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Practice Guide K-6 3
Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom (September 2008)
Designed for elementary school educators and school- and district-level administrators, this guide offers prevention, implementation, and schoolwide strategies that can be used to reduce problematic behavior that interferes with the ability of students to attend to and engage fully in instructional activities.
Intervention Report K 3
Fast Track: Elementary School (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (October 2014)
Fast Track is a comprehensive intervention program designed to reduce conduct problems and promote academic, behavioral, and social improvement. Prior to grade 1, students are identified as being at risk for long-term antisocial behavior through teacher and parent reports of conduct problems. Delivery of the program begins in grade 1 and continues through grade 10. After the first year, the frequency of the supports is reduced based on the assessed functioning of the students and their families. Fast Track consists of seven integrated intervention components: the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum, parent groups, parent–child sharing time, child social skills training groups, home visiting, child peer-pairing, and academic tutoring.
Intervention Report 12 3
Building Decision Skills (Character Education) (April 2007)
Building Decision Skills aims to raise middle and high school students’ awareness of ethics, help them gain experience developing core values, and give them strategies for dealing with ethical dilemmas. Building Decision Skills consists of 10 lessons that can fill 2 consecutive weeks of daily lessons or be drawn out over a longer period. Using readings, handouts, and overheads, the teacher covers key concepts. Students are encouraged to think about the key concepts through small-group activities, class discussions, and homework assignments. The program also includes schoolwide components such as group discussions, seminars, and assemblies, and can be combined with service learning.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Caring School Community (CSC) (Character Education) (April 2007)
Caring School Community™ (CSC) is a modified version of a program formerly known as the Child Development Project. CSC is a multiyear school improvement program that involves all students in grades K–6. The program aims to promote core values, prosocial behavior, and a schoolwide feeling of community. The program consists of four elements originally developed for the Child Development Project: class meeting lessons, cross-age “buddies” programs, “homeside” activities, and schoolwide community. Class lessons provide teachers and students with a forum to get to know one another, discuss issues, identify and solve problems collaboratively, and make a range of decisions that affect classroom life. Cross-age buddies activities pair whole classes of older and younger students for academic and recreational activities that build caring cross-age relationships and create a schoolwide climate of trust. Homeside activities include short conversational activities that are sent home with students for them to do with parents or caregivers and then to discuss back in their classroom. The activities incorporate the families’ perspectives, cultures, and traditions, thereby promoting interpersonal understanding. Schoolwide community-building activities bring students, parents, and school staff together to create new school traditions.
Intervention Report K-6 3
Positive Action (Character Education) (April 2007)
Positive Action, at its core, teaches the philosophy that you feel good about yourself when you do positive actions and there is always a positive way to do everything. It is illustrated by the the Thoughts-Actions-Feelings about self Circle where positive thoughts lead to positive actions, which in turn lead to positive feelings about oneself. It also teaches the positive actions for physical, intellectual, social and emotional areas—the whole self. It is a Pre-K-12 school-based program that aims to promote good behavior while disrupting problem behaviors, improves academics, and develops social-emotional and character skills while improving mental and physical health and self-concept. Lessons are scripted and use a wide variety of strategies: classroom discussion, role-play, games, songs, journals, manipulatives and activity sheets and text booklets.
Intervention Report 9-12 3
Too Good for Drugs and Violence (TGFD & V) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Drugs and Violence is designed to promote high school students’ pro-social skills, positive character traits, and violence- and drug-free norms. The curriculum consists of 14 core lessons, as well as an additional 12 lessons that can be infused into other subject areas (such as English, science, and social studies). Teachers participate in 10 staff development lessons. The program includes optional elements of family and community involvement.
Intervention Report 3 3
Too Good For Violence (TGFV) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Violence promotes character values, social-emotional skills, and healthy beliefs in elementary and middle school students. The program includes seven lessons per grade level for elementary school (K–5) and nine lessons per grade level for middle school (6–8). All lessons are scripted and engage students through role-playing and cooperative learning games, small group activities, and classroom discussions. Students are encouraged to apply these skills to different contexts. Too Good for Violence also includes optional parental and community involvement elements.
Intervention Report 3-12 3
Connect with Kids (Character Education) (September 2006)
Connect with Kids aims to promote prosocial attitudes and positive behavior of elementary (grades 3–5) and secondary (grades 6–12) school students by teaching core character values. Lesson plans include videos, story summaries, discussion questions, student games, and activities for both core and supplemental character traits. The classroom curriculum is reinforced by a website component and schoolwide and community outreach components. The program can be incorporated into an existing curriculum or used as a standalone program. The school or teacher decides on the number of character traits covered in each session, so the program duration may vary from one semester to an entire academic year.
Intervention Report 3-6 3
Too Good for Drugs (TGFD) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Too Good for Drugs™ is designed to promote elementary and middle school students’ life skills, character values, resistance skills to negative peer influence, and resistance to the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. The program is based on classroom discussions and structured activities that center on interactive learning and skill-building exercises. Students engage in role-play and cooperative learning games and are encouraged to apply the skills to different contexts. Too Good for Drugs™ also includes the optional elements of parental and community involvement.
Intervention Report 1-5 -1
Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) (Supportive Learning Environment Interventions Review Protocol ) (March 2021)
The Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) program is a curriculum that aims to promote emotional and social competencies and to reduce aggression and behavior problems in elementary school children. PATHS® is delivered through short lessons given two to three times a week over the school year. The program is based on the principle that understanding and regulating emotions are central to effective problem solving. The lessons focus on (1) self-control, (2) emotional literacy, (3) social competence, (4) positive peer relations, and (5) interpersonal problem-solving skills. There is a separate curriculum for each grade.
Intervention Report K-12 -1
Functional Behavioral Assessment-based Interventions (December 2016)
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an individualized problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior. An assessment is conducted to identify the purpose or function of a student's problem behavior. This assessment process involves collecting information about the environmental conditions that precede the problem behavior and the subsequent rewards that reinforce the behavior. The information that is gathered is then used to identify and implement individualized interventions aimed at reducing problem behaviors and increasing positive behaviors. Accordingly, the studies evaluating FBA examine different FBA-based interventions identified for each student. FBA-based interventions can be used to address diverse problem behaviors, such as disruptive and off-task behaviors, noncompliance, and inappropriate social interactions.
Intervention Report PK -1
Pivotal Response Training (December 2016)
Pivotal response training (PRT) is an intervention designed for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This practice focuses on pivotal (core) areas affected by autism, such as communication and responding to environmental stimuli. PRT sessions typically begin with a parent or teacher providing clear instructions to a child, having the child help choose a stimulus (such as a toy), and focusing the child’s attention. The parent or teacher then encourages the desired behavior (for example, asking for the toy or choosing “toy” from a list of words) by providing rewards if the child implements or attempts to implement the desired behavior. Parents and teachers often model the appropriate behavior or use the stimulus with the child. Activities that maintain existing behaviors are interspersed with activities eliciting new behaviors. The complexity of the required responses increases as training progresses. Parents, teachers, and peers collaboratively implement the practice at school, at home, and in the community. PRT can be used with autistic children aged 2–18. PRT is also known as Pivotal Response Therapy, Pivotal Response Treatment®, or Natural Language Paradigm.
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Check & Connect (Dropout Prevention) (May 2015)
Check & Connect is a dropout prevention strategy that relies on close monitoring of school performance, mentoring, case management, and other supports. The program has two main components: “Check” and “Connect.” The Check component is designed to continually assess student engagement through close monitoring of student performance and progress indicators. The Connect component involves program staff giving individualized attention to students, in partnership with school personnel, family members, and community service providers. Students enrolled in Check & Connect are assigned a “monitor” who regularly reviews their performance (in particular, whether students are having attendance, behavior, or academic problems) and intervenes when problems are identified. The monitor also advocates for students, coordinates services, provides ongoing feedback and encouragement, and emphasizes the importance of staying in school.
Intervention Report PK -1
Social Skills Training (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (February 2013)

Social skills training is not a specific curriculum, but rather a collection of practices that utilize a behavioral approach to teaching preschool children age-appropriate social skills and competencies, including communication, problem solving, decision making, self-management, and peer relations. Social skills training can occur in both regular and special education classrooms.


Intervention Report K-2 -1
Early Risers (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (June 2012)
Early Risers is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children’s emotional and behavioral self-regulation, positive peer relationships, and academic success. The Child School Support component aims to identify areas of difficulty in the classroom and creates individualized plans to address those difficulties during the course of normal school activities. The Parent Skills component is delivered in “family night” group sessions and is intended to promote parents’ abilities to support their children’s healthy development by teaching skills that address positive parent–child relations, effective discipline practices, and parent involvement in school. The Family Support component is delivered via home visits to identify basic needs and health concerns and then implement plans designed to assist families in achieving and maintaining healthy lifestyles.
Intervention Report K-3 -1
First Step to Success (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (March 2012)

First Step to Success is an early intervention program designed to help children who are at risk for developing aggressive or antisocial behavioral patterns. The program uses a trained behavior coach who works with each student and his or her class peers, teacher, and parents for approximately 50–60 hours over a 3-month period. First Step to Success includes three interconnected modules: screening, classroom intervention, and parent training.

Intervention Report PK-2 -1
The Incredible Years (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (November 2011)
The Incredible Years is composed of training programs for children, parents, and teachers. The child program is designed for children (ages 0–12) with challenging behaviors and focuses on building social and emotional skills. Lessons can be delivered to children referred for difficult behavior or to an entire classroom as a preventative measure. The program consists of 20- to 30-minute lessons 2–3 times a week; these lessons are reinforced by small-group activities, practicing skills throughout the day, and communicating with parents. Lessons cover recognizing and understanding feelings, getting along with friends, anger management, problem solving, and behavior at school. Parent training programs focus on positive discipline, promoting learning and development, and involvement in children’s life at school.
Intervention Report 4-5 -1
Coping Power (Children Identified With or at Risk for an Emotional Disturbance) (October 2011)
Coping Power is based on the earlier Anger Coping Power program. It emphasizes social and emotional skills that are needed during the transition to middle school. The program incorporates child and parent components. The child component consists of thirty-four 50-minute group sessions and periodic individual sessions over the course of 15–18 months, although the program can be shortened to fit into a single school year. Lessons focus on goal setting, problem solving, anger management, and peer relationships. The parent component is composed of 16 group sessions and periodic individual meetings. Lessons support the child component of the program and address setting expectations, praise, discipline, managing stress, communication, and child study skills.
Intervention Report PK -1
Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis (Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities) (August 2010)
The Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis is a type of behavioral therapy that initially focuses on discrete trials: brief periods of one-on-one instruction, during which a teacher cues a behavior, prompts the appropriate response, and provides reinforcement to the child. Children in the program receive an average of 35–40 hours of intervention per week that consists of in-home one-to-one instruction, facilitated peer play, inclusion and support in regular education classrooms, and generalization activities for transfer of skills to natural environments. In addition, parents are trained in instructional techniques. The intervention generally lasts about 3 years.
Intervention Report 4-5 -1
Lessons in Character (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lessons in Character is designed to promote elementary and middle school students’ knowledge about core character education values and, through that knowledge, shape children’s positive behaviors and support academic success. It consists of 24 lessons organized around weekly themes, writing activities, and class projects. Teachers introduce the theme with a story that shows a value in action; students then engage that topic with a variety of activities. The program also includes daily oral language development and weekly writing assignments, optional parts of the program’s implementation.
Intervention Report 6-7 -1
Voices Literature and Character Education (Voices LACE) (Character Education) (September 2006)
Voices Literature and Character Education Program (Voices LACE; formerly known as Voices of Love and Freedom and Literacy and Values) is a K–12 program that aims to promote positive character and citizenship values, literacy skills, and social skills. The program curriculum can be used over any length of time. During classroom lessons, students read books about issues such as ethnic discrimination, fighting, or bullying, and elaborate on central themes through role-playing and discussions practiced in school and at home. Emphasis is given to promoting caring relationships between teachers and students and among students, and to connecting the values taught to students’ personal stories. Voices LACE may also be implemented as a schoolwide improvement program. Optional components of the program include schoolwide events and restructuring of school organization and practices (establishing student assemblies and creating small learning communities), parental involvement (home visits and family nights), and community support (joint campaigns with supporting organizations and business).
Intervention Report 6-8 -1
Lions Quest -- Skills for Adolescence (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence is a schoolwide program for middle school students (grades 6–8). The program is designed to promote good citizenship skills, core character values, social-emotional skills, and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol, and violence. The program includes a classroom curriculum, schoolwide practices to create a positive school climate, parent and family involvement, and community involvement. The curriculum may vary in scope and intensity, lasting from 9 weeks to 3 years. The lessons use cooperative group learning exercises and classroom management techniques to improve classroom climate.
Intervention Report 8 -1
Facing History and Ourselves (Character Education) (September 2006)
Facing History and Ourselves aims to promote core character education values and to help middle and high school students develop moral reasoning skills. Students examine historical events; in particular, the events that led to World War II and the Holocaust. Teachers participate in professional development seminars and apply the content and approaches to their own teaching or school program. Facing History and Ourselves also includes optional schoolwide components (such as guest speakers and videos).
Intervention Report 9-12 -1
Lions Quest -- Skills for Action (Character Education) (September 2006)
Lions Quest Skills for Action, a program to build positive character values and life and citizenship skills for students in grades 9–12, includes classroom lessons and service learning. The program includes more than 100 lessons focused around 26 personal, social, and thinking skills. Program length ranges from one semester to 4 years. Students explore personal stories highlighting values and behavior through teachers’ questions, group discussion, and resource pages in the curricular materials. For service learning, students perform school-based or community-based projects and reflect on their experiences. Optional components include a student magazine, an Advisory Team, and supplemental units on drug use prevention.
Intervention Report 1-6 -1
Heartwood Ethics Curriculum/An Ethics Curriculum for Children (Character Education) (September 2006)
An Ethics Curriculum for Children, a read-aloud literature-based curriculum, aims to teach elementary school students seven universal attributes of good character. Lessons and home assignments are organized around multicultural stories. The program activities are designed to connect the experiences of characters in the stories to students’ own lives. Optional parts of the Heartwood Ethics Curriculum for Children also include integration of character education themes across curricular topics and parental notification and involvement.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 1
Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Teacher Training Program on Elementary Children with Aggressive Behaviors (2020)
The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM), a universal classroom management intervention, on the outcomes of children with aggressive behavior in elementary school. Classroom management has been demonstrated as a factor in either escalating children's aggressive behavior or decreasing those problematic behaviors. Participants included 1,817 students (Grade K to 3) and 105 teachers from nine elementary schools in a large urban Midwestern school district. Teachers were randomly assigned to receive IY TCM or to a wait-list comparison group. The hypotheses were that baseline levels of aggression would moderate the relationship between intervention status and outcomes. Findings indicated the hypothesized moderation effect on several outcome variables; specifically, children with baseline aggression problems who were in IY TCM classrooms had significantly improved math achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviors, and observed aggression in comparison to similar peers in the control classrooms. Implications for practice and future research based on the findings are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
A national experiment reveals where a growth mindset improves achievement. (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
Building Assets and Reducing Risks (BARR) Validation Study Final Report (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 1
Investigating Causal Effects of Arts Education Experiences: Experimental Evidence from Houston's Arts Access Initiative (2019)
The recent wave of test-based accountability reforms has negatively impacted the provision of K-12 arts educational experiences. Advocates contend that, in addition to providing intrinsic benefits, the arts can positively influence academic and social development. However, the empirical evidence to support such claims is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 10,548 3rd-8th grade students who were enrolled in 42 schools that were assigned by lottery to receive substantial influxes of arts education experiences provided through school-community partnerships with local arts organizations, cultural institutions, and teaching-artists. We find that these increases in arts educational experiences significantly reduce the proportion of students receiving disciplinary infractions by 3.6 percentage points, improve STAAR writing achievement by 0.13 of a standard deviation, and increase students' compassion for others by 0.08 of a standard deviation. For students in elementary schools, which comprise 86 percent of the sample, we find that these arts educational experiences also significantly improve school engagement, college aspirations, and arts-facilitated empathy. These findings provide strong evidence that arts educational experiences can produce significant positive impacts on student academic and social development. Policymakers should consider these multifaceted educational benefits when assessing the role and value of the arts in K-12 schools.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 1
Reappraising academic and social adversity improves middle school students' academic achievement, behavior, and well-being (2019)
The period of early adolescence is characterized by dramatic changes, simultaneously affecting physiological, psychological, social, and cognitive development. The physical transition from elementary to middle school can exacerbate the stress and adversity experienced during this critical life stage. Middle school students often struggle to find social and emotional support, and many students experience a decreased sense of belonging in school, diverting students from promising academic and career trajectories. Drawing on psychological insights for promoting belonging, we fielded a brief intervention designed to help students reappraise concerns about fitting in at the start ofmiddle school as both temporary and normal. We conducted a district-wide double-blind experimental study of this approach with middle school students (n = 1,304). Compared with the control condition activities, the intervention reduced sixth-grade disciplinary incidents across the district by 34%, increased attendance by 12%, and reduced the number of failing grades by 18%. Differences in benefits across demographic groups were not statistically significant, but some impactswere descriptively larger for historically underservedminority students and boys. A mediational analysis suggested 80% of longterm intervention effects on students’ grade point averages were accounted for by changes in students’ attitudes and behaviors. These results demonstrate the long-term benefits of psychologically reappraising stressful experiences during critical transitions and the psychological and behavioral mechanisms that support them. Furthermore, this brief intervention is a highly cost-effective and scalable approach that schools may use to help address the troubling decline in positive attitudes and academic outcomes typically accompanying adolescence and the middle school transition.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 1
A randomized waitlist controlled analysis of Team-Initiated Problem Solving professional development and use (2018)
Data-based problem solving is a hallmark of research-supported practices such as positive behavioral interventions and supports. In this study, we provided members of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) teams from 38 elementary schools with professional development focused on a research-supported problem-solving model (Team-Initiated Problem Solving). We used direct observations to document procedures, practices, and outcomes before and after participating in the professional development workshop. Within the context of a randomized waitlist controlled trial, team members in the Immediate Group demonstrated greater improvement in (a) problem-solving procedures, (b) decision-making practices, and (c) meeting outcomes than did members of PBIS teams in the Waitlist Group. Our findings extend what is known about team-based problem solving and provide a framework for future research and improved practice related to decision making by school teams.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 1
Reducing child problem behaviors and improving teacher-child interactions and relationships: A randomized controlled trial of BEST in CLASS (2018)
Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic problem behaviors; however, Tier-2 interventions that can be delivered by teachers with fidelity in authentic settings are lacking. This study examined the effect of BEST in CLASS, a Tier-2 intervention delivered by teachers, on child problem behavior, teacher-child interactions and teacher-child relationships using a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Participants were 465 children (3–5 year olds) identified at risk for the development of EBDs and their 185 teachers from early childhood programs located in two southeastern states. Significant effects were found across both teacher reported (ES ranging from 0.23 to 0.42) and observed child outcomes (ES ranging form 0.44–0.46), as well as teacher-child relationships (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.29) and observed teacher-children interactions (ES ranging from 0.26 to 0.45), favoring the BEST in CLASS condition. Results suggest the promise of BEST in CLASS as a Tier-2 intervention for use in authentic early childhood classroom contexts and provide implications for future research on transactional models of teacher and child behavior.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 1
I3 BARR Validation Study (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2 1
Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) Primary Version (2015)
A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured via the SSIS rating scale for all participants, and direct observations were completed for a subsample of participants within each classroom. Results indicated that the SSIS-CIP demonstrated positive effects on teacher ratings of participants' social skills and internalizing behaviors, with the greatest changes occurring in classrooms with students who exhibited lower skill proficiency prior to implementation. Statistically significant differences were not observed between treatment and control participants on teacher ratings of externalizing problem behaviors or direct observation.
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 2
Illustrating the Promise of Community Schools: An Assessment of the Impact of the New York City Community Schools Initiative. (2020)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-12 2
Can Restorative Practices Improve School Climate and Curb Suspensions? An Evaluation of the Impact of Restorative Practices in a Mid-Sized Urban School District. Research Report. RR-2840-DOJ. (2018)
Across the country, school districts, their stakeholders, and policymakers have become increasingly concerned about suspensions, particularly about suspending students from elementary school and disproportionately suspending ethnic/racial minority students. Suspended students are less likely to graduate, possibly because they miss the instructional time they need to advance academically. Restorative practices have gained buy-in in the education community as a strategy to reduce suspension rates. Proactively improving relationships among students and staff and building a sense of community in classrooms and schools may make students less inclined to misbehave. And addressing severe misbehavior through a restorative approach may help students realize the impacts of their actions and make them less likely to offend again. This study of the implementation of restorative practices in the Pittsburgh Public Schools district (PPS) in school years 2015-16 and 2016-17 represents one of the first randomized controlled trials of the effects of restorative practices on classroom and school climates and suspension rates. The authors examined a specific restorative practices program -- the International Institute for Restorative Practices' SaferSanerSchools™ Whole-School Change program -- implemented in a selected group of PPS schools under a program called Pursuing Equitable and Restorative Communities, or PERC. The researchers found that PERC achieved several positive effects, including an improvement in overall school climates (as rated by teachers), a reduction in overall suspension rates, and a reduction in the disparities in suspension rates between African American and white students and between low- and higher-income students. Key Findings: Effects of the Pursuing Equitable and Restorative Communities (PERC) program in Pittsburgh Public Schools: (1) Implementation of restorative practices through PERC improved overall school climates, as rated by teachers; (2) Implementation of restorative practices reduced the average suspension rate: During the study period, average suspension rates decreased in both PERC and non-PERC schools, but rates decreased more in PERC schools; (3) Suspension rates of African American students and of those from low-income families also went down in PERC schools, shrinking the disparities in suspension rates between African American and white students and between low- and higher-income students; (4) Academic outcomes did not improve in PERC schools, and actually worsened for grades 6-8; and (5) Arrest rates among PERC schools did not decrease. Recommendations: (1) Given the constraints on teachers' time, emphasize restorative practices that can be woven into the school day; (2) Ensure that school leaders understand and can model restorative practices, including by providing mandatory professional development, books and other materials, and coaching on restorative practices; (3) Establish a mechanism for school staff to meet at least once per month as a professional learning community on restorative practices; (4) Ensure that leaders at the district level can coordinate this work; (5) Set, and update, clear expectations regarding the use of restorative practices; and (6) Implement data collection systems to collect accurate information on all types of behavioral incidents and remedies.
Reviews of Individual Studies PS 3
An RCT of a CBT Intervention for Emerging Adults with ADHD Attending College: Functional Outcomes (2021)
Objective: The current study reports functional outcomes from a multi-site randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for college students diagnosed with ADHD. Methods: A sample of emerging adults (N = 250; ages 18 to 30) currently attending college were comprehensively evaluated and diagnosed with ADHD (M age = 19.7; 66% female, 6.8% Latino, 66.3% Caucasian). Participants were randomized to either a two-semester intervention (Accessing Campus Connections and Empowering Student Success (ACCESS)) or a delayed treatment condition. Participants were assessed with measures of academic, daily life, and relationship functioning prior to treatment, at the end of the first semester, and after the second semester of treatment. Results: Multi-group latent growth curve models revealed moderate effect size improvements on self-report measures of study skills and strategies, as well as on self-report measures of time management, daily functioning, and overall well-being for participants in ACCESS. Importantly, treatment effects were maintained or increased in some cases from the end of the first semester to the end of the second semester. Improvements in self-reported interpersonal functioning were not significantly different across condition and neither condition demonstrated significant change over time in educational record outcomes (GPA and number of credits earned). Conclusions: ACCESS appears to promote improvements in self-reported general well-being and functioning, time management, and study skills and strategies. However, improvements in interpersonal relationships and objective academic outcomes such as GPA were not observed. Clinical implications and future directions for treating ADHD on university and college campuses are discussed. [This is the online version of an article published in "Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology."]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Efficacy Validation of the Revised First Step Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2020)
Disruptive behavior problems frequently emerge in the preschool years and are associated with numerous, long-term negative outcomes, including comorbid disorders. First Step is a psychosocial early intervention with substantial empirical evidence supporting its efficacy among young children. The present study reports on a validation study of the revised and updated First Step early intervention, called First Step Next, conducted within four preschool settings. One hundred sixty students at risk for school failure, and their teachers, were randomized to intervention and control conditions. Results indicated coach and teacher adherence to implementing the core components of the program was excellent. Teachers and parents had high satisfaction ratings. For the three First Step Next prosocial domains, Hedges’ g effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 0.34 to 0.91. For the problem behavior domain, children who received the First Step Next intervention had significant reductions in teacher- and parent-reported problem behavior as compared to children randomized to the control condition. For the problem behavior domain, Hedges’ g ESs ranged from 0.33 to 0.63, again favoring the intervention condition. All of the domains were statistically significant. This study builds on the evidence base supporting the First Step intervention in preschool settings.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Supporting Preschool Children with Developmental Concerns: Effects of the Getting Ready Intervention on School-Based Social Competencies and Relationships (2019)
The current study reports the results of a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of the Getting Ready parent engagement intervention on young children's social-emotional competencies and the quality of the student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships. Participants were 267 preschool-aged children and their parents, as well as 97 preschool teachers. All children attended publicly funded preschool programs and were low income. In addition, all were considered educationally at risk due to developmental concerns in the areas of language, cognition and/or social-emotional development. Parent and teacher surveys were administered twice per academic year (fall and spring) for two academic years. Findings indicated that children in the treatment group were rated by their teachers to have greater improvement in social skills over two years of preschool as compared to their peers in the comparison condition. Teachers in the treatment condition reported significantly greater increases in their relationships with children as compared to children in the comparison group. Teachers in the intervention group also reported significant increases in their overall relationships with parents. The current findings illustrate the efficacy of Getting Ready at improving the social skills and important relationships for preschool children experiencing developmental risk. [This paper was published in "Early Childhood Research Quarterly" v48 n3 p303-316 2019.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Efficacy of the ASAP Intervention for Preschoolers with ASD: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (2018)
The advancing social-communication and play (ASAP) intervention was designed as a classroom-based intervention, in which the educational teams serving preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder are trained to implement the intervention in order to improve these children's social-communication and play skills. In this 4-year, multi-site efficacy trial, classrooms were randomly assigned to ASAP or a business-as-usual control condition. A total of 78 classrooms, including 161 children, enrolled in this study. No significant group differences were found for the primary outcomes of children's social-communication and play. However, children in the ASAP group showed increased classroom engagement. Additionally, participation in ASAP seemed to have a protective effect for one indicator of teacher burnout. Implications for future research are discussed.
Reviews of Individual Studies 11 3
The Effectiveness of a Teacher Delivered Mindfulness-Based Curriculum on Adolescent Social-Emotional and Executive Functioning (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Contrasting approaches to the response-contingent learning of young children with significant delays and their social–emotional consequences (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-6 3
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams "CW-FIT": Outcomes from a Multi-Site Randomized Replication Trial (2017)
The purpose of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to demonstrate efficacy of the Class-wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program. The study was designed to replicate an initial RCT conducted by the CW-FIT developers in 1 site, with 2 additional research groups not involved in its development. The study was conducted across 3 states, in 21 culturally diverse schools, and with 83 teachers (classrooms) assigned to CW-FIT and 74 teachers (classrooms) assigned to the comparison group. The CW-FIT intervention included teaching prosocial skills and use of differential attention (teacher praise and points) for appropriate behaviors using a group contingency, class teams, goal setting, points, and rewards. Class-wide student on-task behavior improved, teacher praise and attention to appropriate behaviors increased, and reprimands decreased in the CW-FIT classes with significantly fewer changes over time for the comparison group.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 3
Overcoming the Research-to-Practice Gap: A Randomized Trial With Two Brief Homework and Organization Interventions for Students With ADHD as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers (2017)
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of 2 brief school-based interventions targeting the homework problems of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention and the Completing Homework by Improving Efficiency and Focus (CHIEF) intervention, as implemented by school mental health providers during the school day. A secondary goal was to use moderator analyses to identify student characteristics that may differentially predict intervention response. Method: Two-hundred and eighty middle school students with ADHD were randomized to the HOPS or CHIEF interventions or to waitlist, and parent and teacher ratings were collected pre, post, and at a 6-month follow-up. Results: Both interventions were implemented with fidelity by school mental health providers. Participants were pulled from elective periods and sessions averaged less than 20 min. Participants in HOPS and CHIEF demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comparison with waitlist on parent ratings of homework problems and organizational skills and effect sizes were large. HOPS participants also demonstrated moderate effect size improvements on materials management and organized action behaviors according to teachers. HOPS participants made significantly greater improvements in parent- and teacher-rated use of organized actions in comparison with CHIEF, but not on measures of homework problems. Moderation analyses revealed that participants with more severe psychopathology and behavioral dysregulation did significantly better with the HOPS intervention as compared to the CHIEF intervention. Conclusions: Brief school-based interventions implemented by school providers can be effective. This type of service delivery model may facilitate overcoming the oft cited research-to-practice gap.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 3
The efficacy of conjoint behavioral consultation in the home setting: Outcomes and mechanisms in rural communities (2017)
This study reports the results of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC), a family-school partnership intervention, on children's behaviors, parents' skills, and parent-teacher relationships in rural community and town settings. Participants were 267 children, 267 parents, and 152 teachers in 45 Midwestern schools. Using an Intent to Treat approach and data analyzed within a multilevel modeling framework, CBC yielded promising results for some but not all outcomes. Specifically, children participating in CBC experienced decreases in daily reports of aggressiveness, noncompliance, and temper tantrums; and increases in parent-reported adaptive skills and social skills at a significantly greater pace than those in a control group. Other outcomes (e.g., parent reports of internalizing and externalizing behaviors) suggested a nonsignificant effect at post-test. CBC parents reported using more effective parenting strategies, gaining more competence in their problem-solving practices, and feeling more efficacious for helping their child succeed in school than parents in the control group. Parents participating in CBC also reported significant improvements in the parent-teacher relationship, and the parent-teacher relationship mediated the effect of CBC on children's adaptive skills. Implications for practice in rural communities, study limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. [This article was published in "Journal of School Psychology" v62 p81-101 2017.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-12 3
Randomized evaluation of peer support arrangements to support the inclusion of high school students with severe disabilities (2016)
Enhancing the social and learning experiences of students with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms has been a long-standing focus of research, legislative, and advocacy efforts. The authors used a randomized controlled experimental design to examine the efficacy of peer support arrangements to improve academic and social outcomes for 51 students with severe disabilities in high school general education classrooms. Paraprofessionals or special educators recruited, trained, and supported 106 peers to provide individualized academic and social assistance to students with severe disabilities throughout one semester. Compared to students exclusively receiving adult-delivered support (n = 48), students participating in peer support arrangements experienced increased interactions with peers, increased academic engagement, more progress on individualized social goals, increased social participation, and a greater number of new friendships. Moreover, an appreciable proportion of relationships lasted one and two semesters later after the intervention had concluded. These findings challenge prevailing practices for supporting inclusive education and establish the efficacy and social validity of peer support arrangements as a promising alternative to individually assigned paraprofessional support.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Early childhood mental health consultation: Results of a statewide random-controlled evaluation. (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-5 3
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a School-Implemented School–Home Intervention for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Impairment (2016)
Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel psychosocial intervention (Collaborative Life Skills, CLS) for primary-school students with ADHD symptoms. CLS is a 12-week program consisting of integrated school, parent, and student treatments delivered by school-based mental health providers. Using a cluster randomized design, CLS was compared to usual school/community services on psychopathology and functional outcomes. Methods: Schools within a large urban public school district were randomly assigned to CLS (12 schools) or usual services (11 schools). Approximately six students participated at each school (N = 135, mean age = 8.4 years, grade range = 2nd-5th, 71% boys). Using PROC GENMOD (SAS 9.4) the difference between the means of CLS and usual services for each outcome at post-treatment was tested. To account for clustering effects by school, the Generalized Estimating Equation method was used. Results: Students from schools assigned to CLS, relative to those assigned to usual services, had significantly greater improvement on parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptom severity and organizational functioning, teacher-rated academic performance and parent ratings of ODD symptoms and social/interpersonal skills. Conclusions: These results support the efficacy of CLS relative to typical school and community practices for reducing ADHD and ODD symptoms and improving key areas of functional impairment. They further suggest that existing school-based mental health resources can be re-deployed from non-empirically supported practices to those with documented efficacy. This model holds promise for improving access to efficient, evidence-based treatment for inattentive and disruptive behavior beyond the clinic setting. [This article was published in the "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry," v55 p762-770 2016.]
Reviews of Individual Studies PK 3
Family-based training program improves brain function, cognition, and behavior in lower socioeconomic status preschoolers. (2013)
Over the course of several years of research, the authors have employed psychophysics, electrophysiological (ERP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to study the development and neuroplasticity of the human brain. During this time, they observed that different brain systems and related functions display markedly different degrees or "profiles" of neuroplasticity. Most relevant for the application of research in cognitive neuroscience to the design of education interventions are results showing that some systems are highly modifiable by experience and are dependent on experience but only during particular time periods ("sensitive periods"). In such systems they also observed Systems that are most modifiable (i.e., display more neuroplasticity) display both enhancements in the deaf and blind, and greater vulnerability in those with or at risk for developmental disorders. One system that displays this profile is sustained selective attention. Considerable evidence documents the central role of selective attention in all aspects of learning and memory, and school readiness in particular (for review, see Stevens & Bavelier, 2012). Selective attention is a highly malleable system that is both enhanced in remaining modalities following sensory deprivation, shows deficits in developmental disorders and in typically developing children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds and that can be increased in both typically and non-typically developing children following computerized training (Stevens & Neville, 2009; Stevens, Lauinger, & Neville, 2009; Stevens, et al., 2008). Guided in part by these findings, the authors developed and assessed an eight-week, family-based training program designed to improve lower SES preschool children's academic readiness and, centrally, selective attention. 141 3-5 year-old children enrolled in Head Start (HS) and their parents participated in the current study which took place at the Brain Development Laboratory at the University of Oregon and Head Start sites in Lane County, Oregon. The training program, Parents and Children Making Connections: Highlighting Attention (PCMC-A), included both a child-directed component, as well as a family-based, parent directed component. Parents attended eight weekly, two-hour small-group classes that occurred in the evenings or on weekends at HS sites, and their children participated in concurrent small group training activities. Results show that a program that targets child attention using a family-based model involving children and their parents is highly effective in changing children's neurocognitive function as well as their parents' caregiving behaviors in the relatively short timeframe of eight weeks. The evidence presented here suggests that programs that target multiple pathways, including parents and the home environment, have the potential to narrow the large and growing gap in school readiness and academic achievement between higher and lower SES children. Two figures are appended.
Reviews of Individual Studies 9-11 3
Experimental study of a self-determination intervention for youth in foster care (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 3
A randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention: Demonstration of program efficacy outcomes in a diverse, urban school district. (2009)
This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It consists of three modular components (screening, school intervention, parent training); lasts approximately 3 months; and is initially set up, delivered, and coordinated by a behavioral coach (e.g., school counselor, behavior specialist, social worker). Project Year 1 of this efficacy trial was devoted to gearing-up activities (e.g., hiring, training, planning, logistical arrangements); Years 2 and 3 each involved implementing First Step with approximately 100 behaviorally at-risk students. Students, teachers, and classrooms were randomly assigned to either intervention or usual care comparison conditions. Year 4 activities focused on conducting long-term, follow-up assessments and implementing sustainability procedures to preserve achieved gains. Pre-post teacher and parent ratings of student behavior and social skills showed moderately robust effect sizes, ranging from 0.54 to 0.87, that favored the intervention group. Direct measures of academic performance (oral reading fluency, letter-word identification) were not sensitive to the intervention. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 3
A pilot evaluation of small group Challenging Horizons Program (CHP): A randomized trial. (2006)
This study examined the efficacy of an after-school program, the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP), that met four days a week and focused on improving organization, academic skills, and classroom behavior. The CHP was compared with a community control that included involvement in a district-run after-school program that met one to three days a week and focused on preparation for standardized testing. Participants were 48 middle-school youth, referred as experiencing a combination of learning and behavior problems, randomly assigned to either the CHP or the control. Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral and academic functioning were collected at the beginning of the academic year and again after one semester of intervention. Relative to the control, participants in the CHP made significant improvements in parent rated academic progress, self-esteem, and overall severity of problem. While teacher ratings did not reach significance, CHP participants made medium effect size improvements in academic progress and small improvements in overall severity. Core class grades and discipline records were also examined to provide a broad picture of functioning beyond rating scale data.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-4 3
Progress report of the randomized trial of Positive Action in Hawaii: End of third year of intervention. (2006)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
The Evaluation of the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model (2020)
Purpose: The Santa Ana Unified School District received an i3 grant (Investing in Innovation; funded by the U.S. Department of Education Grant number U411C160074) to build on their existing school climate practices. Called the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model, the aim is to improve school climate, student-adult relationships, create social emotional learning programs, and provide students the needed structure to access challenging curriculum and expectations. As part of this enhanced model, School Climate Liaisons (SCLs) were hired to support and provide coaching to schools in the intervention group on PBIS [Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports], RP [Restorative Practice] implementation, and behavioral interventions. As part of the i3 grant requirements, the district employed a rigorous cluster-randomized trial whereby half of the district's elementary schools were assigned to receive the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model and half were assigned to a waitlist control. The confirmatory research question is: Do students in grades 4 and 5 at follow-up, in schools assigned to receive support from PBIS and Restorative Practice school climate specialists and community liaisons, who receive services for two years, exhibit higher levels of self-management at the end of the second year, as compared to students in grades 4 and 5 in schools assigned to not receive such support? Additionally, there were exploratory research questions examining changes in other SEL [social-emotional learning] measures including growth mindset, self-efficacy, and social awareness. Methods: This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled design whereby half of the study schools were assigned to the treatment condition and the other half of schools were assigned to the "business as usual" control condition. In total, 35 schools (30 K-5 schools; 5 K-8 schools) were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control condition. All students within these schools were included in the evaluation. Students in the treatment schools (n = 17) were eligible to receive services through the grant. Randomization occurred in May 2017. The 2016-17 school year served as a baseline school year (i.e., no services were provided). The Enhanced Positive School Climate Model began in the 2017-18 school year and continued into the 2018-19 school year for treatment schools only. Control schools were waitlisted and began receiving services in the 2019-20 school year. Students enrolled in district schools in May 2017 were tracked using student roster information through the end of the 2018-19 school year. Only students who were in study schools continuously from the 2016-2017 to 2018-2019 school years were included in the impact analysis. The confirmatory and exploratory outcomes referenced below were conducted using extant data from the district. Data were used from routine data collection processes within the district from the annual CORE climate student survey. The primary outcome measure was the five-item self-management scale on the CORE District's student survey (Taylor, Oberle, Durlak, & Weissberg, 2017; Transforming Education, 2014; asked of all students in grades 4-12 each year. For the confirmatory research question (and all exploratory questions), adjusted post-intervention outcomes for students in treatment schools were compared to the outcomes for their counterparts in the control schools. This involved fitting conditional multilevel regression models (i.e., hierarchical linear modeling [HLM]), with additional terms to account for the nesting of individuals within schools (see Goldstein 1987; Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002; Murray 1998). Results: Eight two-level models were estimated per grade level to address the confirmatory and exploratory research questions. Although the students in treatment schools had slightly higher self-management, growth mindset and self-efficacy scores at follow-up, only the difference in fourth grade self-efficacy scores was statistically significant. In contrast, students in control schools had very slightly higher social awareness scores; this finding was not statistically significant. Implications: Meaningful and statistically significant differences were not found between students who attended schools that received the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model compared to their peers in schools that did not receive the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model. The lack of findings may be due to the other changes in school climate practices throughout the district during the study period. Additionally, variations in the implementation of the Enhanced Positive School Climate Model may have contributed to the lack of findings. Although the findings are not significant, the direction of results is mostly consistent, indicating increases in SEL competencies for students receiving additional school climate supports. Future studies should continue to investigate the relationship between whole-school approaches to school climate and changes in SEL competencies for students.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
Improving Student Learning and Engagement through Gamified Instruction: Evaluation of iPersonalize (2019)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 -1
Efficacy study of a social communication and self-regulation intervention for school-age children with autism spectrum disorder: A randomized controlled trial (2019)
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the initial efficacy of a parent-assisted blended intervention combining components of Structured TEACCHing and Social Thinking, designed to increase social communication and self-regulation concept knowledge in 1st and 2nd graders (n = 17) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents. Method: A randomized delayed treatment control group design with pre- and postintervention assessments of both parents and children was implemented within a community practice setting. Two follow-up assessments at 3 and 6 months post intervention were also completed. Results: Overall, results indicate that the intervention is efficacious in teaching social communication and self regulation concept knowledge to children with ASD and their parents. Both parents and children demonstrated an increase in social communication and self-regulation knowledge after participating in the Growing, Learning, and Living With Autism Group as compared to a delayed treatment control group. The effects of the intervention did not extend to parent-child interactions coded from video recordings. Child treatment effects were maintained at the 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Preliminary efficacy of the Growing, Learning, and Living With Autism Group was established. Based on parent report at the conclusion of the intervention, this is a socially valid intervention for teaching social communication and self-regulation skills to school-age children with ASD. [This is the online version of an article published in "Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools." For the final published version of this article, see EJ1222622.]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-12 -1
A state-wide quasi-experimental effectiveness study of the scale-up of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (2019)
The three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework promotes the development of systems and data analysis to guide the selection and implementation of evidence based practices across multiple tiers. The current study examined the effects of universal (tier 1) or school-wide PBIS (SW-PBIS) in one state's scale-up of this tier of the framework. Annual propensity score weights were generated to examine the longitudinal effects of SW-PBIS from 2006–07 through 2011–12. School-level archival and administrative data outcomes were examined using panel models with an autoregressive structure. The sample included 1316 elementary, middle, and high schools. Elementary schools trained in SW-PBIS demonstrated statistically significantly lower suspensions during the fourth and fifth study years (i.e., small effect size) and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the first two study years as well as in one and two later years (i.e., small to large effect sizes), respectively. Secondary schools implementing SW-PBIS had statistically significantly lower suspensions and truancy rates during the second study year and higher reading and math proficiency rates during the second and third study years. These findings demonstrate medium effect sizes for all outcomes except suspensions. Given the widespread use of SW-PBIS across nearly 26,000 schools in the U.S., this study has important implications for educational practices and policies.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 -1
Investing in Innovation (i3) validation study of Families and Schools Together (FAST) final report (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8-Not reported -1
2013 Collaborative Regional Education (CORE) i3 study (2018)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
The Chicago School Readiness Project: Examining the Long-Term Impacts of an Early Childhood Intervention (2018)
The current paper reports long-term treatment impact estimates for a randomized evaluation of an early childhood intervention designed to promote children's developmental outcomes and improve the quality of Head Start centers serving high-violence and high-crime areas in inner-city Chicago. Initial evaluations of end-of-preschool data reported that the program led to reductions in child behavioral problems and gains in measures of executive function and academic achievement. For this report, we analyzed adolescent follow-up data taken 10 to 11 years after program completion. We found evidence that the program had positive long-term effects on students' executive function and grades, though effects were somewhat imprecise and dependent on the inclusion of baseline covariates. Results also indicated that treated children had heightened sensitivity to emotional stimuli, and we found no evidence of long-run effects on measures of behavioral problems. These findings raise the possibility that developing programs that improve on the Head Start model could carry long-run benefits for affected children. [This paper was published in "PLOS ONE" Jul 2018.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 1 -1
A cluster randomized trial of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in first grade (2018)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions. Teachers assigned to the treatment condition implemented the SSIS-CIP over a 12-week period. Students' social skills, problem behaviors, and approaches to learning were assessed via teacher ratings and direct observations of classroom behavior. In addition, their early literacy and numeracy skills were measured via computer-adaptive standardized tests. SSIS-CIP participation yielded small positive effects in students' social skills (particularly empathy and social engagement) and approaches to learning (academic motivation and engagement). Students' problem behaviors and academic skills, however, were unaffected by SSIS-CIP exposure.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-7 -1
The effect of mentoring on school attendance and academic outcomes: A randomized evaluation of the Check & Connect program (Working Paper WP-16-18) (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Efficacy trial of the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum: Preliminary outcomes (2017)
A classroom randomized trial (n = 31 classrooms) was conducted using the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum compared to usual curricula. Head Start and community preschool classrooms enrolling low income children were randomly assigned to deliver SSEL (n = 16) or usual curricula (n = 15). Data are reported for four year olds independently assessed for executive functioning (EF) and social-emotional skills (SE) in fall and spring of the preschool year. Analyses used three level Hierarchical Linear Modeling, including two EF tasks or two SE tasks as level 1, child as level 2, and classroom as level 3. Controlling for baseline EF, SE, cognitive ability, parent income, child sex, age, and ethnicity, children receiving the SSEL curriculum had significantly better end of preschool EF skills and marginally significantly better end of preschool SE skills. The curriculum is thus promising in its potential to improve at-risk preschool children's EF and SE.
Reviews of Individual Studies K-5 -1
Using multi-component consultation to increase the integrity with which teachers implement behavioral classroom interventions: A pilot study (2017)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 -1
Helping students make the transition into high school: The effect of ninth grade academies on students' academic and behavioral outcomes (2016)
Ninth Grade Academies (NGAs)--also called Freshman Academies--have attracted national attention as a particularly intensive and promising approach for supporting a successful transition for high school freshmen. An NGA is a self-contained learning community for ninth-graders that operates as a school within a school. NGAs have four core structural components: (1) a designated separate space within the high school, (2) a ninth-grade administrator who oversees the academy, (3) a faculty assigned to teach only ninth-grade students, and (4) teachers organized into interdisciplinary teams that have both students and a planning period in common. The theory of action behind NGAs is that when these components are employed together, they interact to create a more personalized learning environment where ninth-grade students feel less anonymous and more individually supported. This, in turn, should help students succeed in school and stay on track to high school graduation. NGAs have shown promising results when employed as part of a whole-school reform model, but in these cases schools have received external support from a developer to create and sustain them. A growing number of schools and districts have been experimenting with NGAs on their own, but the little research that exists on their effectiveness is limited to anecdotal accounts. This study, which is based on a quasi-experimental research design, examines the effect of NGAs on students' progress toward graduation, their academic achievement, and their behavior in several school districts in Florida. The sample for this study includes 27 high schools that created NGAs between 2001-2002 and 2006-2007, along with 16 comparison high schools that serve ninth-grade students with similar characteristics as students in the NGA schools. As context for understanding the impact findings, this study also looks at the extent to which the key features of the NGA model were implemented in the NGA schools in the study and how this differs from the structures and supports in the comparison schools. The key finding is that the NGAs in this study do not appear to have improved students' academic or behavioral outcomes (credit earning, state test scores, course marks, attendance, suspensions, or expulsions). The findings also suggest that it can be difficult for schools to fully implement the components of the NGA model without expert assistance: Three years after their creation, only half the NGAs in the study had all four structural components of the model in place. Nationally, school districts continue to create NGAs, and recent efforts to implement them have incorporated various enhancements that are intended to strengthen and improve their implementation, but little is known about their effectiveness. Because students' experience in ninth grade is an important predictor of their future success, these efforts to create and improve NGAs should be examined in future studies. Appended are: (1) Technical Information; and (2) Beyond the Sunshine State: Ninth Grade Academies in Other School Districts. ["Helping Students Make the Transition into High School: The Effect of Ninth Grade Academies on Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes" was written with Janet Quint.]
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Evaluation of violence prevention approaches among early adolescents: Moderating effects of disability status and gender (2016)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6 -1
The impact of intensive reading intervention on level of attention in middle school students (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 -1
Identifying academic demands that occasion problem behaviors for students with behavioral disorders: Illustrations at the elementary school level. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies 8 -1
The use of structural behavioral assessment to develop interventions for secondary students exhibiting challenging behaviors. (2015)
Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables have been assessed, contextually based manipulations are developed and implemented, and interventions are developed from the results to reduce or prevent challenging behaviors from occurring. A major advantage of structural assessment is that teachers may find interventions based on the results easy to implement and relevant to the classroom. However, most of the research on SBA has been conducted with younger children with autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, and those with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to extend the research by training a general education teacher to use SBA to develop interventions for secondary students displaying challenging behaviors who are at risk in general education classrooms. An alternating treatments design was used with four at-risk middle school students. Results indicated that a brief SBA can easily be conducted in general education classrooms, and interventions developed from manipulations can not only decrease (a) verbal outbursts (e.g., talking out of turn, arguing, laughing at inappropriate times); (b) inappropriate contact with others (e.g., touching, pushing, hitting, kicking, braiding hair); (c) taking other's belongings; (d) being out of the student's assigned seat without permission; and (e) passing notes but also increase writing and eyes on materials or eyes on the teacher during a language arts class. Implications for practice and future research are described.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
A randomized controlled trial of Pivotal Response Treatment Group for parents of children with autism. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Implementing a pivotal response social skills intervention with Korean American children with autism. (2015)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
A randomized trial comparison of the effects of verbal and pictorial naturalistic communication strategies on spoken language for young children with autism. (2014)
Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (=9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.
Reviews of Individual Studies 2-6 -1
The effects of function-based self-management interventions on student behavior. (2014)
Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing effective self-management interventions. The purpose of this study was to link self-management procedures to hypothesized behavior function in three children with E/BD. Results demonstrated that self-monitoring (SM) alone could be enhanced using information derived from FBA and that consequences delivered by teachers were less effective than a self-management treatment package.
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-3 -1
The effect of the extinction procedure in function-based intervention. (2013)
In this study, we examined the contribution of the extinction procedure in function-based interventions implemented in the general education classrooms of three at-risk elementary-aged students. Function-based interventions included antecedent adjustments, reinforcement procedures, and function-matched extinction procedures. Using a combined ABC and reversal phase design (A-B-A-B-C-B), a functional relation between the full intervention and dramatically improved levels of on-task behavior were clearly established. On removal of the extinction procedure, on-task behavior rapidly dropped to lower levels. Reinstatement of the full intervention occurred following the partial intervention condition. In every case, on-task levels rapidly improved. Using the "Intervention Rating Profile-15" and "Children's Intervention Rating Profile," acceptability ratings were highest for full intervention. Limitations and implications for further research are presented. (Contains 3 figures and 3 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-8 -1
Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools. (2013)
Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. Results: PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. Conclusions: A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Immediate effects of a school readiness intervention for children in foster care (2013)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Training paraprofessionals to facilitate social interactions between children with autism and their typically developing peers. (2012)
To support children with autism in inclusive classrooms, schools are increasingly utilizing paraprofessionals. However, research suggests that paraprofessionals often lack sufficient training and may inadvertently hinder the social interactions between children with disabilities and their peers. This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to empirically investigate whether paraprofessionals could learn to implement social facilitation procedures based on Pivotal Response Treatment. Results indicated that the paraprofessionals learned to utilize the social facilitation procedures with fidelity and generalized the techniques to untrained activities. Furthermore, once the paraprofessionals met the fidelity criteria, decreases in hovering and uninvolved behavior and increases in social facilitation and monitoring were observed. Likewise, the reciprocal social behavior of the children with autism increased rapidly. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-3 -1
A randomized trial examining the effects of conjoint behavioral consultation and the mediating role of the parent-teacher relationship. (2012)
The present study is a large-scale randomized trial testing the efficacy of a family-school partnership model (i.e., conjoint behavioral consultation) for promoting behavioral competence and decreasing problem behaviors of students identified by their teachers as disruptive. The focus of this study is on student behavioral outcomes and the potential role of parent-teacher relationships as a mediating variable. Two hundred seven students, from 82 classrooms, and their families and teachers participated. Results indicated that, relative to the control group, students in the conjoint behavioral consultation condition demonstrated greater increases in adaptive behaviors and social skills over the 8-week intervention period. Compared to teachers in the control group, those in the experimental conjoint behavioral consultation condition demonstrated significantly greater change in their reported relationships with parents. Furthermore, improvements in teacher-reported relationships with parents mediated the effects of conjoint behavioral consultation on positive changes in children's behaviors. Interpretation and implications of these findings are discussed. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
Training a general educator to use function-based support for students at risk for behavior disorders. (2012)
Function-based support (FBS) is an intervention strategy for decreasing problem behaviors and increasing replacement behaviors through the use of functional behavioral assessment and behavior support planning. Although FBS has been demonstrated to facilitate positive outcomes for children in a variety of educational settings, it has yet to be widely adopted because many schools have limited access to personnel (i.e., school psychologist, behavior specialist) with the expertise to implement it. This series of single-subject studies reports the ongoing development and validation of a method for training general educators to successfully and independently implement FBS for at-risk students in their classrooms. These studies highlight the experiences of one teacher who participated in three training phases and implemented FBS with three at-risk students. Results suggest that training was effective as indicated by knowledge gains regarding FBS principles and procedures, successful mastery and application of FBS practices, positive student outcomes, and favorable teacher and student perceptions of social validity. The implications and limitations of these results, as well as future directions for this line of research, are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 4 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 -1
Functional communication training without extinction using concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in classrooms. (2012)
This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders (SEBD), and mild to severe intellectual disabilities. Functional analyses revealed inappropriate behaviors as escape maintained. During subsequent FCT, the reinforcement provided for inappropriate behaviors was escape from task for 30 s (S[superscript R-]). The reinforcement for the alternative mand was a 30-s escape from task during which access to a preferred activity was provided (S[superscript R-]/PA). Results for three of the participants who had mild to moderate intellectual disabilities were highly successful. Time on task and generalization data also were recorded for two of the participants All sessions were implemented in the participants' natural classrooms by their classroom teachers, without the adverse side effects of extinction. (Contains 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
The comparative effects of function-based versus nonfunction-based interventions on the social behavior of African American students. (2011)
Disproportionality has been a persistent problem in special education for decades. Despite mandates outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004), African American students continue to be disproportionately represented in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category in special education (e.g., Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Simmons, Feggins-Azziz, & Chung, 2005). Additionally, African Americans represent the highest percentages of students identified as at risk (Gay, 2000) and receive a disproportionate number of referrals for disciplinary actions (Cartledge & Dukes, 2008) among racial groups. Even though many hypothesized reasons for such disproportionate rates have been researched (e.g., poverty, inherently bad behavior, cultural bias, ineffective behavioral management), the findings are conflicting. Disproportionality among this population continues, and successful educational outcomes are far too infrequent. One promising intervention that can decrease exclusionary practices imposed on African American students and address disproportionality in both special education and disciplinary action is to use functional behavioral assessments and function-based interventions. The effectiveness of FBAs and function-based interventions for students with ED and those at risk for developing ED have been well documented (e.g., Heckaman, Conroy, Fox, & Chait, 2000; Reid & Nelson, 2002). However, only two studies have involved African American students as participants in FBA implementation (i.e., Kamps, Wendland, & Culpepper, 2006; Lo & Cartledge, 2006) and only one included African Americans as a means to address disproportionality (i.e., Lo & Cartledge). Additionally, professional development on FBA has largely been limited to special education personnel only. In order for FBAs to be effective in preventing problem behavior of African American students before they are referred to special education, research on FBA and professional development targeted to general education teachers is critical. This study examined the comparative effects of function-based versus nonfunction-based interventions on the off-task and replacement behavior of African American students at risk for ED and the extent to which general education teachers could implement FBAs with high fidelity. Findings indicated that function-based interventions resulted in higher decreases of off-task behavior than nonfunction-based interventions. Additionally, descriptive results showed that both general education teachers were able to implement FBAs and function-based interventions with high levels of fidelity. Finally, social validity data suggested that teachers felt that FBAs and function-based interventions were of social importance. Teachers' perceptions also changed on the extent to which students had continued needs for disciplinary action and special education services in the ED category. Specifically, teachers felt students were no long in need of special education services or disciplinary action as a result of the function-based interventions. Limitations of the study, suggestions for future research, and implications for practice are also discussed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:]
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 -1
Function-based planning for young children at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. (2010)
This study examined the efficacy of function-based intervention for young children at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in inclusive environments. Participants were two kindergarten students and one first-grade student, all of whom exhibited chronic disruptive behavior in the classroom despite previous interventions implemented through their school's existing behavioral support system. The study was conducted across three phases: (a) a descriptive functional behavioral assessment (FBA) was completed for each student, (b) a systematic process was used to construct and then test individualized interventions, and (c) the interventions were then provided to each student during his most problematic classroom activity using a multiple baseline design. Classroom interventions substantially improved the on-task behavior of each student, and social validity ratings by teachers showed strong preference for the function-based intervention over the previously used classroom practices. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are presented. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Brief report: Toward refinement of a predictive behavioral profile for treatment outcome in children with autism. (2009)
Previously researchers identified a behavioral profile that predicted treatment response of children with autism to a specific behavioral intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT). This preliminary investigation sought to refine this profile by obtaining six participants matching the original nonresponder profile on all but one of the profile behaviors (toy contact or avoidance) and then assessing their response to PRT. In addition, participants received a course of Discrete Trial Training (DTT) to determine whether the profile predicted child response to this intervention. Altering the original profile behavior of toy contact led to improved response to PRT while, altering the profile behavior of high avoidance had little impact on treatment response, and the profile was not predictive of response to DTT. (Contains 4 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
Dissemination of the Coping Power program: Importance of intensity of counselor training. (2009)
This study examined an important but rarely investigated aspect of the dissemination process: the intensity of training provided to practitioners. Counselors in 57 schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: Coping Power-training plus feedback (CP-TF), Coping Power-basic training (CP-BT), or a comparison condition. CP-TF counselors produced reductions in children's externalizing behavior problems and improvements in children's social and academic skills in comparison to results for target children in both the comparison and the CP-BT conditions. Training intensity was critical for successful dissemination, although the implementation mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear, as condition effects were not significant for completion of session objectives but were significant for the quality of counselors' engagement with children. (Contains 3 tables and 3 footnotes.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Direct and collateral effects of the First Step to Success program. (2009)
First Step to Success is a multicomponent behavioral program for at-risk children who show signs of antisocial behavior at the point of school entry. The program incorporates behavioral intervention techniques, including praise and feedback, positive reinforcement, social skills training, teacher and parent collaboration, and time-out/response cost. First Step to Success also incorporates techniques to encourage adaptive behavior across the school day and in the home, such as sequential application of the program across the school day, delayed reinforcement at home for school performance, and parent education. This study employed a multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate previous research findings on the program. All children improved on measures of problem behavior, academic engaged time, and teacher ratings of behavioral adjustment. The authors extended prior research by assessing the collateral effects of the program on classroom peer and teacher behavior. Positive changes were found for both peer and teacher behavior. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5-12 -1
The Study of Mentoring in the Learning Environment (SMILE): A randomized evaluation of the effectiveness of school-based mentoring (2008)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-8 -1
Functional assessment-based intervention for selective mutism. (2007)
The process of functional assessment has emerged as an essential component for intervention development. Applications across divergent types of problem behavior, however, remain limited. This study evaluated the applicability of this promising approach to students with selective mutism. Two middle school students served as participants. The functional assessment included indirect and direct methods as well as a specially designed student interview that did not require speech. Individualized interventions were developed and experimentally evaluated. Results indicated that the assessment-based interventions effectively increased speaking in school contexts. (Contains 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-8 -1
Function-based interventions for students who are nonresponsive to primary and secondary prevention efforts: Illustrations at the elementary and middle school levels. (2007)
This article illustrates how to (a) use schoolwide data to monitor student responsiveness to primary and secondary prevention efforts to identify students for tertiary preventions and (b) design, implement, and evaluate a function-based intervention in collaboration with two general education teachers, who served as the primary interventionists. Results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of function-based interventions with students who are nonresponsive to primary and secondary prevention efforts. A clear functional relationship was demonstrated between the introduction of the intervention and changes in student behavior using a changing criterion design at the elementary level and an ABAB withdrawal design at the middle school level. Limitations and directions for future research are offered.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Using a mand-model procedure to teach preschool children initial speech sounds. (2007)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-2 -1
Designing, implementing, and evaluating functionbased interventions using a systematic, feasible approach. (2007)
Although functional assessment-based interventions have produced desired outcomes in student behavior in applied settings, most of those interventions involved strong, sustained participation with researchers in intervention design, implementation, and assessment. In this article, we describe a systematic approach to designing, implementing, and evaluating function-based interventions that was developed by Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, and Lane (2007) and was implemented using a collaborative process with the teacher as the primary interventionist and assessor. Second, we document two experiments conducted using this systematic approach. Results of both withdrawal designs revealed a functional relation between the intervention procedures and the dependent variables. Further, both interventions were rated as socially valid by the teacher and students. Implications for educational practices are discussed. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Classroom-based cognitive-behavioral intervention to prevent aggression: Efficacy and social validity. (2006)
Classroom teachers need effective, efficient strategies to prevent and/or ameliorate destructive student behaviors and increase socially appropriate ones. During the past two decades, researchers have found that cognitive strategies can decrease student disruption/aggression and strengthen pro-social behavior. Following preliminary pilot work, we conducted a study to determine whether a class-wide, social problem-solving curriculum affected measures of knowledge and behavior for 165 4th and 5th grade students at risk for behavior problems. We found significant positive treatment effects on knowledge of problem-solving concepts and teacher ratings of aggression. Outcomes differed across teachers/classrooms, and there was no evidence that booster lessons affected treatment efficacy. Teacher ratings of social validity were generally positive. We discuss issues about classroom-based prevention research and future research directions.
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
Masked intervention effects: Analytic methods for addressing low dosage of intervention. (2006)
This chapter examines how a particular strategy for analyzing evaluation data, intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses, may underestimate the true effects of interventions. Such underestimation of intervention effects can profoundly influence policies for prevention and treatment of children's mental health problems, which can in turn lead to negative consequences for children's healthy development. However, evaluating treatment is a complicated issue because poorer outcomes for some may be due to characteristics of the participants, such as low motivation or chaotic family conditions, rather than qualities of the intervention. ITT analyses purposely ignore these nonrandom sources of variance. Using ITT analyses, evaluations of programs to reduce oppositional defiant disorders and conduct disorders in children and adolescents have consistently revealed that cognitive-behavioral interventions have the most promise and clearest evidence for efficacy, with effect sizes on outcome analyses in the moderate to large range (from 0.3 to over 1.0). These interventions usually involve behavioral parent training but also can include social problem-solving skills training, anger management training, and social skills training with the children. Using analyses of the effects of an intervention designed to reduce children's externalizing behavior problems and thus their risk for later delinquency and substance use as an example, the authors compare how propensity analyses and three types of complier average causal effect (CACE) analyses fare in comparison to traditional ITT analyses and often-used as-treated analyses. Although these techniques have been presented as an alternative and possible improvement, analyses of compliance have not considered the consequences of how the criteria for compliance are determined for a particular intervention, nor do they account for whether the compliance analyses produce different effects at different levels of compliance. Therefore, the present example also compares two levels of compliance, one representing a criterion of at least minimal compliance with the intervention and a second representing a high level of attendance and compliance. The general conclusion as a result of comparing these multiple strategies is that how one specifies parents' compliance in an evaluation design for a preventive intervention affects the interpretation of findings of program efficacy. The authors suggest that future research should aggressively pursue methods for setting optimal thresholds in analytic approaches that extend beyond ITT. (Contains 1 table.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
The effects of developmental mentoring and high school mentors’ attendance on their younger mentees’ self-esteem, social skills, and connectedness. (2005)
Low-income students and students whose parents have not attended college typically are less likely than middle- and upper-income students to complete high school and attend college, and are thus less likely to reap the benefits of attending college. Lack of information, resources, and exposure to others who have navigated the college process may be substantial hurdles for these students. Federal financial aid is available through Pell Grants, college tuition tax credits, and student loan programs, but low-income students may not be taking full advantage of these sources. Even low-income students with high educational aspirations may find the financial aid and college application processes overwhelming and discouraging. The Talent Search program primarily provides information on the types of high school courses students should take to prepare for college and on the financial aid available to pay for college. The program also helps students access financial aid through applications for grants, loans, and scholarships, and orients students to different types of colleges and the college application process. After a two-year implementation study, the U.S. Department of Education's Policy and Program Studies Service selected Mathematica Policy Research Inc. (MPR) in 2000 to assess the effect of Talent Search in selected states. The study team opted to compile data from administrative records from many sources, including program, state, and federal records, to evaluate the effectiveness of federal education programs, partly as a test of whether such an evaluation was feasible. The study also yielded useful information about the effectiveness of the Talent Search program. It included an analysis of the effectiveness of the Talent Search program in Florida, Indiana, and Texas. The study team's analysis was based on administrative data compiled in these three states and a quasi-experimental design to create matched comparison groups. The findings presented in this report suggest that assisting low-income students who have college aspirations to overcome information barriers--an important objective of the Talent Search program--may be effective in helping these students achieve their aspirations. Practical information--direct guidance on how to complete applications for financial aid and admission to college and what a college campus looks and feels like--may have been one of the key services that Talent Search projects delivered. Appended are: (1) Chapter Tables; and (2) Compilation of Data Sources and Feasibility of Evaluations Based on Administrative Records. (Contains 38 tables and 15 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-12 -1
Connect with Kids: 2004–2005 Study Results for Kansas and Missouri. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies 4 -1
Short-term effects of a literature-based character education program among fourth grade students: Report to the Young People's Press, Inc. (2005)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
Building a foundation against violence: Impact of a school-based prevention program on elementary students. (2005)
This study examined the effectiveness of the Too Good for Violence Prevention Program (TGFV), a multifaceted interactive intervention. Grounded in Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the TGFV curricula focus on developing personal and interpersonal skills to solve conflict non-violently and resist social influences that lead to violence. Participants were 999 third grade students and 46 teachers in ten elementary schools. The schools were matched on student characteristics and academic performance and assigned to treatment or control conditions. Teachers and students completed checklists assessing students' behaviors prior to, following, and 20 weeks after program delivery. Results show that treatment students, as compared to control students, were perceived by teachers as evidencing more frequent use of personal and social skills and of prosocial behaviors after program delivery. Student survey data show that treatment students, as compared to control students, evidenced more positive scores in the areas of emotional competency skills, social and resistance skills, and communication skills after program delivery. The benefits of the TGFV program continued to be observed at the 20-week follow-up. (Contains 6 tables.)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Effects of a school-based social–emotional competence program: Linking children’s goals, attributions, and behavior. (2005)
This study examined the effects of the Second Step social-emotional learning program and addressed the relations between social cognitions and prosocial and antisocial behavior. Children (N = 1,253) in intervention and control groups were assessed by teacher ratings, self report, and observation in two conflict situations. Intervention children were more likely to prefer prosocial goals and give egalitarian reasons for satisfaction than control children. Intervention children also required less adult intervention, and behaved less aggressively and (among girls) more cooperatively. Teacher ratings of social behavior showed improvement over time. Individual and dyadic behavior varied as a function of goals, hostile attributions, and attitude concordance within dyads. Findings are discussed with respect to social-cognitive models of aggression and prosocial behavior.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Replication study of the First Step to Success early intervention program. (2005)
This article describes a replication of the "First Step to Success" program (Walker, Stiller, Severson, & Golly, 1998) with at-risk students in the first and second grade to determine program effectiveness in decreasing inappropriate behaviors and increasing academic engagement time. This expands the "First Step to Success" program to (1) serve slightly older students than those in the earlier kindergarten studies; (2) assess implementation effects across a full school day rather than half-day periods; and (3) determine effects when used in conjunction with individualized, across-the-day, contingency reinforcement systems. A multiple-baseline design was used to study the effects of the "First Step to Success" early intervention program. Three students and their parent(s) and teachers participated in the study. Direct observation measures showed dramatic improvements in academic engagement time and decreases in disruptive behavior. Findings across students indicated that intensive behavioral interventions increased positive outcomes for students who are at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Individual behavioral profiles and predictors of treatment effectiveness for children with autism. (2005)
Differential responsiveness to intervention programs suggests the inadequacy of a single treatment approach for all children with autism. One method for reducing outcome variability is to identify participant characteristics associated with different outcomes for a specific intervention. In this investigation, an analysis of archival data yielded 2 distinct behavioral profiles for responders and nonresponders to a widely used behavioral intervention, pivotal response training (PRT). In a prospective study, these profiles were used to select 6 children (3 predicted responders and 3 predicted nonresponders) who received PRT. Children with pretreatment responder profiles evidenced positive changes on a range of outcome variables. Children with pretreatment nonresponder profiles did not exhibit improvements. These results offer promise for the development of individualized treatment protocols for children with autism.
Reviews of Individual Studies PK -1
Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: Four-year outcome and predictors. (2005)
Twenty-four children with autism were randomly assigned to a clinic-directed group, replicating the parameters of the early intensive behavioral treatment developed at UCLA, or to a parent-directed group that received intensive hours but less supervision by equally well-trained supervisors. Outcome after 4 years of treatment, including cognitive, language, adaptive, social, and academic measures, was similar for both groups. After combining groups, we found that 48% of all children showed rapid learning, achieved average posttreatment scores, and at age 7, were succeeding in regular education classrooms. Treatment outcome was best predicted by pretreatment imitation, language, and social responsiveness. These results are consistent with those reported by Lovaas and colleagues (Lovaas, 1987; McEachin, Smith, & Lovaas, 1993).
Reviews of Individual Studies PK-2 -1
Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. (2004)
Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT + TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT + CT + TT); or a waiting list control. Reports and independent observations were collected at home and school. Following the 6-month intervention, all treatments resulted in significantly fewer conduct problems with mothers, teachers, and peers compared to controls. Children's negative behavior with fathers was lower in the 3 PT conditions than in control. Children showed more prosocial skills with peers in the CT conditions than in control. All PT conditions resulted in less negative and more positive parenting for mothers and less negative parenting for fathers than in control. Mothers and teachers were also less negative than controls when children received CT. Adding TT to PT or CT improved treatment outcome in terms of teacher behavior management in the classroom and in reports of behavior problems.
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
First Step to Success: An early intervention for elementary children at risk for antisocial behavior. (2004)
The increased prevalence and seriousness of antisocial behavior displayed by today's youths have become serious concerns for parents, educators, and community members. Antisocial behavior has a developmental course that starts with minor offenses in preschool (e.g., whining, teasing, noncompliance) and develops into major offenses (e.g., vandalism, stealing, assault, homicide) in older children and adolescents. Research results suggest that if interventions are implemented in the early elementary years, the likelihood of preventing future antisocial behavior is improved. Furthermore, interventions are said to be more successful if family members and teachers are involved. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an early intervention strategy, First Step to Success, involving (a) teacher-directed and (b) a combination of teacher- and parent-directed strategies on the behaviors of elementary school children at risk for antisocial behavior. The results suggest that interventions involving teachers and parents were associated with decreases in problem behavior in the classroom that maintained over 1 academic school year after intervention. Implications and recommendations are presented based on the outcomes and limitations of the study. (Contains 4 tables and 6 figures.)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3 -1
The effects of a peer-mediated positive behavior support program on socially appropriate classroom behavior. (2004)
This study explored the results of aligning functional behavioral assessment (FBA) information with positive behavior support plans (PBS plans) designed with consideration for teacher acceptability. The independent variable had the three major components of a package, including assessment and planning (FBA), training (teachers, students, and peers) and student interventions (PBS plans). The student PBS plans included a combination of selfmonitoring, teacher-peer mediated support, and positive reinforcement including praise and a token economy. Same age peers were used as change agents to mediate these PBS plans that had been designed for 2 male third grade students who were at-risk for social and academic failure. The effects of this package were examined in relationship to a response class of socially appropriate classroom behaviors. Single subject ABAB designs were used to evaluate the student interventions. The at-risk students showed immediate, marked improvement in their socially appropriate classroom behavior; treatment gains maintained as reinforcement was thinned. Social validity was measured by social comparison with a normative sample of same-aged students and subjectively by the teachers, students, and peers who participated.
Reviews of Individual Studies 4-5 -1
The Coping Power program for preadolescent aggressive boys and their parents: Outcome effects at the 1-year follow-up. (2004)
This study evaluates the effects of the Coping Power Program with at-risk preadolescent boys at the time of transition from elementary school to middle school. Aggressive boys were randomly assigned to receive only the Coping Power child component, the full Coping Power Program with parent and child components, or a control condition. Results indicated that the Coping Power intervention produced lower rates of covert delinquent behavior and of parent-rated substance use at the 1-year follow-up than did the control cell, and these intervention effects were most apparent for the full Coping Power Program with parent and child components. Boys also displayed teacher-rated behavioral improvements in school during the follow-up year, and these effects appeared to be primarily influenced by the Coping Power child component.
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-8 -1
Evaluating the Lions-Quest Skills for Adolescence drug education program: Second-year behavior outcomes. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies 1-6 -1
Long-Term Effects of the Positive Action Program. (2003)
Used a matched-schools design, school-level achievement, and disciplinary data to evaluate the effectiveness of the elementary-level Positive Action program on students' performance and behavior over time. Results indicated that program participation improved student behavior, school involvement, and academic achievement into high school. The program had equally strong behavioral effects in higher risk schools. There was a clear dose-response relationship for most outcomes. (SM)
Reviews of Individual Studies 3-4 -1
Technical report: Evaluation of the Too Good for Drugs Elementary School Prevention Program. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-1 -1
Dissemination of an evidence-based prevention innovation for aggressive children living in culturally diverse, urban neighborhoods:The Early Risers effectiveness study. (2003)
Reviews of Individual Studies K-2 -1
The Early Risers longitudinal prevention trial: Examination of 3-year outcomes in aggressive children with intent-to-treat and as-intended analyses. (2002)
Reviews of Individual Studies 6-7 -1
Patterns of change in the social-cognitive development of middle school children following a school-based multicultural literature program. (2002)
Reviews of Individual Studies 5 -1
The effects of developmental mentoring on connectedness and academic achievement. (2002)
Report of a 1-year longitudinal study of development monitoring, a program in which high-school students mentor elementary-school students. Findings suggest that the program promoted connectedness to parents, school, and the future, and improved spelling skills. (Contains 30 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Improving the social communication skills of at-risk social preschool children in a play context. (2002)
This study examined effects of an intervention (planned play, use of conversational social interaction strategies, and evaluation of play strategies) on the social-communicative interactions of six preschool children at risk for language delays and behavior problems. The intervention led to increases in social communicative behaviors, use of descriptive and request utterances during play, linguistic diversity, and play complexity. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)
Reviews of Individual Studies -1
Exploring the importance of reading programs for kindergartners with disabilities in mainstream classrooms. (2002)
A study explored the effectiveness and feasibility of phonological awareness (PA) training with and without beginning decoding components for 25 kindergartners with disabilities in inclusive schools. Students with special needs participating in PA with beginning decoding instruction did better than those just receiving PA and controls. (Contains references.) (CR)
Reviews of Individual Studies 9 -1
Get the Picture?! Final Evaluation Report (10/21/2020)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Get the Picture?! in improving the overall college/career readiness of 900 students with disabilities in each of the nine participating treatment high schools in nine rural, high poverty Kentucky school districts after four years of implementation. This quasi-experimental study followed the 9th grade cohort of students with disabilities in the nine treatment and 18 matched control schools over four school years, 2015-16 through 2018-19. Through the development of self-determination skills, the goal of the intervention was to increase the number of students with disabilities who achieved the state standard for College and/or Career Readiness by meeting established benchmarks on State/National assessments and/or completion of a recognized industry certification in each of the nine participating schools. For the confirmatory analyses, there were two outcome variables in two different outcome domains: (a) Transition Ready, a binary "Yes"/"No" variable [Transition Readiness domain], and (b) the cumulative number of in-school suspensions (a continuous variable) [Self-management behaviors domain]. For the confirmatory analyses, outcome data were examined using two-level Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) (for Cumulative In-School Suspensions) and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models (HGLM) (for Transition Ready) to account for the nested structure of the data (i.e., students nested within schools). Overall, after four years of implementation, Get the Picture?! was able to demonstrate a statistically significant positive impact on the Transition Readiness of participating 9th grade cohort students compared to controls. Treatment students had statistically significantly higher odds of being Transition Ready, and were more than twice as likely to achieve Transition Readiness status compared to control students. However, while the confirmatory study showed the intervention was also able to reduce the total number of in-school suspensions for treatment students relative to controls, the outcome was indeterminate (i.e., not statistically significant). The following are appended: (a) Kentucky Department of Education Revised Transition Readiness Standards, and (b) Fidelity of Implementation Final Report.

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