive effects in the second year. The estimated effect is statistically significant for high schools but not for middle schools; in both cases, the magnitude is sufficient to improve the median student's performance by approximately eight percentile points.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 -1
Enhancing the academic development of shy children: A test of the efficacy of INSIGHTS. (2014)
This study investigated the efficacy of the INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament intervention in supporting the academic development of shy kindergarten and first-grade children. INSIGHTS is a temperament-based intervention with teacher, parent, and classroom programs. The participants included 345 children from 22 low-income, urban elementary schools who were randomly assigned to INSIGHTS or a supplemental after-school reading program. Growth-curve modeling showed that shy children in INSIGHTS evidenced more rapid growth in critical thinking and math than their shy peers in the attention-control condition during kindergarten and the transition to first grade. The effects of INSIGHTS were partly indirect through improved behavioral engagement. INSIGHTS enhances the academic development of early elementary school children with shy temperaments.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at scale [High school] (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 -1
Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at scale [Middle school] (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 -1
The impact of eMINTS professional development on teacher instruction and student achievement: Year 1 report. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
The impact of a technology-based mathematics after-school program using ALEKS on student’s knowledge and behaviors. (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 -1
The impact of Indianas system of interim assessments on mathematics and reading achievement. (2013)
Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not consistently significant. The treatment effects are smaller in lower grades (i.e., kindergarten to second grade) and larger in upper grades (i.e., third to eighth grade). Significant treatment effects are detected in Grades 3 to 8, especially in third- and fourth-grade reading and in fifth- and sixth-grade mathematics.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 -1
Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools. (2013)
Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. Results: PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. Conclusions: A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
Generative Strategies, Working Memory, and Word Problem Solving Accuracy in Children at Risk for Math Disabilities (2013)
This study investigated the role of generative strategies and working memory capacity on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Within classrooms, children in Grade 3 with MD ("n" = 69) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: paraphrase question propositions (Restate), paraphrase relevant propositions (Relevant), and paraphrase all propositions (Complete), or to an untreated control. An additional control group included children without MD ("n" = 22). Mixed regression modeling showed that generative strategies significantly improved posttest scores for children with MD compared with the control condition, but outcomes were related to the type of dependent measures. The Relevant and Complete treatment conditions improved problem-solving accuracy, the Complete condition improved problem component identification, and the Restate and Relevant conditions improved operation span performance when compared with the control conditions. Only the Relevant and Complete generative learning treatments allowed children with MD to catch up to children without MD, but the results were moderated by working memory capacity.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
Generative Strategies, Working Memory, and Word Problem Solving Accuracy in Children at Risk for Math Disabilities (2013)
This study investigated the role of generative strategies and working memory capacity on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Within classrooms, children in Grade 3 with MD ("n" = 69) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: paraphrase question propositions (Restate), paraphrase relevant propositions (Relevant), and paraphrase all propositions (Complete), or to an untreated control. An additional control group included children without MD ("n" = 22). Mixed regression modeling showed that generative strategies significantly improved posttest scores for children with MD compared with the control condition, but outcomes were related to the type of dependent measures. The Relevant and Complete treatment conditions improved problem-solving accuracy, the Complete condition improved problem component identification, and the Restate and Relevant conditions improved operation span performance when compared with the control conditions. Only the Relevant and Complete generative learning treatments allowed children with MD to catch up to children without MD, but the results were moderated by working memory capacity.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 -1
Does the Responsive Classroom approach affect the use of standards-based mathematics teaching practices?: Results from a randomized controlled trial (2013)
This study highlights the connections between two facets of teachers' skills--those supporting teachers' mathematical instructional interactions and those underlying social interactions within the classroom. The impact of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach and use of RC practices on the use of standards-based mathematics teaching practices was investigated in third-grade classrooms. Eighty-eight third-grade teachers from 24 elementary schools in a large suburban district were selected from a sample of teachers participating in a larger randomized-control study. Results showed that teachers at schools assigned randomly to receive training in the RC approach showed higher use of standards-based mathematics teaching practices than teachers in control schools. These findings were supported by analyses using fidelity of implementation: greater adherence to the intervention predicted the use of more standards-based mathematics teaching practices. Findings support the use of the RC approach for creating classroom social environments that facilitate standards-based mathematical practices. (Contains 3 tables and 1 note.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 -1
Effectiveness of an Individualized Computer-Driven Online Math K-5 Course in Eight California Title I Elementary Schools (2013)
Stanford University's Education Program for Gifted Youth (EPGY) conducted a randomized-treatment experiment during the 2006-2007 school year to test the efficacy, for Title I students, of the technological and individualized EPGY Kindergarten through Grade 5 Mathematics Course Sequence, modified for the Title I schools. Restricting attention to students who were in the top half of the distribution of correct first-exercise attempts (a measure of work and engagement), we found substantial and statistically significant improvements in the 2007 California Standard Math Tests (CST07) scores compared to those of matched control students. Gains in second grade were larger than those in Grades 3 to 5. Less able students, as measured by their 2006 CST mathematics scores, also had, on average, larger gains.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Using example problems to improve student learning in algebra: Differentiating between correct and incorrect examples. (2013)
In a series of two in vivo experiments, we examine whether correct and incorrect examples with prompts for self-explanation can be effective for improving students' conceptual understanding and procedural skill in Algebra when combined with guided practice. In Experiment 1, students working with the Algebra I Cognitive Tutor were randomly assigned to complete their unit on solving two-step linear equations with the traditional Tutor program (control) or one of three versions which incorporated examples; results indicate that explaining worked examples during guided practice leads to improved conceptual understanding compared with guided practice alone. In Experiment 2, a more comprehensive battery of conceptual and procedural tests was used to determine which type of example is most beneficial for improving different facets of student learning. Results suggest that incorrect examples, either alone or in combination with correct examples, may be especially beneficial for fostering conceptual understanding. (Contains 3 tables, 4 figures, and 1 footnote.) [A version of this paper was published in "Learning and Instruction," v25 p24-34 Jun 2013.]
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
A number sense intervention for low-income kindergartners at risk for mathematics difficulties. (2013)
Early number sense is a strong predictor of later success in school mathematics. A disproportionate number of children from low-income families come to first grade with weak number competencies, leaving them at risk for a cycle of failure. The present study examined the effects of an 8-week number sense intervention to develop number competencies of low-income kindergartners ("N" = 121). The intervention purposefully targeted whole number concepts related to counting, comparing, and manipulating sets. Children were randomly assigned to either a number sense intervention or a business as usual contrast group. The intervention was carried out in small-group, 30-min sessions, 3 days per week, for a total of 24 sessions. Controlling for number sense at pretest, the intervention group made meaningful gains relative to the control group at immediate as well delayed posttest on a measure of early numeracy. Intervention children also performed better than controls on a standardized test of mathematics calculation at immediate posttest. (Contains 5 tables, 2 figures, and 1 note.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Building kindergartners’ number sense: A randomized controlled study. (2012)
Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small-group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business-as-usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate posttest, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held 8 weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures. (Contains 6 tables and 2 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 -1
Training your own: The impact of New York City’s Aspiring Principals Program on student achievement. (2012)
The New York City Leadership Academy represents a unique experiment by a large urban school district to train and develop its own school leaders. Its 14-month Aspiring Principals Program (APP) selects and prepares aspiring principals to lead low-performing schools. This study provides the first systematic evaluation of achievement in APP-staffed schools after 3 or more years. We examine differences between APP principals and those advancing through other routes, the extent to which APP graduates serve and remain in schools, and their relative performance in mathematics and English language arts. On balance, we find that APP principals performed about as well as other new principals. If anything, they narrowed the gap with comparison schools in English language arts but lagged behind in mathematics. (Contains 2 figures, 9 tables, and 23 notes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 -1
Effects of making sense of SCIENCE(TM) professional development on the achievement of middle school students, including English language learners (NCEE 2012-4002). (2012)
This study evaluated an approach to professional development for middle school science teachers by closely examining one grade 8 course that embodies that approach. Using a cluster-randomized experimental design, the study tested the effectiveness of the Making Sense of SCIENCE[TM] professional development course on force and motion (Daehler, Shinohara, and Folsom 2011) by comparing outcomes for students of teachers who took the course with outcomes for students of control group of teachers who received only the typical professional development offered in their schools and districts. The study estimated impacts on student science achievement for all grade 8 students in the study sample as well as for the subsample of English language learners. It also estimated impacts on teacher science and pedagogical knowledge. Results for the primary confirmatory analyses indicate that after adjusting for multiple comparisons, there were no statistically significant differences between the test results on science content of students in intervention group classrooms and students in control group classrooms. Intervention group students in neither the full sample (effect size = 0.11) nor the English language learner subsample (effect size = 0.31) scored significantly higher on the ATLAST Test of Force and Motion than did their control group counterparts. Similarly, intervention group students in neither the full sample (effect size = 0.03) nor the English language learner subsample (effect size =0 .09) scored higher on the physical science reporting clusters of the California Standards Test than did their control group counterparts. Results for the intermediate confirmatory analyses indicate that after adjusting for multiple comparisons, teachers who received the professional development course outscored their control group counterparts on the ATLAST Test of Force and Motion for Teachers (effect size = 0.38), as well as on their ratings of confidence in their ability to teach force and motion (effect size = 0.49). With one exception, the study findings were not sensitive to variations in specification of the estimation models. The exception is that, for teacher content knowledge, inclusion of the pretest in the impact analysis model (basic model plus pretest) decreased the point estimate from 9.8 to 6.1 and the effect size from 0.61 to 0.38. In exploratory analyses, the study investigated whether there were differential impacts on student and teacher content knowledge outcomes across the six research sites. The estimated impacts were most pronounced at two of the six sites. For the full sample of students, point estimates for student and teacher content knowledge of force and motion followed exactly the same rank order at all sites. There are three main limitations of this study. First, there was high sample attrition: 48 of the 181 teachers who were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups left the study before data collection was completed. However, there is no evidence that attrition resulted in significant differences at the baseline between the intervention and control samples used in the analysis. Second, the study did not include analyses of classroom implementation of course-related practices. As a result it is not possible to infer whether the lack of student effects is due to a failure of treatment group teachers to modify classroom practices or a failure of modified practices to affect student outcomes. Third, the findings are based on volunteer teachers and students whose parents provided consent. It is possible that the findings would have been different had teachers been required to participate in the intervention, and all students been tested. Appended are: (1) Study power estimates; (2) Procedure for assigning blocks for recruited sample and final analytic sample; (3) Teacher agreement to protect the study; (4) Teacher survey responses related to contamination across groups; (5) Parent consent form; (6) California content standards in physical science reporting clusters; (7) Student data obtained from district administrative records; (8) Survey items used to measure teacher confidence; (9) Course session video recording protocol; (10) Course session attendance sheet; (11) Student test administration instructions for proctors; (12) Teacher test administration instructions for site coordinators; (13) Baseline equivalence of teacher demographics in intervention and control group samples; (14) Class selection worksheet; (15) Sensitivity analysis for nesting of students within teachers or classes within teachers; (16) Impact estimation methods; (17) Missing item--level data; (18) Schedule and content goals of Making Sense of SCIENCE[TM] professional development course on force and motion; and (19) Sensitivity analyses based on different models and analytic samples. (Contains 51 tables, 4 figures and 8 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 -1
An evaluation of the third edition of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project Transition Mathematics (2012)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 -1
Middle school mathematics professional development impact study: Findings after the second year of implementation (NCEE 2011-4024). (2011)
This is the second and final report of the Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study, which examines the impact of providing a professional development (PD) program in rational number topics to seventh-grade mathematics teachers. An interim report (Garet et al. 2010) described the findings after one year of PD. The current report documents the impact after providing a second year of PD in a subset of the original participating districts and includes supplemental analyses that use data from both years of the study. The study produced the following core second-year results: (1) The study's PD program was implemented as intended, but teacher turnover limited the average dosage received; (2) At the end of the second year of implementation, the PD program did not have a statistically significant impact on teacher knowledge; and (3) At the end of the second year of implementation, the PD program did not have a statistically significant impact on average student achievement in rational numbers. Appended are: (1) Details of the Study Samples; (2) Details of Data Collection and Analytical Approaches; (3) Supplemental Information on the Design and Implementation of the PD Program; (4) Supporting Tables and Figures for Impact Analyses; and (5) Exploratory Analyses: Approaches and Additional Results. (Contains 6 exhibits, 6 figures, 81 tables and 124 footnotes.) [For "Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings after the Second Year of Implementation. Executive Summary. NCEE 2011-4025," see ED519923. For "Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings After the First Year of Implementation. NCEE 2010-4009," see ED509306.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-11 -1
Better schools, less crime? (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Longitudinal investigation of the curricular effect: An analysis of student learning outcomes from the LieCal project in the United States. (2011)
In this article, we present the results from a longitudinal examination of the impact of a "Standards"-based or reform mathematics curriculum (called CMP) and traditional mathematics curricula (called non-CMP) on students' learning of algebra using various outcome measures. Findings include the following: (1) students did not sacrifice basic mathematical skills if they are taught using a "Standards"-based or reform mathematics curriculum like CMP; (2) African American students experienced greater gain in symbol manipulation when they used a traditional curriculum; (3) the use of either the CMP or a non-CMP curriculum improved the mathematics achievement of all students, including students of color; (4) the use of CMP contributed to significantly higher problem-solving growth for all ethnic groups; and (5) a high level of conceptual emphasis in a classroom improved the students' ability to represent problem situations. (However, the level of conceptual emphasis bears no relation to students' problem solving or symbol manipulation skills.) (Contains 12 tables and 3 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 -1
Teacher incentives and student achievement: Evidence from New York City Public Schools (NBER Working Paper No. 16850). (2011)
Financial incentives for teachers to increase student performance is an increasingly popular education policy around the world. This paper describes a school-based randomized trial in over two-hundred New York City public schools designed to better understand the impact of teacher incentives on student achievement. I find no evidence that teacher incentives increase student performance, attendance, or graduation, nor do I find any evidence that the incentives change student or teacher behavior. If anything, teacher incentives may decrease student achievement, especially in larger schools. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of theories that may explain these stark results.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
An integrated curriculum to improve mathematics, language, and literacy for Head Start children (2011)
This article reports on the development and field trial of an integrated Head Start curriculum (Evidence-Based Program for Integrated Curricula [EPIC]) that focuses on comprehensive mathematics, language, and literacy skills. Seventy Head Start classrooms (N = 1,415 children) were randomly assigned to one of two curriculum programs: EPIC or the Developmental Learning Materials Early Childhood Express, with curricula implemented as stand-alone programs. EPIC included instruction in mathematics, language, literacy, and approaches to learning skills; formative assessment; and a learning community for teachers. Multilevel growth modeling through four direct assessments revealed significant main effects and growth rates in mathematics and listening comprehension favoring EPIC, controlling for demographics and special needs and language status. Both programs produced significant growth rates in literacy. (Contains 2 figures, 2 tables, and 2 notes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Teaching number identification to students with severe disabilities using response cards. (2011)
Active student responding (ASR) has been shown to be an effective way to improve the mathematical skills of students. One specific method of ASR is the use of response cards. In this study, a system of least prompts combined with response cards was used to increase mathematical knowledge, and number identification, of three elementary students with significant disabilities (age range, 7-10 years, IQ range, greater than 20-44) via a multiple probe design across participants. A functional relationship was demonstrated between student responding (increased number identification) and the implementation of the least to most prompting system. Maintenance checks, after the intervention was concluded, demonstrated that the skill level was sustained. Limitations and future research are discussed. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-6 -1
Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: A randomized, controlled trial. (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 -1
A multistate district-level cluster randomized trial of the impact of data-driven reform on reading and mathematics achievement. (2011)
Analyzing mathematics and reading achievement outcomes from a district-level random assignment study fielded in over 500 schools within 59 school districts and seven states, the authors estimate the 1-year impacts of a data-driven reform initiative implemented by the Johns Hopkins Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE). CDDRE consultants work with districts to implement quarterly student benchmark assessments and provide district and school leaders with extensive training on interpreting and using the data to guide reform. Relative to a control condition, in which districts operated as usual without CDDRE services, the data-driven reform initiative caused statistically significant districtwide improvements in student mathematics achievement. The CDDRE intervention also had a positive effect on reading achievement, but the estimates fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance. (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 16 notes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-11 -1
Teacher preparation programs and Teach for America research study. (2011)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: The impact on elementary school mathematics in the Central Region (NCEE 2011-4005). (2011)
This study was conducted by the Central Region Educational Laboratory (REL Central) administered by Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning to provide educators and policymakers with rigorous evidence about the potential of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL) to improve student achievement. CASL is a widely used professional development program in classroom and formative assessment published by the Assessment Training Institute of Pearson Education. Schools were recruited from across Colorado to participate in the study. Colorado was chosen as the target state primarily because it has one of the largest populations in the Central Region from which to recruit schools and because its statewide achievement test is vertically scaled. This cluster randomized trial of the CASL professional development program had sufficient statistical power to detect an impact of at least 0.25 standard deviation on student achievement. An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted to estimate the impact of CASL on student achievement; all schools were included in the analysis and were analyzed as randomized regardless of the level of implementation fidelity. Analysis did not reveal a statistically significant impact of CASL on the school-level average mathematics achievement of grade 4 and grade 5 students. Results from sensitivity analyses revealed that the impact estimates on student achievement were robust to decisions regarding the inclusion of covariates, estimation method, and the treatment of missing data. In other words, design and analysis decisions made by the research team did not change whether the impact results would have been statistically significant. Appendices include: (1) Power analysis; (2) Response rates by data collection wave, instrument, and experimental group; (3) Data collection instruments; (4) Development, reliability, and validity of teacher outcomes; (5) Teacher Assessment Work Sample; (6) Impact analysis models; (7) Calculation of effect sizes; (8) Treatment of missing data; (9) Variance components estimates and intraclass correlations; (10) Raw means and standard deviations; and (11) Complete mixed model results. (Contains 1 box, 4 figures and 56 tables.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 -1
The acquisition of problem- solving skills in mathematics: How animations can aid understanding of structural problem features and solution procedures. (2010, September)
In this paper the augmentation of worked examples with animations for teaching problem-solving skills in mathematics is advocated as an effective instructional method. First, in a cognitive task analysis different knowledge prerequisites are identified for solving mathematical word problems. Second, it is argued that so called hybrid animations would be most effective for acquiring these prerequisites, because they show the continuous transition from a concrete, but superficial problem representation to a more abstract, mathematical problem model that forms a basis for solving a problem. An experiment was conducted, where N = 32 pupils from a German high school studied either only text-based worked examples explaining different problem categories from the domain of algebra or worked examples augmented with hybrid animations. Learners with hybrid animations showed superior problem-solving performance for problems of different transfer distance relative to those in the text-only condition.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
An experiment to evaluate the efficacy of Cognitive Tutor geometry. (2010)
This randomized, controlled field trial estimated the causal impact of a technology-based geometry curriculum on students' geometry achievement, as well as their attitudes toward mathematics and technology. The curriculum combines learner-centered classroom pedagogy with individualized, computer-based student instruction. Conducted over a 3-year period in eight high schools within an urban fringe district, the study found that students assigned to the treatment curriculum scored 19% of a standard deviation lower on the geometry posttest than their counterparts assigned to the district's standard curriculum, but found no statistically significant impact on students' attitudes toward mathematics and technology. Researchers also collected observation and interview data on teachers' instructional practices. These data suggest that many teachers had difficulty implementing the treatment curriculum's learner-centered pedagogy. In fact, observed levels of learner-centered practices were only modestly higher in treatment classes than in control classes. In both treatment and control classes, however, higher levels of learner-centered pedagogy were associated with higher student achievement in geometry. (Contains 4 figures, 10 footnotes, and 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 -1
Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Final report (NCEE 2010-4018). (2010)
The District of Columbia School Choice Incentive Act of 2003, passed by Congress in January 2004, established the first federally funded, private school voucher program in the United States. Since that time, more than 8,400 students have applied for what is now called the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP), and a rigorous evaluation of the Program, mandated by Congress, has been underway. This last formal report from the ongoing evaluation describes the impacts of the Program at least four years after families who applied and were given the option to move from a public school to a participating private school of their choice. The research priorities for the evaluation were shaped largely by the primary topics of interest specified in the statute. This legislative mandate led the evaluators to focus on the following research questions: (1) What is the impact of the Program on student academic achievement? (2) What is the impact of the Program on other student measures? (3) What effect does the Program have on school safety and satisfaction? (4) What is the effect of attending private versus public schools? (5) To what extent is the Program influencing public schools and expanding choice options for parents in Washington, DC? These research questions are consistent with the topics that scholars and policymakers have identified as important questions of interest surrounding private school scholarship programs. The report found that that the Program had mixed longer-term effects on participating students and their parents, including: (1) No conclusive evidence that the OSP affected student achievement overall, or for the high-priority group of students who applied from "schools in need of improvement"; (2) The Program significantly improved students' chances of graduating from high school, according to parent reports. Overall, 82 percent of students offered scholarships received a high school diploma, compared to 70 percent of those who applied but were not offered scholarships. This graduation rate improvement also held for the subgroup of OSP students who came from "schools in need of improvement."; and (3) Although parents had higher satisfaction and rated schools as safer if their child was offered or used an OSP scholarship, students reported similar ratings for satisfaction and safety regardless of whether they were offered or used a scholarship. Appendices include: (1) Research Methodology; (2) Benjamini-Hochberg Adjustments for Multiple Comparisons; (3) Sensitivity Testing; (4) Relationship Between Attending a Private School and Key Outcomes; (5) Detailed ITT Tables; (6) Exploration of Whether Parents Get What They Seek From School Choice; (7) To What Extent Are Treatment Effects of the OSP Observed Across the Outcome Test-Score Distribution? Quantile Regression Analysis of the OSP; and (8) Intermediate Outcome Measures. (Contains 99 tables, 31 figures, and 61 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-6 -1
Impacts of comprehensive teacher induction: Final results from a randomized controlled study (NCEE 2010-4027). (2010)
In 2004, the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences contracted with Mathematica Policy Research to conduct a large-scale evaluation of comprehensive teacher induction. The purpose of the study was to determine whether augmenting the set of services districts usually provide to support beginning teachers with a more comprehensive program improves teacher and student outcomes. This is the study's third and final report on the program's impacts. This report compares retention, achievement, and classroom practices of teachers who were offered comprehensive induction services to teachers who were offered the support normally offered by the school. Teachers assigned to receive comprehensive induction for either one or two years were supported by a full-time mentor who received ongoing training and materials to support the teachers' development. The teachers also were offered monthly professional development sessions and opportunities to observe veteran teachers. The teachers were followed for three years. Data was collected from 1,009 beginning teachers in 418 schools in 17 districts. Districts included in the study were not already offering comprehensive induction services, including paying for full-time mentors. Novice teachers in approximately half of the schools were assigned by lottery to receive comprehensive induction services. In 10 of the districts, these teachers were provided one year of comprehensive induction services; in the remaining 7 districts, the teachers were provided two years of services. Teachers in the schools not assigned to receive comprehensive induction services were provided the support normally offered to novice teachers by the school. Teacher practices were measured via classroom observations conducted in the spring of 2006. Data on teacher retention were collected via surveys administered in the fall of 2006, 2007, and 2008. Student test scores were collected from district administrative records for the 2005-06, 2006-07, and 2007-08 school years. Key findings include: (1) During the comprehensive induction program, treatment teachers received more support than control teachers; (2) The extra induction support for treatment teachers did not translate into impacts on classroom practices in the first year; (3) For teachers who received one year of comprehensive induction, there was no impact on student achievement; (4) For teachers who received two years of comprehensive induction, there was no impact on student achievement in the first two years. In the third year, there was a positive and statistically significant impact on student achievement; and (5) Neither exposure to one year nor exposure to two years of comprehensive induction had a positive impact on retention or other teacher workforce outcomes. The following are appended: (1) Supplemental Information for Chapters II and III; (2) Supplemental Information for Chapter IV; (3) Sensitivity Analyses and Supplemental Information for Chapter V; and (4) Sensitivity Analyses and Supplemental Information for Chapter VI.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-PS -1
Longer-term impacts of mentoring, educational services, and incentives to learn: Evidence from a randomized trial in the United States (2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7 -1
Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings after the first year of implementation (NCEE 2010-4009). (2010)
Student achievement in mathematics has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. The National Research Council's 2001 report and the recent report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) both called attention to student achievement in mathematics, and both called for all students to learn algebra by the end of eighth grade. Reports have argued, further, that achieving this goal requires that students first successfully learn several topics in rational numbers--fractions, decimals, ratio, rate, proportion, and percent. These topics are typically covered in grades 4 through 7, yet many students continue to struggle with them beyond the seventh grade. The National Mathematics Advisory Panel wrote that--difficulty with fractions (including decimals and percent) is pervasive and is a major obstacle to further progress in mathematics, including algebra. The panel also specified that by the end of seventh grade, students should be able to solve problems involving percent, ratio, and rate, and extend this work to proportionality. The U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE)--within the Institute of Education Sciences--initiated the Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study to test the impact of a professional development (PD) program for teachers that was designed to address the problem of low student achievement in topics in rational numbers. The study focuses on seventh grade, the culminating year for teaching those topics and has three central research questions: (1) What impact did the PD program provided in this study have on teacher knowledge of rational number topics? (2) What impact did the PD program provided in this study have on teacher instructional practices? and (3) What impact did the PD program provided in this study have on student achievement in rational number topics? The study produced the following results: (1) The study's PD program was implemented as intended; (2) The PD program did not produce a statistically significant impact on teacher knowledge of rational numbers (effect size = 0.19, p-value = 0.15); (3) The PD program had a statistically significant impact on the frequency with which teachers engaged in activities that elicited student thinking, one of the three measures of instructional practice used in the study (effect size = 0.48); and (4) The PD program did not produce a statistically significant impact on student achievement (effect size = 0.04, p-value = 0.37). This report presents the study's findings after 1 year of implementing the PD in the treatment schools. A subsequent report will present findings after 2 years of implementing the PD. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the study. Chapter 2 describes the study design and its realization, including a description of the sample and tests of baseline equivalence of the treatment and control groups on observed characteristics. Chapter 3 describes the design and implementation of the PD program and the extent of service contrast between the treatment and control groups. Chapter 4 addresses the impact of the PD program on teacher knowledge, instructional practice, and student mathematics achievement. Chapter 5 provides several nonexperimental analyses that explore additional questions related to the impact findings. Appended are: (1) Data Collection; (2) Details of the Study Samples and Analytic Approaches; (3) Supplemental Information on the Design and Implementation of the PD Program; (4) Supporting Tables and Figures for Impact Analyses; and (5) Exploratory Analyses: Approaches and Additional Results. (Contains 9 exhibits, 9 figures, and 90 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-8 -1
Teacher incentive pay and educational outcomes: Evidence from the New York City Bonus Program. (2010)
Teacher compensation schemes are often criticized for lacking a performance-based component. Proponents of merit pay argue that linking teacher salaries to student achievement will incentivize teachers to focus on raising student achievement and stimulate innovation across the school system as a whole. In this paper, we utilize a policy experiment conducted in the New York City public school system to explore the effects of one performance-based bonus scheme. We investigate potential impacts of group-based incentive pay over two academic years (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) on a range of outcomes including: teacher effort, student performance in math and reading, and classroom activities, measured through environmental surveys of teachers and students. We also explore impacts on the market for teachers by examining teacher turnover and the qualifications of newly hired teachers. Overall, we find the bonus program had little impact on any of these outcomes. We argue that the lack of bonus program impacts can be explained by the structure of the bonus program. Group bonuses led to free-riding, which significantly reduced the program's incentives. Once we account for free-riding, we find evidence that the program led teachers to increase their effort through a significant reduction in absenteeism. When considering the effectiveness of performance-based teacher pay, the structure of incentives matter. (Contains 11 tables, 3 figures and 24 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-10 -1
The MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study third year report (SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #15). (2010)
This is the third-year report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides government-funded vouchers for low-income children to attend private schools in the City of Milwaukee. The general purposes of the evaluation are to analyze the effectiveness of the MPCP in terms of longitudinal student achievement growth and educational attainment as measured by high school graduation rates. The former will be primarily accomplished by measuring and estimating student growth in achievement as measured by the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examinations (WKCE) in math and reading in 2006-07, grades 3 through 8 over a five-year period. The latter will be accomplished by following the 2006-07 8th and 9th grade cohorts over a five-year period or longer. The general research design consists of a comparison between a random sample of MPCP students and a matched sample of Milwaukee Public School (MPS) students. This third year report presents results from the November 2008 WKCE tests as second year student achievement growth in MPCP relative to the matched MPS sample. We provide varying descriptive statistics comparing test score means and distributions for math and reading for 2006-07 (baseline year) and 2008-09 (second outcome year) for each sample. The report also analyzes achievement growth using several multivariate techniques and models. The primary finding in all these comparisons is that, in general, there are few statistically significant differences between levels of MPCP and MPS student achievement growth in either math or reading two years after they were carefully matched to each other. In one of the ways of estimating these results, focusing only on those students who have remained in the public or private sector for all three years, private, voucher students are slightly behind MPS students in mathematics achievement growth. The report offers several cautions in interpreting this result against the overwhelming set of results that indicate no difference in achievement growth. Appended are additional tables and study attrition. (Contains 9 tables, 2 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [Additional funding for this project was provided by the Robertson Foundation.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 -1
An evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year two impact report. (2010)
In 2007, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began implementing a schoolwide reform called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations. Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and responsibilities through promotion to mentor or master teacher as well as annual performance bonuses based on a combination of their value added to student achievement and observed performance in the classroom. The idea behind the program is that performance incentives, combined with tools for teachers to track performance and improve instruction, should help schools attract and retain talented teachers and help all teachers produce greater student achievement. This report provides evidence on the impacts of TAP during the 2008-2009 school year, the second year of the program's rollout in CPS. Appended are: (1) Propensity Score Matching; and (2) Longitudinal Analysis of Test Score Data. (Contains 18 tables, 7 figures and 14 footnotes.) [For the Year One Impact Report, see ED507502.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
The Effects of Strategic Counting Instruction, with and without Deliberate Practice, on Number Combination Skill among Students with Mathematics Difficulties (2010)
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of strategic counting instruction, with and without deliberate practice with those counting strategies, on number combination (NC) skill among students with mathematics difficulties (MD). Students (n = 150) were stratified on MD status (i.e., MD alone versus MD with reading difficulty) and site (proximal versus distal to the intervention developer) and then randomly assigned to control (no tutoring) or 1 of 2 variants of NC remediation. Both remediations were embedded in the same validated word-problem tutoring protocol (i.e., Pirate Math). In 1 variant, the focus on NCs was limited to a single lesson that taught strategic counting. In the other variant, 4-6 min of practice per session was added to the other variant. Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 20-30 min per session. Strategic counting without deliberate practice produced superior NC fluency compared to control; however, strategic counting with deliberate practice effected superior NC fluency and transfer to procedural calculations compared with both competing conditions. Also, the efficacy of Pirate Math word-problem tutoring was replicated. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-6 -1
Enhancing the effectiveness of special education programming for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using a daily report card. (2010)
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up a considerable proportion of students who receive special education services in schools. The present study aimed to enhance the outcomes of students with ADHD in special education settings by using a daily report card (DRC). Thirty-three children with ADHD in special education placements were randomly assigned to an intervention condition wherein behavioral consultants worked with the teacher and parent to construct and implement a DRC based on the child's individualized education plan goals and objectives. These children were compared to 30 children in a business as usual control condition. Results indicated positive effects of the DRC on observations of classroom functioning, individualized education plan goal attainment, and teacher ratings of academic productivity and disruptive behavior in the classroom. Further, a greater percentage of children with ADHD in the DRC group were normalized on measures of disruptive behavior and impairment. The intervention did not result in incremental improvement in academic achievement, teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms or impairment, or the student-teacher relationship. The implications of these results for working with children with ADHD in special education settings are discussed. (Contains 5 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-5 -1
Pearson Investigations in Numbers, Data, & Space efficacy study: Final report (2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 -1
Achievement effects of four early elementary school math curricula: Findings for first and second graders (NCEE 2011-4001) (2010)
National achievement data show that elementary school students in the United States, particularly those from low socioeconomic backgrounds, have weak math skills (National Center for Education Statistics 2009). In fact, data show that, even before they enter elementary school, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are behind their more advantaged peers in basic competencies such as number-line ordering and magnitude comparison (Rathburn and West 2004). Furthermore, after a year of kindergarten, disadvantaged students still have less extensive knowledge of mathematics than their more affluent peers (Denton and West 2002). This study examines whether some early elementary school math curricula are more effective than others at improving student math achievement in disadvantaged schools. A small number of curricula, which are based on different approaches for developing student math skills, dominate elementary math instruction--7 curricula make up 91 percent of those used by K-2 educators, according to a 2008 survey (Resnick et al. 2010). Little rigorous evidence exists to support one approach over another, however, which means that research does not provide educators with much useful information when choosing a math curriculum to use. The key findings in this report include the following: (1) Teachers used their assigned curriculum, and the instructional approaches of the four curriculum groups differed as expected; (2) Math instruction varied in other notable ways across the curriculum groups; (3) In terms of student math achievement, the curriculum used by the study schools mattered; and (4) The curriculum used in different contexts also mattered, and some of these findings are consistent with findings based on all students whereas others are not. Appendices include: (1) Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Teacher-Reported Frequency of Implementing Other Curriculum-Specific Activities; (3) Glossary of Curriculum-Specific Terms; and (4) Constructing the Analyses Samples and Estimating Curriculum Effects. (Contains 82 tables, 7 figures and 97 footnotes.) [For the executive summary, see ED512553.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-9 -1
Financial incentives and student achievement: Evidence from randomized trials (NBER Working Paper 15898). (2010)
This paper describes a series of school-based randomized trials in over 250 urban schools designed to test the impact of financial incentives on student achievement. In stark contrast to simple economic models, our results suggest that student incentives increase achievement when the rewards are given for inputs to the educational production function, but incentives tied to output are not effective. Relative to popular education reforms of the past few decades, student incentives based on inputs produce similar gains in achievement at lower costs. Qualitative data suggest that incentives for inputs may be more effective because students do not know the educational production function, and thus have little clue how to turn their excitement about rewards into achievement. Several other models, including lack of self-control, complementary inputs in production, or the unpredictability of outputs, are also consistent with the experimental data.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Seeing language learning inside the math: Cognitive analysis yields transfer. (2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Does practice really make perfect? Improving upon the ubiquitous practice assignment. (2010)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Improving students’ proportional thinking using schema-based instruction. (2010)
This study investigated the effectiveness of an instructional program (schema-based instruction, SBI) designed to teach 7th graders how to comprehend and solve proportion problems involving ratios/rates, scale drawings, and percents. The SBI program emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of problems via schematic diagrams, focused on a 4-step procedure to support and monitor problem solving, and addressed the flexible use of alternative solution strategies based on the problem situation. Blocking by teacher at three middle schools, the authors randomly assigned the 21 classrooms to one of two conditions: SBI and control. Classroom teachers provided the instruction. Results of multilevel modeling used to test for treatment effects after accounting for pretests and other characteristics (gender, ethnicity) revealed the direct effects of SBI on mathematical problem solving at posttest. However, the improved problem solving skills were not maintained a month later when SBI was no longer in effect nor did the skills transfer to solving problems in new domain-level content. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
It pays to compare: An experimental study on computational estimation. (2009a)
Comparing and contrasting examples is a core cognitive process that supports learning in children and adults across a variety of topics. In this experimental study, we evaluated the benefits of supporting comparison in a classroom context for children learning about computational estimation. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 157) learned about estimation either by comparing alternative solution strategies or by reflecting on the strategies one at a time. At posttest and retention test, students who compared were more flexible problem solvers on a variety of measures. Comparison also supported greater conceptual knowledge, but only for students who already knew some estimation strategies. These findings indicate that comparison is an effective learning and instructional practice in a domain with multiple acceptable answers. (Contains 2 figures and 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures can improve mathematics knowledge. (2009)
Background: Knowledge of concepts and procedures seems to develop in an iterative fashion, with increases in one type of knowledge leading to increases in the other type of knowledge. This suggests that iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures may improve learning. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the instructional benefits of an iterative lesson sequence compared to a concepts-before-procedures sequence for students learning decimal place-value concepts and arithmetic procedures. Samples: In two classroom experiments, sixth-grade students from two schools participated (N = 77 and 26). Method: Students completed six decimal lessons on an intelligent-tutoring systems. In the iterative condition, lessons cycled between concept and procedure lessons. In the concepts-first condition, all concept lessons were presented before introducing the procedure lessons. Results: In both experiments, students in the iterative condition gained more knowledge of arithmetic procedures, including ability to transfer the procedures to problems with novel features. Knowledge of concepts was fairly comparable across conditions. Finally, pre-test knowledge of one type predicted gains in knowledge of the other type across experiments. Conclusions: An iterative sequencing of lessons seems to facilitate learning and transfer, particularly of mathematical procedures. The findings support an iterative perspective for the development of knowledge of concepts and procedures.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Fostering at-risk preschoolers’ number sense. (2009)
Research Findings: A 9-month study served to evaluate the effectiveness of a pre-kindergarten number sense curriculum. Phase 1 of the intervention involved manipulative-, game-based number sense instruction; Phase 2, computer-aided mental-arithmetic training with the simplest sums. Eighty 4- and 5-year-olds at risk for school failure were randomly assigned to (a) structured discovery of the n+0/0+n=n pattern and the n+1/1+n = the number after n relation; (b) structured discovery with explicit instruction; (c) blocked practice of (zero, one, and number-after) items; and (d) haphazard practice. Analyses with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test of follow-up Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition and mental-arithmetic testing indicated that general achievement and fluency with n+0/0+n combinations improved significantly. Significant improvement for n+1/1+n combinations was evident only if success included slow or counted answers. Practice or Policy: Theoretical, methodological, and educational implications are discussed, including the need to "score in context" (e.g., consider responses to other items). (Contains 13 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Are representations to be provided or generated in primary mathematics education? Effects on transfer. (2009)
With regard to transfer, is it better to provide pupils with ready-made representations or is it more effective to scaffold pupils' thinking in the process of generating their own representations with the help of peers and under the guidance of a teacher in a process of guided co-construction? The sample comprises 10 classes and 239 Grade 5 primary school students, age 10-11 years. A pretest-posttest control group research design was used. In the experimental condition, pupils were taught to construct representations collaboratively as a tool in the learning of percentages and graphs. Children in the experimental condition outperformed control children on the posttest and transfer test. Both high- and low-achieving pupils profited from the intervention. This study shows that children who learn to design are in a better position to understand pictures, graphs, and models. They are more successful in solving new, complex mathematical problems. (Contains 4 figures and 3 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Improving seventh grade students’ learning of ratio and proportion: The role of schema-based instruction. (2009)
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an instructional intervention (schema-based instruction, SBI) that was designed to meet the diverse needs of middle school students by addressing the research literatures from both special education and mathematics education. Specifically, SBI emphasizes the role of the mathematical structure of problems and also provides students with a heuristic to aid and self-monitor problem solving. Further, SBI addresses well-articulated problem solving strategies and supports flexible use of the strategies based on the problem situation. One hundred forty eight seventh-grade students and their teachers participated in a 10-day intervention on learning to solve ratio and proportion word problems, with classrooms randomly assigned to SBI or a control condition. Results suggested that students in SBI treatment classes outperformed students in control classes on a problem solving measure, both at posttest and on a delayed posttest administered 4 months later. However, the two groups' performance was comparable on a state standardized mathematics achievement test. (Contains 2 figures and 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Teaching number sense: Examining the effects of number sense instruction on mathematics competence of kindergarten students (Doctoral dissertation). (2009)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-12 -1
Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products: Findings from two student cohorts. (2009)
In the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Congress called for the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to conduct a rigorous study of the conditions and practices under which educational technology is effective in increasing student academic achievement. A 2007 report presenting study findings for the 2004-2005 school year, indicated that, after one school year, differences in student test scores were not statistically significant between classrooms that were randomly assigned to use software products and those that were randomly assigned not to use products. School and teacher characteristics generally were not related to whether products were effective. The second year of the study examined whether an additional year of teaching experience using the software products increased the estimated effects of software products on student test scores. The evidence for this hypothesis is mixed. For reading, there were no statistically significant differences between the effects that products had on standardized student test scores in the first year and the second year. For sixth grade math, product effects on student test scores were statistically significantly lower (more negative) in the second year than in the first year, and for algebra I, effects on student test scores were statistically significantly higher in the second year than in the first year. The study also tested whether using any of the 10 software products increased student test scores. One product had a positive and statistically significant effect. Nine did not have statistically significant effects on test scores. Five of the insignificant effects were negative and four were positive. Study findings should be interpreted in the context of design and objectives. The study examined a range of reading and math software products in a range of diverse school districts and schools. But it did not study many forms of educational technology and it did not include many types of software products. How much information the findings provide about the effectiveness of products that are not in the study is an open question. Products in the study also were implemented in a specific set of districts and schools, and other districts and schools may have different experiences with the products. The findings should be viewed as one element within a larger set of research studies that have explored the effectiveness of software products. Three appendixes are included: (1) Second-Year Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Description of Sample for the 10 Products; and (3) Details of Estimation Methods. (Contains 29 footnotes, 4 figures and 24 tables.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-8 -1
Impact of for-profit and nonprofit management on student achievement: The Philadelphia intervention 2002-2008 (Working Paper PEPG 09-02). (2009)
At the request of the State of Pennsylvania, the School District of Philadelphia, in the summer of 2002, asked three for-profit firms to assume responsibility for 30 of its lowest-performing schools and it asked four nonprofit managers to assume the management of 16 other low-performing schools. A difference-in-differences analysis is used to estimate the impact of nonprofit and for-profit management on individual student achievement. Gains in test scores at the treated schools are estimated by comparing them with gains in other low-performing schools in the district. Students at schools under for-profit management outperformed those at schools under nonprofit management in all six years in both reading and math. Most estimations are statistically significant. Impacts of for-profit management relative to district management were positive in math, but no reading impacts could be detected. At nonprofits, students appear to have learned substantially less, especially in math, at nonprofit schools, than had their school remained under regular district management. However, impacts fell short of statistical significance. (Propensity Score Analysis is appended. Contains 21 endnotes and 9 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
Effects of Fact Retrieval Tutoring on Third-Grade Students with Math Difficulties with and without Reading Difficulties (2009)
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MD-only) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring conditions: fact retrieval practice, conceptual fact retrieval instruction with practice, procedural computation/estimation instruction, and control (no tutoring). Tutoring occurred for 45 sessions over 15 weeks for 15-25 minutes per session. Results provided evidence of an interaction between tutoring condition and MD subtype status for assessment of fact retrieval. For MD-only students, students in both fact retrieval conditions achieved comparably and outperformed MD-only students in the control group as well as those in the procedural computation/estimation instruction group. By contrast, for MDRD students, there were no significant differences among intervention conditions.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 -1
The Effects of the Extended Foreign Language Programs on Spanish-Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement in English (2009)
This study was conducted to explore the effects of a two-way immersion bilingual program on maintenance/acquisition of Spanish-language proficiency and on reading and mathematics achievement in English over a period of 4 academic years. The researchers used Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) techniques to compare the effects of two different program models on Spanish-language proficiency of participating students from Spanish- and non-Spanish-language backgrounds. In addition, they employed multivariate matching algorithms to construct a comparison group of schools and students that matched program students academically and demographically and then used HLM methods to compare academic achievement in reading and mathematics of students in program and comparison groups. The researchers found that students in the program model that offered Spanish instruction in language arts and one content area performed better in reading comprehension in Spanish than students in the program model that offered only Spanish language arts instruction. The researchers also found that program students exhibited achievement levels in reading and mathematics that were on par with or higher than those of demographically and academically similar students not in the program. In addition, the researchers determined and that average annual learning rates in both academic disciplines were similar for program and comparison students. (Contains 5 figures, 2 footnotes, and 3 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 -1
The Effects of the Extended Foreign Language Programs on Spanish-Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement in English (2009)
This study was conducted to explore the effects of a two-way immersion bilingual program on maintenance/acquisition of Spanish-language proficiency and on reading and mathematics achievement in English over a period of 4 academic years. The researchers used Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) techniques to compare the effects of two different program models on Spanish-language proficiency of participating students from Spanish- and non-Spanish-language backgrounds. In addition, they employed multivariate matching algorithms to construct a comparison group of schools and students that matched program students academically and demographically and then used HLM methods to compare academic achievement in reading and mathematics of students in program and comparison groups. The researchers found that students in the program model that offered Spanish instruction in language arts and one content area performed better in reading comprehension in Spanish than students in the program model that offered only Spanish language arts instruction. The researchers also found that program students exhibited achievement levels in reading and mathematics that were on par with or higher than those of demographically and academically similar students not in the program. In addition, the researchers determined and that average annual learning rates in both academic disciplines were similar for program and comparison students. (Contains 5 figures, 2 footnotes, and 3 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products [Larson Pre-Algebra]: Findings from two student cohorts (NCEE 2009-4041) (2009)
In the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Congress called for the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to conduct a rigorous study of the conditions and practices under which educational technology is effective in increasing student academic achievement. A 2007 report presenting study findings for the 2004-2005 school year, indicated that, after one school year, differences in student test scores were not statistically significant between classrooms that were randomly assigned to use software products and those that were randomly assigned not to use products. School and teacher characteristics generally were not related to whether products were effective. The second year of the study examined whether an additional year of teaching experience using the software products increased the estimated effects of software products on student test scores. The evidence for this hypothesis is mixed. For reading, there were no statistically significant differences between the effects that products had on standardized student test scores in the first year and the second year. For sixth grade math, product effects on student test scores were statistically significantly lower (more negative) in the second year than in the first year, and for algebra I, effects on student test scores were statistically significantly higher in the second year than in the first year. The study also tested whether using any of the 10 software products increased student test scores. One product had a positive and statistically significant effect. Nine did not have statistically significant effects on test scores. Five of the insignificant effects were negative and four were positive. Study findings should be interpreted in the context of design and objectives. The study examined a range of reading and math software products in a range of diverse school districts and schools. But it did not study many forms of educational technology and it did not include many types of software products. How much information the findings provide about the effectiveness of products that are not in the study is an open question. Products in the study also were implemented in a specific set of districts and schools, and other districts and schools may have different experiences with the products. The findings should be viewed as one element within a larger set of research studies that have explored the effectiveness of software products. Three appendixes are included: (1) Second-Year Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Description of Sample for the 10 Products; and (3) Details of Estimation Methods. (Contains 29 footnotes, 4 figures and 24 tables.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products [PLATO Achieve Now]: Findings from two student cohorts (NCEE 2009-4041) (2009)
In the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Congress called for the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to conduct a rigorous study of the conditions and practices under which educational technology is effective in increasing student academic achievement. A 2007 report presenting study findings for the 2004-2005 school year, indicated that, after one school year, differences in student test scores were not statistically significant between classrooms that were randomly assigned to use software products and those that were randomly assigned not to use products. School and teacher characteristics generally were not related to whether products were effective. The second year of the study examined whether an additional year of teaching experience using the software products increased the estimated effects of software products on student test scores. The evidence for this hypothesis is mixed. For reading, there were no statistically significant differences between the effects that products had on standardized student test scores in the first year and the second year. For sixth grade math, product effects on student test scores were statistically significantly lower (more negative) in the second year than in the first year, and for algebra I, effects on student test scores were statistically significantly higher in the second year than in the first year. The study also tested whether using any of the 10 software products increased student test scores. One product had a positive and statistically significant effect. Nine did not have statistically significant effects on test scores. Five of the insignificant effects were negative and four were positive. Study findings should be interpreted in the context of design and objectives. The study examined a range of reading and math software products in a range of diverse school districts and schools. But it did not study many forms of educational technology and it did not include many types of software products. How much information the findings provide about the effectiveness of products that are not in the study is an open question. Products in the study also were implemented in a specific set of districts and schools, and other districts and schools may have different experiences with the products. The findings should be viewed as one element within a larger set of research studies that have explored the effectiveness of software products. Three appendixes are included: (1) Second-Year Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Description of Sample for the 10 Products; and (3) Details of Estimation Methods. (Contains 29 footnotes, 4 figures and 24 tables.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Culture and the interaction of student ethnicity with reward structure in group learning. (2009)
This study tests the hypothesis that cultural differences in group orientation predict an interaction between the student variable--ethnicity--and a learning context variable--reward structure--on math performance after group learning. One hundred and thirty-two African-American and European-American female and male fourth and fifth grade students studied math estimation in one of three group learning contexts. The learning contexts operationalized were: intergroup competitive, interpersonally competitive, and communal-no reward. ANCOVA confirmed a predicted interaction of ethnicity with learning context on post study session performance. Although there was no difference overall, African-American and European-American students performed best in the aggregate in different contexts. Independent ratings of students' group-positive behaviors mirrored the two-way interaction between learning context and ethnicity. The findings suggest that important student variables interact with the variable elements of group learning and should be studied in greater detail. They also support Boykin's (1994) contention that the cultural context of learning is a critical mediator of children's achievement. (Contains 4 tables, 3 figures and 7 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
eMINTS 2009 Program Evaluation Report: An analysis of the persistence of program impact on student achievement. (2009)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
A multisite cluster randomized trial of the effects of Compass Learning Odyssey® Math on the math achievement of selected grade 4 students in the Mid-Atlantic region (NCEE 2009-4068). (2009)
In an effort to identify instructional methods that might improve mathematics learning at the grade 4 level when used in a variety of educational settings under typical conditions, the REL Mid-Atlantic research team looked for promising, replicable practices that were being used broadly by teachers in U.S. schools, for which research showed promising results but had not been conducted using methodologies that can establish causal relationships. CompassLearning's Odyssey[R] Math product met all of these criteria. Odyssey Math is a computer-based math curriculum developed by CompassLearning, Inc., to improve math learning for K-12 students. The software consists of a web-accessed series of learning activities, assessments, and math tools. These components constitute the basic framework of the software. CompassLearning professional development trainers presented the learning activities, math tools, and assessments as available options to intervention teachers during the summer professional development session. This study was the first randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of Odyssey Math on student achievement. The study had the statistical power needed to detect a 0.20 effect size and was well designed in that comparable groups were created at baseline and maintained through posttesting. Implementation during the school year was documented and shown to be consistent with typical implementation of the Odyssey Math software. The results from the multilevel model with pretest covariates also indicate that Odyssey Math did not yield a statistically significant impact on end-of-year student achievement. This study generated a statistically unbiased estimate of the effect of Odyssey Math on student achievement when implemented in typical school settings with typical teacher and student use. However, the findings apply only to participating schools, teachers, and students because the study used a volunteer sample. Twelve appendices include: (1) Detailed Professional Development Agenda Sessions; (2) Statistical Power Analysis; (3) Probability of Assignment to Study Conditions; (4) Sample Size from Random Assignment to Data Analysis; (5) Teacher Survey, Fall 2007; (6) Observation Protocols; (7) Odyssey Math Sample Screens; (8) Fidelity Observation Comparisons; (9) Model Variance and Intraclass Correlations; (10) Complete Multilevel Model Results for Research Question 1; (11) Comparison of Assumed Population Parameters for Statistical Power (During Planning Phase) with Corresponding Sample Statistics (During Analysis Phase); and (12) Equations for Multilevel Model Analyses. (Contains 3 figures, 22 tables, 10 exhibits, and 23 footnotes.) [This report was prepared for the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences under contract with Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic administered by Pennsylvania State University.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Preschoolers’ use of count information to judge relative quantity (2009)
We examined preschool children's use of count information in making quantity judgments. Study 1 involved 35 children 3-5 years old using a balance-scale task to judge relative quantity with or without count information provided. Study 2 replicated and extended the exploration as 54 children 3-4 years old judged relative quantity in multiple counting contexts. Children who were given count information successfully used count information in quantity evaluation when visual cues were not useful. Limited experience of counting skills, strategy choice, and limited processing capacity are each discussed as potential explanations. Implications for early childhood practice and teacher education, as well as directions for future research are explored. (Contains 4 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-12 -1
Technology’s edge: The educational benefits of computer-aided instruction. (2009)
Because a significant portion of U.S. students lacks critical mathematic skills, schools across the country are investing heavily in computerized curriculums as a way to enhance education output, even though there is surprisingly little evidence that they actually improve student achievement. In this paper we present results from a randomized study in three urban school districts of a well-defined use of computers in schools: a popular instructional computer program which is designed to teach pre-algebra and algebra. We assess the impact of the program using statewide tests that cover a range of math skills and tests designed specifically to target pre-algebra and algebra skills. We find that students randomly assigned to computer-aided instruction score at least 0.17 of a standard deviation higher on a pre-algebra/algebra test than students randomly assigned to traditional instruction. We hypothesize that the effectiveness arises from increased individualized instruction as the effects appear larger for students in larger classes and those in classes in which students are frequently absent. (Detailed data information is appended. Contains 40 footnotes and 17 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-8 -1
The importance of prior knowledge when comparing examples: Influences on conceptual and procedural knowledge of equation solving. (2009)
Comparing multiple examples typically supports learning and transfer in laboratory studies and is considered a key feature of high-quality mathematics instruction. This experimental study investigated the importance of prior knowledge in learning from comparison. Seventh- and 8th-grade students (N = 236) learned to solve equations by comparing different solution methods to the same problem, comparing different problem types solved with the same solution method, or studying the examples sequentially. Unlike in past studies, many students did not begin the study with equation-solving skills, and prior knowledge of algebraic methods was an important predictor of learning. Students who did not attempt algebraic methods at pretest benefited most from studying examples sequentially or comparing problem types, rather than from comparing solution methods. Students who attempted algebraic methods at pretest learned more from comparing solution methods. Students may need sufficient prior knowledge in a domain before they benefit from comparing alternative solution methods. These findings are in line with findings on the expertise-reversal effect. (Contains 2 figures and 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 7-9 -1
Accelerated Math evaluation report (Middle school sample). (2009)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
The effects of POWERSOURCE© intervention on student understanding of basic mathematical principles. (2009)
This report describes results from field-testing of POWERSOURCE[C] formative assessment alongside professional development and instructional resources. The researchers at the National Center for Research, on Evaluation, Standards, & Student Testing (CRESST) employed a randomized, controlled design to address the following question: Does the use of POWERSOURCE[C] strategies improve 6th-grade student performance on assessments of the key mathematical ideas relative to the performance of a comparison group? Sixth-grade teachers were recruited from 7 districts and 25 middle schools. A total of 49 POWERSOURCE[C] and 36 comparison group teachers and their students (2,338 POWERSOURCE[C], 1,753 comparison group students) were included in the study analyses. All students took a pretest of prerequisite knowledge and a transfer measure of tasks drawn from international tests at the end of the study year. Students in the POWERSOURCE[C] group used sets of formative assessment tasks. POWERSOURCE[C] teachers had exposure to professional development and instructional resources. Results indicated that students with higher pretest scores tended to benefit more from the treatment as compared to students with lower pretest scores. In addition, students in the POWERSOURCE[C] group significantly outperformed control group students on distributive property items and the effect was larger as pretest scores increased. Results, limitations and future directions are discussed. Four appendices are included: (1) Item Analysis Results of POWERSOURCE[C] pretest; (2) POWERSOURCE[C] Pretest questionnaire; (3) POWERSOURCE[C] Pretest questionnaire; and (4) Descriptive Statistics of Posttest scores by District and Treatment, School, Teacher in Between-School Design and Teacher in within-School (W-S) Design. (Contains 12 figures and 29 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 -1
An evaluation of teachers trained through different routes to certification: Final report (NCEE 2009-4043). (2009)
This study addresses two questions related to teacher preparation and certification: (1) What are the relative effects on student achievement of teachers who chose to be trained through different routes to certification and how do observed teacher practices vary by chosen route to certification?; and (2) What aspects of certification programs (such as the amount of coursework, the timing of coursework relative to being the lead teacher in the classroom, the core coursework content) are associated with teacher effectiveness? In 63 study schools, every grade that contained at least one eligible alternatively certified (AC) and one eligible traditionally certified (TC) teacher was included. Students in these study grades were randomly assigned to be in the class of an AC or a TC teacher. Students were tested at the beginning of the school year as a baseline measure and at the end of the year as an outcome. Classroom instruction was observed at one point during the year as an outcome. Reported findings include: (1) Both the AC and the TC programs with teachers in the study were diverse in the total instruction they required for their candidates; (2) While teachers trained in TC programs receive all their instruction (and participate in student teaching) prior to becoming regular full-time teachers, AC teachers do not necessarily begin teaching without having received any formal instruction; (3) There were no statistically significant differences between the AC and TC teachers in this study in their average scores on college entrance exams, the selectivity of the college that awarded their bachelor's degree, or their level of educational attainment; (4) There was no statistically significant difference in performance between students of AC teachers and those of TC teachers; (5) There is no evidence from this study that greater levels of teacher training coursework were associated with the effectiveness of AC teachers in the classroom; and (6) There is no evidence that the content of coursework is correlated with teacher effectiveness. Supplementary Technical Information on Data Collection, Response Rates, and Analyses is appended. (Contains 90 footnotes and 28 exhibits.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 -1
Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after three years (NCEE 2009-4050). (2009)
The "District of Columbia School Choice Incentive Act of 2003," passed by the Congress in January 2004, established the first federally funded, private school voucher program in the United States. The purpose of the new scholarship program was to provide low-income residents, particularly those whose children attend schools in need of improvement or corrective action under the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act," with "expanded opportunities to attend higher performing schools in the District of Columbia" (Sec. 303). As part of this legislation, the Congress mandated a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of the Program, now called the "DC Opportunity Scholarship Program" (OSP). This report presents findings from the evaluation on the impacts three years after families who applied were given the option to move from a public school to a participating private school of their choice. The evaluation is based on a randomized controlled trial design that compares the outcomes of eligible applicants randomly assigned to receive (treatment group) or not receive (control group) a scholarship through a series of lotteries. The main findings of the evaluation so far include: (1) After 3 years, there was a statistically significant positive impact on reading test scores, but not math test scores; (2) The OSP had a positive impact overall on parents' reports of school satisfaction and safety, but not on students' reports; (3) This same pattern of findings holds when the analysis is conducted to determine the impact of using a scholarship rather than being offered a scholarship; (4) The OSP improved reading achievement for 5 of the 10 subgroups examined; and (5) No achievement impacts were observed for five other subgroups of students, including those who entered the Program with relative academic disadvantage. Six appendices are included: (1) Research Methodology; (2) Benjamini-Hochberg Adjustments for Multiple Comparisons; (3) Sensitivity Testing; (4) Detailed ITT Tables; (5) Relationship Between Attending a Private School and Key Outcomes; and (6) Intermediate Outcome Measures.. (Contains 115 footnotes, 15 figures and 129 tables.) [For Executive Summary, see ED504784. For "Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after Two Years", see ED501696. For "Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts after One Year", see ED497154.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Integrating literacy and science instruction in high school biology: Impact on teacher practice, student engagement, and student achievement. (2009)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8-9 -1
Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products [Cognitive Tutor]: Findings from two student cohorts (NCEE 2009-4041). (2009)
In the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Congress called for the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to conduct a rigorous study of the conditions and practices under which educational technology is effective in increasing student academic achievement. A 2007 report presenting study findings for the 2004-2005 school year, indicated that, after one school year, differences in student test scores were not statistically significant between classrooms that were randomly assigned to use software products and those that were randomly assigned not to use products. School and teacher characteristics generally were not related to whether products were effective. The second year of the study examined whether an additional year of teaching experience using the software products increased the estimated effects of software products on student test scores. The evidence for this hypothesis is mixed. For reading, there were no statistically significant differences between the effects that products had on standardized student test scores in the first year and the second year. For sixth grade math, product effects on student test scores were statistically significantly lower (more negative) in the second year than in the first year, and for algebra I, effects on student test scores were statistically significantly higher in the second year than in the first year. The study also tested whether using any of the 10 software products increased student test scores. One product had a positive and statistically significant effect. Nine did not have statistically significant effects on test scores. Five of the insignificant effects were negative and four were positive. Study findings should be interpreted in the context of design and objectives. The study examined a range of reading and math software products in a range of diverse school districts and schools. But it did not study many forms of educational technology and it did not include many types of software products. How much information the findings provide about the effectiveness of products that are not in the study is an open question. Products in the study also were implemented in a specific set of districts and schools, and other districts and schools may have different experiences with the products. The findings should be viewed as one element within a larger set of research studies that have explored the effectiveness of software products. Three appendixes are included: (1) Second-Year Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Description of Sample for the 10 Products; and (3) Details of Estimation Methods. (Contains 29 footnotes, 4 figures and 24 tables.
Reviews of Individual Studies 8-9 -1
Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products [Larson Algebra I]: Findings from two student cohorts (NCEE 2009-4041) (2009)
In the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Congress called for the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to conduct a rigorous study of the conditions and practices under which educational technology is effective in increasing student academic achievement. A 2007 report presenting study findings for the 2004-2005 school year, indicated that, after one school year, differences in student test scores were not statistically significant between classrooms that were randomly assigned to use software products and those that were randomly assigned not to use products. School and teacher characteristics generally were not related to whether products were effective. The second year of the study examined whether an additional year of teaching experience using the software products increased the estimated effects of software products on student test scores. The evidence for this hypothesis is mixed. For reading, there were no statistically significant differences between the effects that products had on standardized student test scores in the first year and the second year. For sixth grade math, product effects on student test scores were statistically significantly lower (more negative) in the second year than in the first year, and for algebra I, effects on student test scores were statistically significantly higher in the second year than in the first year. The study also tested whether using any of the 10 software products increased student test scores. One product had a positive and statistically significant effect. Nine did not have statistically significant effects on test scores. Five of the insignificant effects were negative and four were positive. Study findings should be interpreted in the context of design and objectives. The study examined a range of reading and math software products in a range of diverse school districts and schools. But it did not study many forms of educational technology and it did not include many types of software products. How much information the findings provide about the effectiveness of products that are not in the study is an open question. Products in the study also were implemented in a specific set of districts and schools, and other districts and schools may have different experiences with the products. The findings should be viewed as one element within a larger set of research studies that have explored the effectiveness of software products. Three appendixes are included: (1) Second-Year Data Collection and Response Rates; (2) Description of Sample for the 10 Products; and (3) Details of Estimation Methods. (Contains 29 footnotes, 4 figures and 24 tables.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 -1
Rigor and relevance: Enhancing high school students’ math skills through career and technical education. (2008)
Numerous high school students, including many who are enrolled in career and technical education (CTE) courses, do not have the math skills necessary for today's high-skill workplace or college entrance requirements. This study tests a model for enhancing mathematics instruction in five high school CTE programs (agriculture, auto technology, business and marketing, health, and information technology). The model includes a pedagogy and intense teacher professional development. Volunteer CTE teachers were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 59) or control (n = 78) group. The experimental teachers worked with math teachers to develop CTE instructional activities that integrated more mathematics into the occupational curriculum. After 1 year of the math-enhanced CTE lessons, students in the experimental classrooms performed equally on technical skills and significantly better than control students on two standardized tests of math ability (TerraNova and ACCUPLACER[R]). (Contains 5 tables, 1 figure, and 9 notes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
The negative impacts of starting middle school in sixth grade. (2008)
Using administrative data on public school students in North Carolina, we find that sixth grade students attending middle schools are much more likely to be cited for discipline problems than those attending elementary school. That difference remains after adjusting for the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the students and their schools. Furthermore, the higher infraction rates recorded by sixth graders who are placed in middle school persist at least through ninth grade. An analysis of end-of-grade test scores provides complementary findings. A plausible explanation is that sixth graders are at an especially impressionable age; in middle school, the exposure to older peers and the relative freedom from supervision have deleterious consequences. These findings are relevant to the current debate over the best school configuration for incorporating the middle grades. Based on our results, we suggest that there is a strong argument for separating sixth graders from older adolescents. (Contains 4 figures, 6 tables and 14 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Chapter 2: Bright Beginnings and Creative Curriculum: Vanderbilt University. In Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 41–54, Appendix C, and Appendix D) (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Chapter 3: Creative Curriculum: University of North Carolina at Charlotte. In Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 55–64). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education. (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Chapter 5: curiosity corner: Success for all foundation. Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 75-83) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Creative Curriculum with Ladders to Literacy: University of New Hampshire. In Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (pp. 65–73) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Educational effects of the Tools of the Mind curriculum: A randomized trial (2008)
The effectiveness of the "Tools of the Mind (Tools)" curriculum in improving the education of 3- and 4-year-old children was evaluated by means of a randomized trial. The "Tools" curriculum, based on the work of Vygotsky, focuses on the development of self-regulation at the same time as teaching literacy and mathematics skills in a way that is socially mediated by peers and teachers and with a focus on play. The control group experienced an established district-created model described as a "balanced literacy curriculum with themes." Teachers and students were randomly assigned to either treatment or control classrooms. Children (88 "Tools" and 122 control) were compared on social behavior, language, and literacy growth. The "Tools" curriculum was found to improve classroom quality and children's executive function as indicated by lower scores on a problem behavior scale. There were indications that Tools also improved children's language development, but these effects were smaller and did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance in multi-level models or after adjustments for multiple comparisons. Our findings indicate that a developmentally appropriate curriculum with a strong emphasis on play can enhance learning and development so as to improve both the social and academic success of young children. Moreover, it is suggested that to the extent child care commonly increases behavior problems this outcome may be reversed through the use of more appropriate curricula that actually enhance self-regulation. (Contains 8 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness (NCER 2008-2009) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness (NCER 2008-2009) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness (NCER 2008-2009) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness (NCER 2008-2009) (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness (NCER 2008-2009). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. (2008)
A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number of federal and state efforts to improve young at-risk children's school readiness (e.g., Head Start, Even Start, public pre-kindergarten). In 2005, nearly half (47%) of all 3- to 5-year-old children from low-income families were enrolled in either part-day or full-day early childhood programs (U.S. Department of Education 2006). In 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) began the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) initiative to conduct rigorous efficacy evaluations of available preschool curricula. Twelve research teams implemented one or two curricula in preschool settings serving predominantly low-income children under an experimental design. For each team, preschools or classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention curricula or control curricula and the children were followed from pre-kindergarten through kindergarten. IES contracted with RTI International (RTI) and Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) to evaluate the impact of each of the 14 curricula implemented using a common set of measures with the cohort of children beginning preschool in the summer-fall of 2003. This report provides the individual results for each curriculum from the evaluations by RTI and MPR. Specifically, the research evaluated the impact of each of the 14 preschool curricula on: (1) preschool students' early reading skills, phonological awareness, language development, early mathematical knowledge, and behavior; (2) outcomes for students at the end of kindergarten; and (3) preschool classroom quality, teacher-child interaction, and instructional practices. Chapter 1 describes the PCER initiative and details the common elements of the evaluations including the experimental design, implementation, analysis, results, and findings. Chapters 2-13, respectively, provide greater detail on the individual evaluations of the curricula implemented by each research team including information on the curricula, the demographics of the site-specific samples, assignment, fidelity of implementation, and results. Appendix A presents results from a secondary analysis of the data. Appendix B provides greater detail regarding the data analyses conducted. Appendixes C and D provide additional information regarding the outcome measures. (Contains 177 tables, 5 figures, and 7 footnotes.) [This report was produced by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium. Appendix B was authored by Randall Bender, Jun Liu, Ina Wallace, Melissa Raspa, and Margaret Burchinal.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
Teaching science as a language: A content-first approach to science teaching. (2008)
Our research project was guided by the assumption that students who learn to understand phenomena in everyday terms prior to being taught scientific language will develop improved understanding of new concepts. We used web-based software to teach students using a "content-first" approach that allowed students to transition from everyday understanding of phenomena to the use of scientific language. This study involved 49 minority students who were randomly assigned into two groups for analysis: a treatment group (taught with everyday language prior to using scientific language) and a control group (taught with scientific language). Using a pre-post-test control group design, we assessed students' conceptual and linguistic understanding of photosynthesis. The results of this study indicated that students taught with the "content-first" approach developed significantly improved understanding when compared to students taught in traditional ways. (Contains 8 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
Remediating computational deficits at third grade: A randomized field trial. (2008)
The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and randomly assigned to 4 conditions: word recognition (control) tutoring or 1 of 3 computation tutoring conditions: fact retrieval, procedural computation and computational estimation, and combined (fact retrieval + procedural computation and computational estimation). Results revealed that fact retrieval tutoring enhanced fact retrieval skill, and procedural computation and computational estimation tutoring (whether in isolation or combined with fact retrieval tutoring) enhanced computational estimation skill. Remediation was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. (Contains 4 tables and 1 footnote.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 -1
National Board Certification and teacher effectiveness: Evidence from a random assignment experiment (NBER Working Paper No. 14608). (2008)
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) assesses teaching practice based on videos and essays submitted by teachers. We compared the performance of classrooms of elementary students in Los Angeles randomly assigned to NBPTS applicants and to comparison teachers. We used information on whether each applicant achieved certification, along with information on each applicant's NBPTS scaled score and subscores, to test whether the NBPTS score was related to teacher impacts on student achievement. We found that students randomly assigned to highly-rated applicants performed better than students assigned to comparison teachers, while students assigned to poorly-rated applicants performed worse. Estimates were similar using data on pairs of teachers that were not randomly assigned. Our results suggest a number of changes that would improve the predictive power of the NBPTS process.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
The development of spatial skills through interventions involving block building activities. (2008)
This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved learning. Spatial measures included: spatial visualization, mental rotation, and block building. Results showed: for block building, interventions within a story context improved performance compared to the other two conditions. For spatial visualization, both types of block-building interventions improved performance compared to the control condition. Findings suggest: (1) storytelling provides an effective context for teaching spatial content, (2) teaching block building develops wider spatial skills, and (3) 3-dimensional mental rotation tasks show a male advantage in kindergartners. (Contains 4 tables and 4 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Scaling up the implementation of a pre-kindergarten mathematics curriculum: Teaching for understanding with trajectories and technologies (2008)
This study used a randomized field trial design to evaluate the efficacy of a research-based model for scaling up an intervention focused on preschool mathematics. Although the successes of research-based educational practices have been documented, equally well known is the paucity of successful efforts to bring these practices to scale. The same research corpus provides guidelines to scale up successful interventions. We designed an intervention model based on that research, including mathematics curricula with an emphasis on teaching for understanding following developmental guidelines, or learning trajectories, and using technology at multiple levels. We then implemented that model and evaluated the implementation with a limited scale up study. Within a design involving 25 classrooms serving children at risk for later school failure, we examined the impact of the model, using measures of fidelity of implementation, classroom observations of mathematics environment and teaching, and child outcomes. High levels of fidelity of implementation resulted in consistently higher scores in the intervention, compared to control, classes on the observation instrument and significantly and substantially greater gains in children's mathematics achievement in the intervention, compared to the control, children (effect size = 0.62). (Contains 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
The effects of math manipulatives on student achievement in mathematics. (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
The use of manipulatives to support children’s acquisition of abstract math concepts. (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Fostering Taiwanese preschoolers’ understanding of the addition-subtraction inverse principle. (2008)
The present research involved gauging preschoolers' learning potential for a key arithmetic concept, the addition-subtraction inverse principle (e.g., 2+1-1=2). Sixty 4- and 5-year-old Taiwanese children from two public preschools serving low- and middle-income families participated in the training experiment. Half were randomly assigned to an experimental group; half, to a control condition. Participants were tested for an understanding of inversion before and after intervention. One-third of the 5 year olds from both groups performed at the marginally or reliably successful levels before the intervention, and three quarters of them did so in the posttest. Only one of the 4 year olds was marginally successful before the intervention and 4 year olds in the experimental group somewhat benefited from the intervention. Significant social class effect were evident.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Numerical magnitude representations influence arithmetic learning. (2008)
This study examined whether the quality of first graders' (mean age = 7.2 years) numerical magnitude representations is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to their arithmetic learning. The children's pretest numerical magnitude representations were found to be correlated with their pretest arithmetic knowledge and to be predictive of their learning of answers to unfamiliar arithmetic problems. The relation to learning of unfamiliar problems remained after controlling for prior arithmetic knowledge, short-term memory for numbers, and math achievement test scores. Moreover, presenting randomly chosen children with accurate visual representations of the magnitudes of addends and sums improved their learning of the answers to the problems. Thus, representations of numerical magnitude are both correlationally and causally related to arithmetic learning.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Effects of a preschool mathematics curriculum: Summative research on the Building Blocks project. (2007b)
This study evaluated the efficacy of a preschool mathematics program based on a comprehensive model of developing research-based software and print curricula. Building Blocks, funded by the National Science Foundation, is a curriculum development project focused on creating research-based, technology-enhanced mathematics materials for pre-K through grade 2. In this article, we describe the underlying principles, development, and initial summative evaluation of the first set of resulting materials as they were used in classrooms with children at risk for later school failure. Experimental and comparison classrooms included two principal types of public preschool programs serving low-income families: state funded and Head Start prekindergarten programs. The experimental treatment group score increased significantly more than the comparison group score; achievement gains of the experimental group approached the sought-after 2-sigma effect of individual tutoring. This study contributes to research showing that focused early mathematical interventions help young children develop a foundation of informal mathematics knowledge, especially for children at risk for later school failure.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Effects of self-explanation as a metacognitive strategy for solving mathematical word problems. (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Emergent Numeracy and Cultural Orientations (ENCO) project: Examining approaches to meaningful and contextual mathematics instruction (Doctoral dissertation). (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Personalized computer-assisted mathematics problem-solving program and its impact on Taiwanese students. (2007)
This study evaluated the effects of a personalized computer-assisted mathematics problem-solving program on the performance and attitude of Taiwanese fourth grade students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the personalized computer-assisted program improved student performance and attitude over the nonpersonalized program. One-hundred-sixty-five (165) Taiwanese fourth-grade students participated in the study. The research used the results to determine if the computer-assisted program was effective between the two groups. The results of the study showed that the personalized computer-assisted program on mathematics improved student performance and attitude. The achievement of students in the personalized group was significantly higher than those in the nonpersonalized group. The posttest score of the personalized group was significantly higher than the posttest score of the nonpersonalized group. The attitude of the personalized group was significantly more positive than that of the nonpersonalized group. (Contains 2 figures and 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Professional development focused on children’s algebraic reasoning in elementary school. (2007)
A yearlong experimental study showed positive effects of a professional development project that involved 19 urban elementary schools, 180 teachers, and 3735 students from one of the lowest performing school districts in California. Algebraic reasoning as generalized arithmetic and the study of relations was used as the centerpiece for work with teachers in Grades 1-5. Participating teachers generated a wider variety of student strategies, including more strategies that reflected the use of relational thinking, than did nonparticipating teachers. Students in participating classes showed significantly better understanding of the equal sign and used significantly more strategies reflecting relational thinking during interviews than did students in classes of nonparticipating teachers. (Contains 8 tables and 9 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Graphic organizers applied to secondary algebra instruction for students with learning disorders. (2007)
Students who have particular difficulty in mathematics are a growing concern for educators. Graphic organizers have been shown to improve reading comprehension and may be applied to upper level secondary mathematics content. In two systematic replications, one randomly assigned group was taught to solve systems of linear equations through direct instruction and strategy instruction. The other group was taught with the same methods with the addition of a graphic organizer. Students who received instruction with the graphic organizers outperformed those who received instruction without the organizers. They also better understood the related concepts as measured by immediate posttests in both replications. The difference in understanding concepts was maintained on a 2-3 week posttest.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
The effects of individually personalized computer-based instructional program on solving mathematics problems. (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-8 -1
Effect of technology-enhanced continuous progress monitoring on math achievement. (2007)
We examined the extent to which use of a technology-enhanced continuous progress monitoring system would enhance the results of math instruction, examined variability in teacher implementation of the program, and compared math results in classrooms in which teachers did and did not use the system. Classrooms were randomly assigned to within-school experimental and control groups. Participating students were pre- and post-tested using two standardized, nationally normed tests of math achievement. When teachers implemented the continuous progress monitoring system as intended, and when they used the data from the system to manage and differentiate instruction, students gained significantly more than those for whom implementation was limited or nil. Failure to take into account intervention integrity would have made it look like continuous progress monitoring did not enhance math results. (Contains 5 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 -1
Can teacher quality be effectively assessed? National Board Certification as a signal of effective teaching. (2007)
In this paper, we describe the results a study assessing the relationship between the certification of teachers by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and elementary level student achievement. We examine whether NBPTS assesses the most effective applicants, whether certification by NBPTS serves as a signal of teacher quality, and whether completing the NBPTS assessment process serves as catalyst for increasing teacher effectiveness. We find consistent evidence that NBPTS is identifying the more effective teacher applicants and that National Board Certified Teachers are generally more effective than teachers who never applied to the program. The statistical significance and magnitude of the "NBPTS effect," however, differs significantly by grade level and student type. We do not find evidence that the NBPTS certification process itself does anything to increase teacher effectiveness. Data tables are appended. (Contains 7 tables, 1 figure, and 49 endnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
A study of a specific language arts and mathematics software program: Is there a correlation between usage levels and achievement? (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
A study of a specific language arts and mathematics software program: Is there a correlation between usage levels and achievement? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA. (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Effects of a preschool mathematics curriculum: Summative research on the Building Blocks project (2007)
This study evaluated the efficacy of a preschool mathematics program based on a comprehensive model of developing research-based software and print curricula. Building Blocks, funded by the National Science Foundation, is a curriculum development project focused on creating research-based, technology-enhanced mathematics materials for pre-K through grade 2. In this article, we describe the underlying principles, development, and initial summative evaluation of the first set of resulting materials as they were used in classrooms with children at risk for later school failure. Experimental and comparison classrooms included two principal types of public preschool programs serving low-income families: state funded and Head Start prekindergarten programs. The experimental treatment group score increased significantly more than the comparison group score; achievement gains of the experimental group approached the sought-after 2-sigma effect of individual tutoring. This study contributes to research showing that focused early mathematical interventions help young children develop a foundation of informal mathematics knowledge, especially for children at risk for later school failure.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-8 -1
The effects of the School Renaissance program on student achievement in reading and mathematics. (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
A comparison of the effects of the Accelerated Math program and the Delaware Procedural Fluency Workbook program on academic growth in grade six at X middle school (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-PS -1
Comparative effectiveness of Carnegie Learning’s Cognitive Tutor Algebra I curriculum: A report of a randomized experiment in the Maui School District. (2007)
Under the "Math Science Partnership Grant," the Maui Hawaii Educational Consortium sought scientifically based evidence for the effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor[R]" (CT) program as part of the adoption process for pre-Algebra program. During the 2006-2007 school year, the researchers conducted a follow-on study to a previous randomized experiment in the Maui School District of the effectiveness of "CT" in Algebra I. In this second year, the focus was on the newly developed "Bridge to Algebra" program for pre-Algebra. The question being addressed specifically by the research is whether students in classes that use "CT" materials achieve higher scores on the standardized math assessment, as measured by the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) General Math Test, than they would if they had been in a control classroom using the pre-Algebra curricula the Maui schools currently have in place. The researchers found that most students in both "CT" and control groups improved overall on the NWEA General Math Test. They did not find a difference in student performance in math between groups. Their analysis of the Algebraic Operations sub-strand revealed that many students in both groups did not demonstrate the growth in this scale, again with no discernible group differences. However, for Algebraic Operations outcomes, the researchers found a significant interaction between the pre-test and "CT": student scoring low before participating in "CT" got more benefit from the program's algebraic operations instruction than students with high initial scores. (Contains 8 figures, 33 tables, and 14 footnotes.) [For "Comparative Effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor Bridge to Algebra" Curriculum: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in the Maui School District. Research Summary," see ED538962.]
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What evidence matters? A randomized field trial of Cognitive Tutor® Algebra I (2007)
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Scaling up the implementation of a pre-kindergarten mathematics curriculum: The Building Blocks curriculum. (2006, June)
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I CAN Learn in Orleans parish public schools: Effects on LEAP 8th grade math achievement, 2003–2004. (2006)
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The development of flexibility in equation solving. (2006)
This paper explores the development of students' knowledge of mathematical procedures. Students' tendency to develop rote knowledge of procedures has been widely commented on. An alternative, more flexible endpoint for the development of procedural knowledge is explored here, where students choose to deviate from established solving patterns on particular problems for greater efficiency. Students with no prior knowledge of formal linear equation solving techniques were taught the basic transformations of this domain. After instruction, students engaged in problem-solving sessions in two conditions. Treatment students completed the "alternative ordering task," where they were asked to re-solve a previously completed problem but using a different ordering of transformations. Those completing alternative ordering tasks demonstrated greater flexibility.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-5 -1
2005 Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary Math randomized control trial: Final report. (2006)
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Saxon Elementary Math Program effectiveness study. (2006)
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Teaching third graders about real-life mathematical problem solving: A randomized controlled study. (2006)
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of schema-broadening instruction (SBI), with and without explicit instruction in strategies for tackling the complexities involved in real-life (RL) math problems, on the math problem solving of third-grade students. Teachers (n = 30) were assigned randomly to 3 16-week conditions: control, SBI, and SBI-RL. Students in their classes (n = 455) were pre- and posttested on problem-solving measures at increasing transfer distances from the problems used for teaching problem solutions, with far transfer mirroring real-life problems. For the most part, SBI students, with and without RL, improved statistically significantly better than control students, with large effect sizes, but comparably to each other. By contrast, on the least structured real-life question, paralleling the ambiguities of real-life problem solving most closely, reliable and large effects favored the SBI-RL students over SBI and control students, suggesting RL's potential.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
The impact on learning of generating vs. (2006)
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Developing automaticity in multiplication facts: Integrating strategy instruction with timed practice drills. (2006)
Automaticity in math facts has been of considerable interest to special educators for decades. A review of the intervention literature suggests at least two common approaches to developing automaticity in facts. One is grounded in the use of strategies for teaching facts, the other emphasizes the use of timed practice drills. Recent research indicates that students might benefit from an integration of these two approaches. This experimental study contrasted an integrated approach (i.e., strategies and timed practice drills) with timed practice drills only for teaching multiplication facts. Participants were 58 fourth-grade students with a range of academic abilities. Fifteen of the students in the study had IEPs in math. Results indicated that both approaches were effective in helping students achieve automaticity in multiplication facts. However, students in the integrated approach generally performed better on posttest and maintenance test measures that assessed the application of facts to extended facts and approximation tasks. These results have implications for teaching a range of skills and concepts that are considered important to overall mathematical competence in the elementary grades. (Contains 7 tables and 7 figures.)
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Mathematical thinking intervention programmes for preschool children with normal and low number sense. (2005)
This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the level of preschoolers number sense by introducing two intervention programmes, "Lets think!" and "Young children with special educational needs count, too!" Forty-five preschoolers, mean age 66.4 months, were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received instruction twice a week, for half an hour, and for a period of nine months. Pretest?postest comparison revealed that the experimental group showed enhanced number-sense performance immediately after the instruction ended, but the between-group difference faded after six months. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in general mathematical thinking abilities (transfer tasks) after the intervention.
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Training of self-regulatory and problem-solving competence. (2005)
The effects of different trainings on the acquisition of mathematical problem-solving and self-regulation were studied with 249 eighth-graders. The study was conducted with 4 different trainings in German grammar schools. Each training consisted of six 90-min sessions on a weekly basis. The results confirm that it is possible to improve mathematical problem-solving and self-regulation competence through this kind of short training. The evaluation shows that the combination of self-regulatory and problem-solving strategies leads to the best effects for the improvement of self-regulatory competences. Furthermore, it is possible to improve problem-solving by practicing problem-solving and self-regulatory strategies or a combination of both.
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Using CRA to teach algebra to students with math difficulties in inclusive settings. (2005)
The importance of algebra instruction has increased in the United States in the past few years. Thus, in most states, middle school students are required to take Algebra 1. Middle school students with math difficulties in inclusion algebra settings may require a different instructional approach. The purpose of this research was to compare student achievement in solving linear algebraic functions across two procedural approaches: a multisensory algebra model using a concrete-to-representational-to-abstract sequence of instruction (CRA) and a repeated abstract explicit instruction model. Out of 231 students who participated, the students who learned through the CRA model scored significantly higher on the post- and follow-up test. The success of the CRA model was consistent for students with a history of low, medium, and high math achievement. Implications of this model and possibilities for future research are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)
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Progress in Mathematics ©2006: Grade 1 pre-post field test evaluation study. (2005)
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Final report: A study on the effectiveness of the 2004 Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary Math program. (2005)
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The relationship between using Saxon Elementary and Middle School Math and student performance on Georgia statewide assessments. (2005)
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Accelerated Math in grades 4 through 6: evaluation of an experimental program in 15 schools in North Rhine-Westphalia. (2005)
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A study of the relationship between the National Board Certification status of teachers and students’ achievement: Technical report. (2005)
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The relationship between using Saxon Middle School Math and student performance on Texas statewide assessments [Sample 3]. (2005)
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The relationship between using Saxon Middle School Math and student performance on Texas statewide assessments [Sample 1]. (2005)
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An evaluation of the second edition of UCSMP Transition Mathematics. (2005)
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Comparison of I CAN Learn and traditionally-taught 8th grade general math student performance on the California Standards Test, Spring 2004. (2004)
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Comparison of I CAN Learn and traditionally-taught 8th grade student performance on the Georgia criterion-referenced competency test. (2004)
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Implementation study of The Real Reasons for Seasons (2003–2004): SCALE-uP Report No. 4. (2004)
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Implementation study of Exploring Motion and Forces (2003–2004) (SCALE-uP Report No. 5). (2004)
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Large-scale evaluation of student achievement in districts using Houghton Mifflin. (2004)
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Mathematics for the future: Developing a Head Start curriculum to support mathematics learning. (2004)
While mathematics instruction for very young children needs to be age-appropriate in format and content, it also needs to prepare children conceptually for the kinds of mathematics learning that will be expected of them in future years. This perspective, informed by the work of Russian psychologists and educators on a measurement-based approach to early mathematics instruction [e.g., V.V. Davydov, Children's Capacity for Learning Mathematics, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, VA, pp. 109-205], was the basis for an experimental mathematics curriculum which focused on the concept of unit as it applies to enumeration, measurement, and the identification of relations among geometric shapes. The curriculum particularly emphasized two ideas about units that derive from a measurement perspective: first, that the numerical result we obtain from counting or other measurement operations will depend on our choice of a unit; and second, that units of one kind can be combined to form higher-order units or taken apart to form lower-order ones. The curriculum included a weekly project activity conducted by the Head Start teachers, suggestions for supplementary activities, and a weekly home activity for a parent or other family member to carry out with the child. It was implemented with children in three Head Start centers (N=46; age range 2 years, 9 months-4 years, 7 months at the beginning of the program). To evaluate the curriculum, two assessment instruments (the mathematics subscale of the DSC and a supplementary instrument constructed especially for this study) were administered, at the beginning and again at the end of the school year, to these children and to two comparison groups. One comparison group (N=48; age range 2 years, 6 months-4 years, 7 months) received a literacy intervention rather than a mathematics one; the other (N=29; age range 2 years, 8 months-4 years, 7 months) did not receive any experimental intervention. Results showed significant, albeit modest, positive effects of the intervention. The importance of reexamining current beliefs about what is possible--and desirable--within a preschool mathematics curriculum is emphasized.
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I CAN Learn in Orleans parish public schools: Effects on LEAP 8th grade math achievement, 2003–2004. (2004)
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Development of numerical estimation in young children. (2004)
Two experiments examined kindergartners', first graders', and second graders' numerical estimation, the internal representations that gave rise to the estimates, and the general hypothesis that developmental sequences within a domain tend to repeat themselves in new contexts. Development of estimation in this age range on 0-to-100 number lines followed the pattern observed previously with older children on 0-to-1,000 lines. Between kindergarten and second grade (6 and 8 years), patterns of estimates progressed from consistently logarithmic to a mixture of logarithmic and linear to a primarily linear pattern. Individual differences in number-line estimation correlated strongly with math achievement test scores, improved estimation accuracy proved attributable to increased linearity of estimates, and exposure to relevant experience tended to improve estimation accuracy.
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Expanding schema-based transfer instruction to help third graders solve real-life mathematical problems. (2004)
Mathematical problem solving is a transfer challenge requiring children to develop schemas for recognizing novel problems as belonging to familiar problem types for which they know solutions. Schema-based transfer instruction (SBTI) explicitly teaches transfer features that change problems in superficial ways to make them appear novel even though they still require known solution strategies. This study assessed the effects of an expanded version of SBTI incorporating more challenging transfer features for broadening schemas and helping children recognize real-life math problems as solvable. Teachers were assigned randomly to 16-week control, SBTI, or expanded SBTI conditions. Students completed pretests and posttests focusing on increasing transfer distances. On a measure approximating real-life problem solving, the expanded SBTI group outperformed the SBTI group, which in turn outperformed the control group. (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 3 footnotes.)
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Enhancing mathematical problem solving among third-grade students with schema-based instruction. (2004)
The purposes of this study were to assess the effects of schema-based instruction (SBI) in promoting mathematical problem solving and to investigate schema induction as a mechanism in the development of mathematical problem solving. Twenty-four 3rd-grade teachers, with 366 students, were assigned randomly to conditions that provided instruction on 4 types of word problems. The 3 16-week conditions were contrast, SBI, and SBI with practice in sorting word problems into schemas. Students were pre- and posttested on mathematical problem-solving tests and were posttested on schema development. Students receiving SBI, with and without sorting practice, improved more than the contrast group on problem-solving measures. Concurrently, the SBI groups' schema development exceeded that of the contrast group, and schema development explained a substantial portion of unique variance in students' posttreatment problem-solving performance. Results also suggested the need for additional research testing the contribution of practice in sorting word problems.
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Enhancing third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving with self-regulated learning strategies. (2003b)
Assesses the contribution of self-regulated learning strategies (SRL), when combined with problem-solving transfer instruction, on 3rd-graders' mathematical problem solving. SRL incorporated goal setting and self-evaluation. Contrasts the effectiveness of transfer plus SRL to the transfer treatment alone and to teacher-designed instruction. SRL positively affected performance. (Contains 39 references and 5 tables.) (GCP)
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Explicitly teaching for transfer: Effects on third-grade students’ mathematical problem solving. (2003a)
Assesses the effects of explicitly teaching for transfer by broadening the categories by which students group problems requiring the same solution methods and prompting students to search novel problems for these broad categories. This transfer treatment was combined with instruction on solution methods. Improvement on immediate- and near-transfer measures supported the utility of solution instruction. (Contains 44 references, 2 tables, and 2 appendixes.) (GCP)
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Fraction instruction for students with mathematics disabilities: Comparing two teaching sequences. (2003)
This study compared effectiveness of either a concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) or a representational-abstract (RA) instructional sequence in teaching fraction concepts to 50 middle school students with mathematics disabilities. On all achievement measures, students in the CRA group had overall higher mean scores than did students in the RA group. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
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Enhancing mathematical reasoning in the classroom: The effects of cooperative learning and metacognitive training. (2003)
Studied the effects of four instructional methods on the mathematical reasoning and metacognitive knowledge of 384 eighth graders. Results show that cooperative learning plus metacognitive training outperformed other combinations of individual and cooperative learning and metacognitive instruction or learning without metacognitive instruction. (SLD)
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Teaching algebra to students with learning difficulties: An investigation of an explicit instruction model. (2003)
Sixth- and seventh-grade students (n=68) with learning disabilities in mathematics received either concrete-to-representational-to-abstract (CRA) or traditional instruction in algebraic transformation equations. Students receiving the CRA instruction outperformed peers receiving traditional instruction on both post-instruction and follow-up tests and performed fewer procedural errors when solving for variables. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
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Technical report: Houghton Mifflin California math performance evaluation. (2003)
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The relationship between National Board certification for teachers and student achievement (Doctoral dissertation). (2003)
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The effects of metacognitive training versus worked-out examples on students’ mathematical reasoning. (2003)

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