WWC review of this study

Analyses of eighth grade math texts and achievement.

Crawford, J., & Raia, F. (1986). Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma City Public Schools, Planning, Research, and Evaluation Department.

  • Quasi-Experimental Design
     examining 
    156
     Students
    , grade
    8
No statistically significant positive
findings
Meets WWC standards with reservations

Reviewed: May 2017

Mathematics achievement outcomes—Substantively important positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

California Achievement Test (CAT): Total mathematics subscore

Saxon Math vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 8;
78 students

55.56

50.72

No

 
 
16
More Outcomes
Show Supplemental Findings

California Achievement Test (CAT): Mathematics computation

Saxon Math vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 8;
78 students

57.66

51.44

No

 
 
17

California Achievement Test (CAT): Mathematics concepts

Saxon Math vs. Business as usual

1 Year

Grade: 8;
78 students

53.18

50

No

 
 
10

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

  • Race
    Not specified
    100%

  • Urban
    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    Oklahoma

Setting

The study was conducted in four middle schools in eighth-grade classrooms in Oklahoma City Public Schools (OCPS). No other information was provided about the study setting. The study data were collected during the 1984–85 school year.

Study sample

The study included 78 eighth-grade students (39 intervention and 39 comparison) taught by four teachers in four middle schools. Each teacher taught at least one intervention class and one comparison class. To create similar intervention and comparison groups of students based on math ability, the researchers matched each intervention group student to a comparison group student with the same teacher based on their total math scores at baseline on the California Achievement Test (CAT). When more than one student from the comparison group matched a student in the intervention group, the comparison student match was selected at random. When no student from the comparison group matched a student in the intervention group, the student in the intervention group was excluded from the sample. The study authors do not provide demographic information on the sample.

Intervention Group

Students in the intervention group used Saxon Algebra ½, a pre-algebra math course, as their core math curriculum during the 1984–85 school year. The authors did not specify which edition of Saxon Algebra ½ was used but indicate that the 1983 copyright year was used. Further information about the level of implementation in study schools was not provided.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group were taught using the district’s usual math curriculum, Scott-Foresman Mathematics (1980 copyright year). The authors do not provide details about how the comparison curriculum was implemented in study schools.

Support for implementation

The study does not provide information on the support for implementation.

Reviewed: May 2016

Mathematics achievement outcomes—Statistically significant positive effects found
Outcome
measure
Comparison Period Sample Intervention
mean
Comparison
mean
Significant? Improvement
index

California Achievement Test (CAT)

Saxon Algebra I vs. Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics

1984-1985

Grade 8;
78 students

55.56

50.72

Yes

 
 
16

Characteristics of study sample as reported by study author.

    • B
    • A
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • I
    • H
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • P
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • V
    • U
    • T
    • W
    • X
    • Z
    • Y
    • a
    • h
    • i
    • b
    • d
    • e
    • f
    • c
    • g
    • j
    • k
    • l
    • m
    • n
    • o
    • p
    • q
    • r
    • s
    • t
    • u
    • x
    • w
    • y

    Oklahoma

Setting

The study took place in four middle schools in Oklahoma City Public Schools.

Study sample

The study sample included 78 eighth-grade students (39 intervention and 39 comparison) taught by four teachers in four Oklahoma middle schools during the 1984–85 school year. Each teacher taught an intervention class and a comparison class. The authors did not report demographic information. To create similar intervention and comparison groups, the researchers conducted a stratified matching procedure based on pretest total math score on the California Achievement Test (CAT) at the student level, within teachers, to match a comparison student to each student in the intervention group. When more than one student from the comparison group matched a student in the intervention group, the student match was selected at random. When no student from the comparison group matched a student in the intervention group, the student in the intervention group was excluded from the sample.

Intervention Group

Students in the intervention group were taught using the Saxon Algebra ½ (1983) textbook during the 1984–85 school year. Information about the level of implementation was not provided. The intervention was implemented by four teachers, one from each of four schools. Each of these teachers taught intervention classes and comparison classes.

Comparison Group

Students in the comparison group were taught using the math textbook in place prior to the pilot study, Scott Foresman Mathematics (1980).

Outcome descriptions

The primary outcome measure was the total math score on the CAT. Pretest data were from the year-end administration of the CAT in 1984, and posttest data came from the end-of-year test administration in 1985. For a more detailed description of this outcome measure, see Appendix B.

Support for implementation

Information on teacher training was not provided.

Reviewed: May 2016

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2016

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2016

Study sample characteristics were not reported.

Reviewed: May 2016

Study sample characteristics were not reported.
 

Your export should download shortly as a zip archive.

This download will include data files for study and findings review data and a data dictionary.

Connect With the WWC

loading
back to top